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Zhongwei

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Zhongwei
中卫市 · جْووِ شِ
Wolfberry fields in Zhongning County, Zhongwei City
Wolfberry fields in Zhongning County, Zhongwei City
Zhongwei in Ningxia
Zhongwei in Ningxia
Zhongwei is located in Ningxia
Zhongwei
Zhongwei
Location of the city centre in Ningxia
Coordinates (Zhongwei municipal government): 37°30′01″N 105°11′48″E / 37.5002°N 105.1968°E / 37.5002; 105.1968Coordinates: 37°30′01″N 105°11′48″E / 37.5002°N 105.1968°E / 37.5002; 105.1968
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Autonomous regionNingxia
Municipal seatShapotou
Area
 • Prefecture-level city16,986.1 km2 (6,558.4 sq mi)
Elevation1,225 m (4,019 ft)
Population
 (2019)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city1,174,600
 • Density69/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Urban526,500
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
755000
Area code0955
ISO 3166 codeCN-NX-05
Websitewww.nxzw.gov.cn

Zhongwei (simplified Chinese: 中卫; traditional Chinese: 中衛; pinyin: Zhōngwèi; Wade–Giles: Chung-wei; lit. 'middle guard', Xiao'erjing: جْووِ شِ) is a prefecture-level city of Ningxia, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 16,986.1 km2 (6,558.4 sq mi) and a population of 1,174,600 in 2019.[3][4] The city is known for its wolfberry and Gobi watermelon cultivation.[2] One of the world's largest photovoltaic power station, Tengger Desert Solar Park, is located in Zhongwei.[5]

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters used in mainland China, Malaysia and Singapore, as prescribed by the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore, while traditional Chinese characters still remain in common use in Hong Kong, Macau, ROC/Taiwan and Japan to a certain extent.

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character sets of the contemporary written Chinese. The traditional characters had taken shapes since the clerical change and mostly remained in the same structure they took at the introduction of the regular script in the 2nd century. Over the following centuries, traditional characters were regarded as the standard form of printed Chinese characters or literary Chinese throughout the Sinosphere until the middle of the 20th century, before different script reforms initiated by countries using Chinese characters as a writing system.

Pinyin

Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin, often shortened to just pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese in China, and to some extent, in Singapore and Malaysia. It is often used to teach Mandarin, normally written in Chinese form, to learners already familiar with the Latin alphabet. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, but pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written in the Latin script, and is also used in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The word Hànyǔ literally means "Han language", while Pīnyīn (拼音) means "spelled sounds".

Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.

Literal translation

Literal translation

Literal translation, direct translation or word-for-word translation, is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.

Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script", is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia. Orthography reforms introduced the Latin script and later the Cyrillic script to the Dungan language, which continue to be used today.

Prefecture-level city

Prefecture-level city

A prefecture-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure.

Ningxia

Ningxia

Ningxia, officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was later separated from Gansu in 1958 and reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people, one of the 56 officially recognised nationalities of China. Twenty percent of China's Hui population lives in Ningxia.

Watermelon

Watermelon

Watermelon is a flowering plant species of the Cucurbitaceae family and the name of its edible fruit. A scrambling and trailing vine-like plant, it is a highly cultivated fruit worldwide, with more than 1,000 varieties.

List of photovoltaic power stations

List of photovoltaic power stations

The following is a list of photovoltaic power stations that are larger than 300 megawatts (MW) in current net capacity. Most are individual photovoltaic power stations, but some are groups of co-located plants owned by different independent power producers and with separate transformer connections to the grid. Wiki-Solar reports total global capacity of utility-scale photovoltaic plants to be some 96 GWAC which generated 1.3% of global power by the end of 2016.

Photovoltaic power station

Photovoltaic power station

A photovoltaic power station, also known as a solar park, solar farm, or solar power plant, is a large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power system designed for the supply of merchant power. They are different from most building-mounted and other decentralised solar power because they supply power at the utility level, rather than to a local user or users. The generic expression utility-scale solar is sometimes used to describe this type of project.

Tengger Desert Solar Park

Tengger Desert Solar Park

Tengger Desert Solar Park is the sixth-largest photovoltaic plant in the world as of December, 2021. It is located in Zhongwei, Ningxia, China. It covers an area of 43 km2. In 2018, it was the solar park with the largest peak power capacity (1,547 MW).

History

Under general Meng Tian, the Qin captured the area of Zhongwei and established the Beidi Commandery. In 205 BC a city was built at the current location of Zhongwei urban area, which would grow as irrigation systems were built to allow farming.[6]

In 1226 Genghis Khan captured Zhongwei. In 1403 the city was named Zhongwei, part of Shaanxi.[6]

In 1920 Zhongwei was struck by the Haiyuan earthquake. In 1926 the highway from Lanzhou to Zhongwei opened.[6]

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Meng Tian

Meng Tian

Meng Tian was a Chinese inventor and military general of the Qin dynasty who distinguished himself in campaigns against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China. He was the elder brother of Meng Yi. He descended from a great line of military generals and architects. His grandfather, Meng Ao, was a general from the era of King Zhao; and his father, Meng Wu, was also a general who served as a deputy to Wang Jian.

Qin dynasty

Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles romanization, was the first dynasty of Imperial China. Named for its heartland in Qin state, the Qin dynasty arose as a fief of the Western Zhou and endured for over five centuries until 221 BCE when it founded its brief empire, which lasted only until 206 BCE.. It often causes confusion that the ruling family of the Qin kingdom ruled for over five centuries, while the "Qin Dynasty," the conventional name for the first Chinese empire, comprises the last fourteen years of Qin's existence. The divide between these two periods occurred in 221 BCE when King Zheng of Qin declared himself the First Emperor of Qin, though he had already been king of Qin since 246 BCE.

Beidi Commandery

Beidi Commandery

Beidi Commandery was a commandery of the Qin and Han dynasties of China, located in what is now Ningxia. Its seat was Maling (馬領) during the Western Han period and Fuping during the Eastern Han.

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of the Mongol steppe and being proclaimed the universal ruler of the Mongols, or Genghis Khan. With the tribes of Northeast Asia largely under his control, he set in motion the Mongol invasions, which ultimately witnessed the conquest of much of Eurasia, and incursions by Mongol raiding parties as far west as Legnica in western Poland and as far south as Gaza. He launched campaigns against the Qara Khitai, Khwarezmia, the Western Xia and Jin dynasty during his life, and his generals raided into medieval Georgia, Circassia, the Kievan Rus', and Volga Bulgaria.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi

Shaanxi is a province of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).

1920 Haiyuan earthquake

1920 Haiyuan earthquake

1920 Haiyuan earthquake occurred on December 16 in Haiyuan County, Ningxia Province, Republic of China at 19:05:53. It was also called the 1920 Gansu earthquake because Ningxia was a part of Gansu Province when the earthquake occurred. It caused destruction in the Lijunbu-Haiyuan-Ganyanchi area and was assigned the maximum intensity on the Mercalli intensity scale. About 258,707~273,407 died, making it one of the most fatal earthquakes in China, in turn making it one of the worst disasters in China by death toll.

Lanzhou

Lanzhou

Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. Located on the banks of the Yellow River, it is a key regional transportation hub, connecting areas further west by rail to the eastern half of the country. Historically, it has been a major link on the Northern Silk Road and it stands to become a major hub on the New Eurasian Land Bridge. The city is also a center for heavy industry and petrochemical industry.

Tourism

Zhongwei's main attraction is Gao Miao, a temple that has hosted Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoist ceremonies. A bomb shelter was also built beneath the temple during the Cultural Revolution. It has since been converted into a rendition of a Buddhist hell.[7] The prefecture is also the location of the beginning of the northern bend in the Yellow River that produces the Ordos Loop. A drum tower is located in the city center.[8]

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Cultural Revolution

Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China (PRC) launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976. Its stated goal was to preserve Chinese communism by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society. The Revolution marked the effective commanding return of Mao –who was still the Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)– to the centre of power, after a period of self-abstention and ceding to less radical leadership in the aftermath of the Mao-led Great Leap Forward debacle and the Great Chinese Famine (1959–1961). The Revolution failed to achieve its main goals.

Yellow River

Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi). Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province. The Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 795,000 square kilometers (307,000 sq mi).

Drum tower (Asia)

Drum tower (Asia)

A drum tower or gulou is a tower in the center of an old Chinese city or village, housing signal drums. There was usually also a bell tower nearby.

Administrative divisions

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Xiao'erjing Population
(2019)[2]
Area (km2) Density
(/km2)
Shapotou District 沙坡头区 Shāpōtóu Qū شَاپُوَتِوْ ٿِيُوِ 414,200 4,633 89
Zhongning County 中宁县 Zhōngníng Xiàn جْونِئٍ‌ ثِيًا 351,700 2,841 124
Haiyuan County 海原县 Hǎiyuán Xiàn خَيْ‌يُوًا ثِيًا 403,900 6,979 58

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Shapotou District

Shapotou District

Shapotou District is a district of Zhongwei, Ningxia, China, noted for the Tengger Desert, and bordering Inner Mongolia to the north and Gansu province to the west.

Zhongning County

Zhongning County

Zhongning County is a county under the administration of Zhongwei city in west-central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the northwest. It is the point at which the northern twist of the Yellow River begins, creating the Ordos Loop. It has a total area of 2,841 square kilometers (1,097 sq mi), and a population of approximately 410,000 people.

Haiyuan County

Haiyuan County

Haiyuan County is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhongwei in the southwest of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. It is bordered by Gansu to the west. The county has a total area of 6,897 km2 (2,663 sq mi), and a population of approximately 470,000 people as of 2019. It was the site of the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake, which killed at least 200,000 people within and outside of Haiyuan.

Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing

Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script", is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia. Orthography reforms introduced the Latin script and later the Cyrillic script to the Dungan language, which continue to be used today.

Geography

Zhongwei is located on the northern banks of the Yellow River and bordered directly by the Tengger Desert in the north.[8] The city has been battling desertification since the 1950s.[9] Using straw checkerboard patterns the advance of sand dunes is stopped.[10][11]

Climate

Climate data for Zhongwei (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
22.5
(72.5)
28.2
(82.8)
33.6
(92.5)
36.0
(96.8)
35.4
(95.7)
37.6
(99.7)
36.3
(97.3)
35.7
(96.3)
29.6
(85.3)
22.7
(72.9)
15.2
(59.4)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
5.7
(42.3)
12.3
(54.1)
19.8
(67.6)
24.3
(75.7)
27.7
(81.9)
29.4
(84.9)
27.7
(81.9)
23.6
(74.5)
17.6
(63.7)
9.3
(48.7)
2.5
(36.5)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.2
(19.0)
−2.6
(27.3)
4.2
(39.6)
11.8
(53.2)
17.1
(62.8)
20.9
(69.6)
22.9
(73.2)
21.0
(69.8)
16.0
(60.8)
9.5
(49.1)
1.8
(35.2)
−4.9
(23.2)
9.2
(48.6)
Average low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.3
(39.7)
9.9
(49.8)
14.1
(57.4)
16.6
(61.9)
15.1
(59.2)
10.0
(50.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
2.9
(37.2)
Record low °C (°F) −29.1
(−20.4)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−8.7
(16.3)
−3.8
(25.2)
5.4
(41.7)
8.1
(46.6)
7.1
(44.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
−11.4
(11.5)
−15.3
(4.5)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−29.1
(−20.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.5
(0.06)
1.4
(0.06)
3.4
(0.13)
10.8
(0.43)
18.1
(0.71)
26.8
(1.06)
33.6
(1.32)
44.0
(1.73)
22.8
(0.90)
12.0
(0.47)
1.6
(0.06)
0.5
(0.02)
176.5
(6.95)
Average relative humidity (%) 52 47 45 41 49 57 63 68 68 60 59 56 55
Source: China Meteorological Administration[12]

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Yellow River

Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi). Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province. The Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 795,000 square kilometers (307,000 sq mi).

Tengger Desert

Tengger Desert

The Tengger Desert is an arid natural region that covers about 36,700 km2 and is mostly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China.

Precipitation

Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravitational pull from clouds. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates" or falls. Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but colloids, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers.

Transportation

Zhongwei Railway Station in December 2015
Zhongwei Railway Station in December 2015

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Zhongwei Shapotou Airport

Zhongwei Shapotou Airport

Zhongwei Shapotou Airport is an airport serving the city of Zhongwei in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. It is located 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) northwest of the city. The airport cost 370 million yuan to build and started operation on 26 December 2008. It was originally called Zhongwei Xiangshan Airport (中卫香山机场), but adopted the current name in August 2012 to promote the local tourist attraction Shapotou.

Baotou–Lanzhou railway

Baotou–Lanzhou railway

The Baotou–Lanzhou railway, also known as the Baolan line is a 995 kilometres (618 mi) railway line that connects the cities of Baotou in Inner Mongolia to Lanzhou in Gansu Province.

Baoji–Zhongwei railway

Baoji–Zhongwei railway

The Baoji–Zhongwei railway is a railway line in northwest China: it starts in Baoji in Shaanxi, passes through Pingliang in Gansu and finally ends in Zhenluobao (镇罗堡) in Zhongwei in Ningxia, with a total length of 498.19 kilometres. Construction on the railway started in 1990 and track laying was completed on 10 July 1994. It was electrified and opened in the following year on 8 June 1995. The railway is under the jurisdiction of the Xi'an Railway Bureau in Shaanxi and the Lanzhou Railway Bureau in Gansu and Ningxia. The line is single-track and electrified. It is a key line connecting Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia.

Xi'an

Xi'an

Xi'an, frequently spelled as Xian and also known by other names, is the capital of Shaanxi Province. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain, the city is the third most populous city in Western China, after Chongqing and Chengdu, as well as the most populous city in Northwest China. Its total population was 12,952,907 as of the 2020 census. The total urban population was 9.28 million.

Chengdu

Chengdu

Chengdu, alternatively romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan. With a population of 20,937,757 inhabitants during the 2020 Chinese census, it is the fourth most populous city in China, and it is the only city apart from the four direct-administered municipalities with a population of over 20 million. It is traditionally the hub in Southwest China.

Beijing

Beijing

Beijing, alternatively romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the center of power and development of the country. Beijing is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents. It has an administrative area of 16,410.5 km2 (6,336.1 sq mi), the third in the country after Guangzhou and Shanghai. It is located in Northern China, and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the State Council with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China.

Gantang–Wuwei railway

Gantang–Wuwei railway

The Gantang–Wuwei railway is a railway line in China. It is 172.2 kilometres (107.0 mi) long. The western terminus of the line is Gantang railway station on the Baotou–Lanzhou railway and the eastern terminus of the line is Wuwei South railway station on the Lanzhou–Xinjiang railway.

G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway

G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway

The Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway, commonly referred to as the Fuyin Expressway is an expressway that connects the cities of Fuzhou, Fujian, China, and Yinchuan, Ningxia. It is 2,397.55 km (1,489.77 mi) in length.

G2012 Dingbian–Wuwei Expressway

G2012 Dingbian–Wuwei Expressway

The Dingbian–Wuwei Expressway, commonly referred to as the Dingwu Expressway is an expressway that connects Dingbian County, Yulin, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Wuwei, Gansu. It is a spur of G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway.

China National Highway 109

China National Highway 109

China National Highway 109 connects Beijing with Lhasa. It runs westwards from Beijing via Datong, Yinchuan and Xining to Golmud before turning southwest to Lhasa. The portion of the highway from Xining to Lhasa is known as the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The total length of the route is 3,901 km.

Gallery

Source: "Zhongwei", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhongwei.

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References
  1. ^ "中卫概况".
  2. ^ a b c d China Today. China Welfare Institute. 2008.
  3. ^ (in Chinese) Profile of Zhongwei, visited on May 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "2019年中卫市人口发展情况简析". www.nxzw.gov.cn. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  5. ^ "10 really cool Solar Power installations in (and above) the world". 29 January 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  6. ^ a b c "历史沿革". www.nxzw.gov.cn. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  7. ^ Harper, Damian; Fallon, Steve; Gaskell, Katja; Grundvig, Julie; Heller, Carolyn; Huhta, Thomas; Mayhew, Bradley (2005). China (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 980. ISBN 978-1-74059-687-9. OCLC 61143558.
  8. ^ a b Guides, Rough (2017-06-01). The Rough Guide to China (Travel Guide eBook). Rough Guides UK. ISBN 978-0-241-31490-6.
  9. ^ "Curbing Desertification in China". World Bank. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  10. ^ Heshmati, G. Ali; Squires, Victor R. (2013-07-01). Combating Desertification in Asia, Africa and the Middle East: Proven practices. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-6652-5.
  11. ^ National Geographic. National Geographic Society. 1980.
  12. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
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