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Zebra murders

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Zebra murders
"Zebra Killers" mugshots, 1974 - l to r, Manuel Moore, Larry Green, Jessie Lee Cooks, JCX Simon.jpg
Convicted "Zebra murderers" at the time of their arrest in 1974: Manuel Moore, Larry Green, Jessie Lee Cooks, and J. C. X. Simon
Conviction(s)First-degree murder and conspiracy to commit first-degree murder
Criminal penaltyLife imprisonment
Details
Victims15 (confirmed), potentially 73+ dead; 8–10 wounded
Span of crimes
1973 (possibly as early as 1970) – 1974
CountryUnited States
State(s)California
Target(s)White Americans
Date apprehended
1974

The "Zebra" murders were a string of racially motivated murders and related attacks committed by a group of four black serial killers in San Francisco, California, United States, from October 1973 to April 1974;[1] they killed at least 15 people and wounded eight others. Police gave the case the name "Zebra" after the special police radio band they assigned to the investigation.

Some authorities believe that the Death Angels, as the perpetrators called themselves, may have killed as many as 73 or more victims since 1970.[2][1] Criminology professor Anthony Walsh wrote in a 2005 article that the "San Francisco–based Death Angels may have killed more people in the early- to mid-1970s than all the other serial killers operating during that period combined."[3]

In 1974, a worker at the warehouse where the Death Angels were based testified to police for a reward, providing private details about the murders. Based on his evidence, four men were arrested in connection with the case. They were convicted in a jury trial of first-degree murder and conspiracy charges, and sentenced to life imprisonment. The informant received immunity from prosecution for his testimony and was admitted to a witness protection program for him and his family.

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Serial killer

Serial killer

A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more persons, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. While most authorities set a threshold of three murders, others extend it to four or lessen it to two.

San Francisco

San Francisco

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the fourth most populous in California and 17th most populous in the United States, with 815,201 residents as of 2021. It covers a land area of 46.9 square miles, at the end of the San Francisco Peninsula, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city after New York City, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. Among the 331 U.S. cities proper with more than 100,000 residents, San Francisco was ranked first by per capita income and fifth by aggregate income as of 2019. Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include SF, San Fran, The City, Frisco, and Baghdad by the Bay.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the 3rd largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or informally America, is a country in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. It is the third-largest country by both land and total area. The United States shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. It has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 331 million, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

Criminology

Criminology

Criminology (from Latin crimen, "accusation", and is the study of crime and deviant behaviour. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, political scientists, economists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, social workers, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.

Anthony Walsh (criminologist)

Anthony Walsh (criminologist)

Anthony Walsh is an American criminologist and professor emeritus at Boise State University in Boise, Idaho. He was educated at Eastern Michigan University, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He worked in law enforcement for 21 years before joining the faculty of Boise State University in 1984. These positions included a stint as a probation officer in Lucas County, Ohio.

Life imprisonment

Life imprisonment

Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted people are to remain in prison for the rest of their natural lives or indefinitely until pardoned, paroled, or otherwise commuted to a fixed term. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, torture, terrorism, child abuse resulting in death, rape, espionage, treason, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe fraud and financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage, arson, kidnapping, burglary, and robbery, piracy, aircraft hijacking, and genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or any three felonies in case of three-strikes law. Life imprisonment can also be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offences causing death. Life imprisonment is not used in all countries; Portugal was the first country to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884.

First wave of murders, 1973

On October 19, 1973, Richard Hague (30) and his wife, Quita (28), were walking near their Telegraph Hill home in San Francisco when they were kidnapped by a group of black men and forced into a van. Quita was fondled by two of the men, and then nearly decapitated by a third man who cut her neck with a machete. One of the first pair attacked Richard and left him for dead, but he survived.[4] Ten days later, on October 29, Frances Rose (28) was repeatedly shot by a man who blocked her car's path and demanded a ride as she was driving up to the entrance gate of the University of California Extension.[5][6]

On November 9, Robert Stoeckmann (26), a clerk with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, was assaulted by an armed man but gained control of the gun and fired back. The attacker, Leroy Doctor, was later arrested and convicted of assault with a deadly weapon. Saleem "Sammy" Erakat (53), a Jordanian Arab Muslim, was bound and shot dead in the restroom of his grocery store on November 25.[7][8] On December 11, Paul Dancik (26), an artist, was shot three times in the chest by a man as he was preparing to make a telephone call at a payphone.[9][10]

Two days later on the evening of December 13, future San Francisco mayor Art Agnos (35), then a member of the California Commission on Aging, was attending a meeting in the largely black neighborhood Potrero Hill to discuss building a government-funded health clinic in the area. After the meeting ended, Agnos was talking to two women at the curbside when a man approached and shot him twice in the chest.[11] Agnos was seriously injured, but survived.[12][13] During the same evening, Marietta DiGirolamo (31), was walking along Divisadero Street when she was shoved into a doorway by a man and shot twice in the chest. The shots spun her around and struck her once in the back, killing her.[14][15]

On December 20 a 20-year-old college student, was shot three times near her apartment by one of two men. She survived, although one bullet nicked her spine.[16] An 81-year-old janitor, Ilario Bertuccio, was shot that same evening while walking home from work in the Bayview district. He died almost instantly after four shots to the shoulder and chest.[17] On December 22, two more victims died within six minutes of each other. Neal Moynihan (19) was killed as he was walking near the Civic Center while shopping. A man had walked in front of him and shot him in the face, neck, and heart.[18] The killer (or perhaps a different killer, per authors Cohen and Sanders) then chased down 50-year-old Mildred Hosler as she was heading to her bus stop and shot her four times.[19] On December 24, an unidentified John Doe victim was killed.[20][21] The man's remains were recovered on February 10, 1974.[22]

Reaction

The murders caused widespread panic in San Francisco. People attempted to find safety in numbers whenever they went out and avoided going out at night as much as possible.[23] The city ordered an increased police presence throughout the area. Investigators from the San Francisco Police Department (SFPD) were baffled by the randomness and apparent lack of motive in the killings.

Initial evidence related to the killings revealed a common pattern. In a hit-and-run shooting, the gunman would walk up to his victim, shoot the victim repeatedly at close range, and flee on foot. Another link among the shootings was the killers' preference for a .32 caliber pistol, based on the slugs recovered from the victims and the shell casings found at the crime scenes.[24]

A special task force was formed to solve and stop the murders, led by Detectives Gus Coreris and John Fotinos. San Francisco Police Chief Donald Scott assigned the "Z" police radio frequency for their exclusive use. Since the letter "Z" is known in common phonetic use as "Zebra", the group became known as the Zebra task force, and the murders became known as the Zebra murders.[25]

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Kidnapping

Kidnapping

In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful confinement of a person against their will, often including transportation/asportation. The asportation and abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear: the perpetrator may use a weapon to force the victim into a vehicle, but it is still kidnapping if the victim is enticed to enter the vehicle willingly.

Decapitation

Decapitation

Decapitation or beheading is the total separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is invariably fatal to humans and most other animals, since it deprives the brain of oxygenated blood, while all other organs are deprived of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function.

Machete

Machete

A machete is a broad blade used either as an agricultural implement similar to an axe, or in combat like a long-bladed knife. The blade is typically 30 to 45 centimetres long and usually under 3 millimetres thick. In the Spanish language, the word is possibly a diminutive form of the word macho, which was used to refer to sledgehammers. Alternatively, its origin may be machaera, the name given by the Romans to the falcata. It is the origin of the English language equivalent term matchet, though it is less commonly used. In much of the English-speaking Caribbean, such as Jamaica, Barbados, Guyana, and Grenada and in Trinidad and Tobago, the term cutlass is used for these agricultural tools.

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is an American investor-owned utility (IOU) with publicly traded stock. The company is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building, in San Francisco, California. PG&E provides natural gas and electricity to 5.2 million households in the northern two-thirds of California, from Bakersfield and northern Santa Barbara County, almost to the Oregon and Nevada state lines.

Assault

Assault

An assault is the act of committing physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime and a tort and, therefore, may result in criminal prosecution, civil liability, or both. Generally, the common law definition is the same in criminal and tort law.

Jordan

Jordan

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is a country in Western Asia. It is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, within the Levant region, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, and the Palestinian West Bank, Israel, and the Dead Sea to the west. It has a 26 km (16 mi) coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea to the southwest. The Gulf of Aqaba separates Jordan from Egypt. Amman is Jordan's capital and largest city, as well as its economic, political, and cultural centre.

Islam

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet. It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with its followers ranging between 1-1.8 billion globally, or around a quarter of the world's population. Due to the average younger age and higher fertility rate, Islam is the world's fastest growing major religious group, and is projected by Pew Research Center to be the world's largest religion by the end of the 21st century, surpassing that of Christianity. It teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humanity through various prophets, revealed scriptures, and natural signs, with the Quran serving as the final and universal revelation and Muhammad serving as the "Seal of the Prophets". The teachings and practices of Muhammad documented in traditional collected accounts provide a secondary constitutional model for Muslims to follow after the Quran.

Mayor of San Francisco

Mayor of San Francisco

The mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the executive branch of the San Francisco city and county government. The officeholder has the duty to enforce city laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch. The mayor serves a four-year term and is limited to two successive terms. Because of San Francisco's status as a consolidated city-county, the mayor also serves as the head of government of the county; both entities have been governed together by a combined set of governing bodies since 1856.

Art Agnos

Art Agnos

Arthur Christ Agnos is an American politician. He served as the 39th mayor of San Francisco, California from 1988 to 1992 and as the Regional Head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development from 1993 to 2001.

Bayview–Hunters Point, San Francisco

Bayview–Hunters Point, San Francisco

Bayview–Hunters Point is the San Francisco, California, neighborhood combining the Bayview and Hunters Point neighborhoods in the southeastern corner of the city. The decommissioned Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located within its boundaries and Candlestick Park, which was demolished in 2015, was on the southern edge. Due to the South East location, the two neighborhoods are often merged. Bayview–Hunter's Point has been labeled as San Francisco's "Most Isolated Neighborhood".

John Doe

John Doe

John Doe (male) and Jane Doe (female) are multiple-use placeholder names that are used when the true name of a person is unknown or is being intentionally concealed. In the context of law enforcement in the United States, such names are often used to refer to a corpse whose identity is unknown or unconfirmed. These names are also often used to refer to a hypothetical "everyman" in other contexts, in a manner similar to John Q. Public or "Joe Public". There are many variants to the above names, including John Roe, Richard Roe, Jane Roe, Baby Doe, and Janie Doe or Johnny Doe .

.32 caliber

.32 caliber

.32 caliber is a size of ammunition, fitted to firearms with a bore diameter of 0.32 inches (8.1 mm).

Second wave of murders, January–April 1974

The killings resumed on January 29, 1974, with five more shootings; four were fatal.[26] Tana Smith (32) was shot while walking to a fabric store. Vincent Wollin (69) was shot while walking home. John Bambic (84) was shot while collecting discarded bottles and cans. Jane Holly, a 45-year-old housewife, was gunned down while doing her laundry at a laundromat, and Roxanne McMillian (23) was shot while carrying items from her car to her new apartment. Of these, only McMillian survived but she had to use a wheelchair for the rest of her life.[27] A sixth victim was Thomas Bates, a hitchhiker who survived being shot three times that night near Emeryville but was not originally associated with the Zebra murders.[28][a][29]

On April 1, 1974, two Salvation Army cadets were walking toward the Mayfair Market, two blocks from the Salvation Army School for Officers' Training Center, when a black man who was following the pair overtook them, wheeled around, fired four shots at them, and fled. Thomas Rainwater (19) died; Linda Story (21) survived. Two policemen were on the scene within 15 seconds, and although a manhunt was initiated, it proved to be futile. The police suspected that the Zebra killers had struck again, as the shell casings on the sidewalk were found to be from a .32 caliber gun.[30] On Easter Sunday, 13 days after the Rainwater-Story shootings, Ward Anderson, a merchant seaman, and Terry White, a 15-year-old student, were both shot and wounded as they stood at a bus stop at the corner of Fillmore and Hayes streets. Their attacker was a black man who approached the corner on foot and fled after firing.[31]

On the evening of April 16, 23-year-old Nelson T. Shields IV, son of a wealthy Du Pont executive, accompanied a friend to pick up a rug at a house on Vernon Street in the Ingleside district.[32] Shields had opened the back of his station wagon and was making room in the cargo area for the rug when he was shot repeatedly and killed. A witness later testified that she saw a black man rushing up Vernon Street at the time of the shooting. The police suspected it was another Zebra murder, as the shell casings found at the scene matched a .32 caliber, the size of the weapon in other killings.[33]

Reaction

The new wave of murders on January 29 shocked the city, and people renewed precautions taken during the first wave. The city suffered losses in revenue by a dramatic drop in tourist traffic. Streets were deserted at night, even in North Beach, a neighborhood with seven-nights-a-week nightlife.[34]

Police decided to take drastic measures. Inspector Gus Coreris dictated generic suspect descriptions with the best-known characteristics of the killers to SFPD sketch artist Hobart "Hoby" Nelson, who drew two composite sketches based on the descriptions.[35]

Scott and San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto announced that SFPD officers would begin stopping and questioning "large numbers of black citizens" who resembled the description of the killer: a black man with a short Afro and a narrow chin. Once stopped, checked, and cleared, each citizen received a specially printed Zebra Check card from the officer(s) that they could show to the police if stopped again.[36] More than 500 black men were stopped by police during the first weekend the program was in operation.[37]

The Zebra Check program provoked vocal and widespread criticism from the black community. However, Dr. Washington Garner, the first black member of the Police Commission, called for blacks to be understanding of the exceptional circumstances.[38] The policy also faced internal criticism. The Officers For Justice group, led by Nation of Islam (NOI) associate Jesse Byrd, described the policy as "racist and unproductive".[39] Acting on a lawsuit filed by the NAACP and the ACLU, U.S. District Judge Alfonso J. Zirpoli ruled the widespread profiling of blacks was unconstitutional, and police suspended the operation.[40]

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Hitchhiking

Hitchhiking

Hitchhiking is a means of transportation that is gained by asking individuals, usually strangers, for a ride in their car or other vehicle. The ride is usually, but not always, free.

Emeryville, California

Emeryville, California

Emeryville is a city located in northwest Alameda County, California, in the United States. It lies in a corridor between the cities of Berkeley and Oakland, with a border on the shore of San Francisco Bay. The resident population was 12,905 as of 2020. Its proximity to San Francisco, the Bay Bridge, the University of California, Berkeley, and Silicon Valley has been a catalyst for recent economic growth.

Manhunt (law enforcement)

Manhunt (law enforcement)

In law enforcement, a manhunt is an extensive and thorough search for a wanted and dangerous fugitive involving the use of police units, technology, and help from the public.

DuPont (1802–2017)

DuPont (1802–2017)

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, commonly referred to as DuPont also, was an American company that was founded in July 1802 in Wilmington, Delaware, as a gunpowder mill by French-American chemist and industrialist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours.

North Beach, San Francisco

North Beach, San Francisco

North Beach is a neighborhood in the northeast of San Francisco adjacent to Chinatown, the Financial District, and Russian Hill. The neighborhood is San Francisco's "Little Italy" and has historically been home to a large Italian American population, largely from Northern Italy. It still has many Italian restaurants, though many other ethnic groups currently live in the neighborhood. It was also the historic center of the beatnik subculture and has become one of San Francisco's main nightlife districts as well as a residential neighborhood populated by a mix of young urban professionals, families, and Chinese immigrants.

Joseph Alioto

Joseph Alioto

Joseph Lawrence Alioto was an American politician who served as the 36th mayor of San Francisco, California, from 1968 to 1976.

Afro

Afro

The afro is a hairstyle produced by a natural growth of kinky hair, or specifically styled with chemical curling products by individuals with naturally curly or straight hair. The hairstyle can be created by combing the hair away from the scalp, dispersing a distinctive curl pattern, and forming the hair into a rounded shape, much like a cloud or puff ball.

Nation of Islam

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African diaspora, especially on African Americans. While it identifies itself as promoting a form of Islam, its beliefs differ considerably from mainstream Islamic traditions. Scholars of religion characterise it as a new religious movement. It operates as a centralized and hierarchical organization.

NAACP

NAACP

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as an interracial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington, Moorfield Storey and Ida B. Wells. Leaders of the organization included Thurgood Marshall and Roy Wilkins.

Racial profiling

Racial profiling

Racial profiling or ethnic profiling is the act of suspecting, targeting or discriminating against a person on the basis of their ethnicity, religion or nationality, rather than on individual suspicion or available evidence. Racial profiling involves discrimination against minority populations and often builds on negative stereotypes of the targeted demographic. Racial profiling can involve disproportionate stop searches, traffic stops, and the use of surveillance technology for facial identification.

Victims

Deceased

1973

  • Quita Hague, 28, October 19
  • Frances Rose, 28, October 29
  • Saleem Erakat, 53, November 25
  • Paul Dancik, 26, December 11
  • Marietta DiGirolamo, 31, December 13
  • Ilario Bertuccio, 81, December 20
  • Neal Moynihan, 19, December 22
  • Mildred Hosler, 50, December 22
  • Unidentified John Doe victim, December 24

1974

  • Tana Smith, 32, January 29
  • Vincent Wollin, 69, January 29
  • John Bambic, 84, January 29
  • Jane Holly, 45, January 29
  • Thomas Rainwater, 19, April 1
  • Nelson T. Shields IV, 23, April 16

Wounded

1973

  • Richard Hague, 30, October 19
  • Robert Stoeckmann, 26, November 9
  • Art Agnos, 36, December 13
  • "Angela Roselli", 20, December 20

1974

  • Thomas Bates, 26, January 29
  • Roxanne McMillan, 23, January 29
  • Linda Story, 21, April 1
  • Ward Anderson, 18, April 14
  • Terry White, 15, April 14

Arrests and convictions

Following the city's offer of a $30,000 reward, a break came in the Zebra case in April.[41] Anthony Harris, an employee at Black Self-Help Moving and Storage, called police a week after the sketches had been posted and subsequently agreed to meet with Zebra case detectives in Oakland.[34] Harris claimed to be one of the persons featured in the police sketches. He provided specific details regarding several of the attacks which the police had never released to the public. Harris denied that he had committed any killings, but admitted that he had been present at many of them.[42]

Harris told the police that the Death Angels were related to the Nation of Islam security branch, the Fruit of Islam.[43] He also told them of a homicide that did not make the papers; the group had abducted a homeless white man ("John Doe #169") from Ghirardelli Square. They took the man to Black Self-Help Moving and Storage's warehouse, where they gagged and tied him. According to Harris, while this man was conscious, others of the group took turns hacking away his limbs. Harris told the detectives that they had dumped the body into the bay. He told his story in such detail that the police were convinced of its veracity. In addition, it affirmed their recovery of a body on the previous December 24, 1973: it was a bound and badly butchered male torso and limbs missing his hands, feet, and head; it had washed up in the city's Ocean Beach district at the foot of Pacheco Street.[44] Harris provided the police with names, dates, addresses, and details—enough information for the prosecutor to issue arrest warrants against the suspects. Harris subsequently sought and received immunity from prosecution for his help in breaking the Zebra case, as well as new identities for himself, his girlfriend, and her child.[42]

On May 1, 1974, simultaneous police raids during the pre-dawn hours were made, resulting in the arrests of Larry Craig Green and J. C. X. Simon in an apartment building at 844 Grove Street. More suspects were arrested at Black Self-Help Moving and Storage's facility. None offered resistance when arrested.[45] Of the seven men arrested that day, four men were released for lack of evidence.

Mayor Alioto announced the news of the raids and said that the killings were perpetrated by a group who called themselves the "Death Angels" and targeted whites and dissident blacks. He said that their members had to show proof of attacks and murders to advance in the cult, and may have killed as many as 73 persons since 1970.[2][1]

Scholars continued to study this group. Criminology professor Anthony Walsh wrote in a 2005 article that the "San Francisco–based Death Angels may have killed more people in the early- to mid-1970s than all the other serial killers operating during that period combined."[3]

Black Muslim leader John Muhammad, the minister of Mosque #26 in San Francisco, denied the allegations that there was a Black Muslim conspiracy to kill whites. The Nation of Islam paid for attorneys for Green, Moore, and Simon. Jessie Lee Cooks pleaded guilty before the trial, and the Nation did not provide him with defense counsel.[46]

Trial

The trial started on March 3, 1975. Efforts by the defense to discredit Harris were unsuccessful. He revealed many grisly details over 12 days of testimony. The Zebra team presented evidence of a .32 caliber Beretta semiautomatic pistol, which was recovered from the backyard of a home near the scene of the last murder. They demonstrated the chain of ownership of the gun to one of the workers at Black Self-Help Moving and Storage and showed that the gun had been used in many of the murders.

Based upon the testimony of 108 witnesses (including Harris), 8,000 pages totaling 3.5 million words worth of transcripts, and culminating in what was then the longest criminal trial in California history, Larry Green, J. C. X. Simon, Manuel Moore, and Jessie Lee Cooks (by plea deal) were convicted in 1976 of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit first-degree murder. The jury deliberated for 18 hours. Each man was sentenced to life imprisonment.[41]

Aftermath

On March 12, 2015, J. C. X. Simon (aged 69) was found unresponsive in his cell at San Quentin State Prison, where since 1976 he had been serving a life sentence with the possibility of parole. He was declared dead of unknown causes, pending an autopsy.[47] Moore (aged 75) died in 2017 at the California Health Care Facility.[48] Cooks died in prison on June 30, 2021 at the Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility[49] and Green is in the California State Prison, Solano.[50][49]

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Oakland, California

Oakland, California

Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. A major West Coast port, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the Bay Area and the eighth most populated city in California. With a population of 440,646 as of 2020, it serves as the Bay Area's trade center and economic engine: the Port of Oakland is the busiest port in Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854. Oakland is a charter city.

Nation of Islam

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African diaspora, especially on African Americans. While it identifies itself as promoting a form of Islam, its beliefs differ considerably from mainstream Islamic traditions. Scholars of religion characterise it as a new religious movement. It operates as a centralized and hierarchical organization.

Fruit of Islam

Fruit of Islam

The Fruit of Islam (FOI) is the security and disciplinary wing of the Nation of Islam (NOI). It has also been described as its paramilitary wing. The Fruit of Islam wear distinctive blue, brown or white uniforms and caps and have units at all NOI temples. Louis Farrakhan, as head of the Nation of Islam, is commander-in-chief of the Fruit of Islam, and his son, Mustapha Farrakhan Sr, is second in command as the Supreme Captain. The women's counterpart to the Fruit of Islam is Muslim Girls Training (MGT).

Ghirardelli Square

Ghirardelli Square

Ghirardelli Square is a landmark public square with shops and restaurants and a 5-star hotel in the Marina area of San Francisco, California. A portion of the area was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 as Pioneer Woolen Mills and D. Ghirardelli Company.

San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay is a large tidal estuary in the U.S. state of California, and gives its name to the San Francisco Bay Area. It is dominated by the big cities of San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland.

Anthony Walsh (criminologist)

Anthony Walsh (criminologist)

Anthony Walsh is an American criminologist and professor emeritus at Boise State University in Boise, Idaho. He was educated at Eastern Michigan University, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He worked in law enforcement for 21 years before joining the faculty of Boise State University in 1984. These positions included a stint as a probation officer in Lucas County, Ohio.

Beretta

Beretta

Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta is a privately held Italian firearms manufacturing company operating in several countries. Its firearms are used worldwide for a variety of civilian, law enforcement, and military purposes. Sporting arms account for three-quarters of sales; Beretta is also known for marketing shooting clothes and accessories. Founded in the 16th century, Beretta is the oldest active manufacturer of firearm components in the world. In 1526 its inaugural product was arquebus barrels; by all accounts Beretta-made barrels equipped the Venetian fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Beretta has supplied weapons for every major European war since 1650.

San Quentin State Prison

San Quentin State Prison

San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated place of San Quentin in Marin County.

California Health Care Facility

California Health Care Facility

California Health Care Facility (CHCF) is a state prison for incarcerated patients with long-term medical needs or acute mental health needs. The prison is located in Stockton, California, on the site of the former Karl Holton Youth Correctional Facility. Incarcerated people of all security levels are treated at the facility.

Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility

Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility

Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility is a California state prison located in unincorporated southern San Diego County, California, near San Diego. It is a part of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. It is a 780-acre (320 ha) facility. It is the only state prison in San Diego County.

California State Prison, Solano

California State Prison, Solano

California State Prison, Solano (SOL) is a male-only state prison located in the city of Vacaville, Solano County, California, adjacent to the California Medical Facility. The facility is also referenced as Solano State Prison, CSP-Solano, and CSP-SOL.

Source: "Zebra murders", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebra_murders.

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See also

General:

Notes
  1. ^ Howard did not include him in that night's total, but had mentioned him
Citations
  1. ^ a b c Boca Raton News 1974c.
  2. ^ a b Howard 1979, pp. 228, 238–39, 247–48, 266, 333–34.
  3. ^ a b Walsh, Anthony (2005). "African Americans and Serial Killing in the Media: The Myth and the Reality". Homicide Studies, Vol. 9 No. 4, November 2005, pp 271-291; doi:10.1177/1088767905280080
  4. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 65–68.
  5. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 34–35.
  6. ^ Talbot 2012, pp. 211–12.
  7. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 81–88.
  8. ^ West's California reporter 1983b, pp. 260–62.
  9. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 103–06.
  10. ^ West's California reporter 1983b, p. 242.
  11. ^ Ch.4 KRON-TV interview with Art Agnos from January 31, 1974, in which Agnos describes being shot twice in the chest: https://diva.sfsu.edu/collections/sfbatv/bundles/230792
  12. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 119–23.
  13. ^ Talbot 2012, pp. 204–06.
  14. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 123–27.
  15. ^ Appeal Courts Reports 1983, p. 268.
  16. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 140–46.
  17. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 138–41.
  18. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 153–55.
  19. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 156–59.
  20. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 166, 173–74, 180–01.
  21. ^ Talbot 2012, pp. 213–14.
  22. ^ Namus Case # 10587
  23. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 231–32.
  24. ^ Howard 1979, p. 235.
  25. ^ Howard 1979, p. 233.
  26. ^ The New York Times 1974, p. 69.
  27. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 192–226.
  28. ^ Howard 1979, p. 238.
  29. ^ Peele 2012, pp. 150–52.
  30. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 287–92.
  31. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 307–12.
  32. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 326–30.
  33. ^ Time 1974.
  34. ^ a b Howard 1979, pp. 347–48.
  35. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 324–25.
  36. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 339–41.
  37. ^ Howard 1979, p. 345.
  38. ^ Sanders & Cohen 2006, p. 206.
  39. ^ Sanders & Cohen 2006, p. 220.
  40. ^ Howard 1979, p. 348.
  41. ^ a b Zebra killer denied parole, Sfgate.com, March 13, 2013; accessed March 15, 2015.
  42. ^ a b Howard 1979, pp. 349–59.
  43. ^ Romney 2015.
  44. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 166, 173–74, 180–01, 354–55.
  45. ^ Howard 1979, pp. 368–71.
  46. ^ Scheeres.
  47. ^ msn.com.
  48. ^ mercurynews.com/2020/01/28/last-two-living-zebra-killers-denied-parole-tied-to-massive-california-murder-spree-targeting-whites-at-random/
  49. ^ a b Jessie Lee Cooks, convicted of "Zebra" killings, dies in prison, July 1, 2021
  50. ^ CDCR Public Inmate Locator.
Bibliography
External links

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