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York Crown Court

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York Crown Court
York Crown Court.jpg
York Crown Court
LocationYork Castle, York
Coordinates53°57′18″N 1°04′46″W / 53.9550°N 1.0795°W / 53.9550; -1.0795Coordinates: 53°57′18″N 1°04′46″W / 53.9550°N 1.0795°W / 53.9550; -1.0795
Built1777
ArchitectJohn Carr
Architectural style(s)Neoclassical style
Listed Building – Grade I
Official nameCrown Court and railings attached to front, Castle Precinct
Designated14 June 1954
Reference no.1259328
York Crown Court is located in North Yorkshire
York Crown Court
Location of York Crown Court in North Yorkshire

York Crown Court is a Crown Court venue which deals with criminal cases at York Castle in York, England. It is a Grade I listed building.[1]

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History

Originally the assizes for the City of York were held in York Guildhall.[2] However, judicial matters moved to York Castle when a Grand Jury House was built there in 1668 and supplemented by a Sessions House of 1675. However, by the mid 18th century, the Grand Jury House had become dilapidated and it was decided to demolish it and to erect a new building on the same site.[3]

The new building was commissioned to serve as the assizes courts for the City of York. It was designed by John Carr in the neoclassical style, built in ashlar stone and was completed in 1777.[1][4][5] The design involved a symmetrical main frontage of thirteen bays, with single-storey end bays which were slightly recessed: it faced onto the castle courtyard, which was grassed over at that time to form a circle, which became known as the "Eye of the Ridings".[6] The central section featured a tetrastyle portico in antis formed by full-height Ionic order columns supporting an entablature and a modillioned pediment. The wings of four bays each were fenestrated by round headed sash windows on the ground floor and by small square windows on the first floor. The outer bays of the wings also featured full-height Ionic order columns in antis supporting an entablature. Internally, the building was laid out to accommodate two large courtrooms, one to the left and one to the right.[1]

Notable cases in the 19th century included the trial and conviction, in November 1882, of Mary Fitzpatrick for the murder of a glass blower, James Richardson.[7] Following the implementation of the Courts Act 1971, the former assizes courthouse was re-designated York Crown Court,[8] and an extensive programme of refurbishment was completed in 1991.[9]

In 2010, the court was the venue for the trial and conviction of the footballers, Craig Nelthorpe and Michael Rankine for affray following a disturbance in the city centre.[10] A climactic scene for the television series Death Comes to Pemberley was filmed on a purpose-built scaffold outside the building in 2013.[11]

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Assizes

Assizes

The courts of assize, or assizes, were periodic courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the quarter sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court. The assizes exercised both civil and criminal jurisdiction, though most of their work was on the criminal side. The assizes heard the most serious cases, which were committed to it by the quarter sessions, while the more minor offences were dealt with summarily by justices of the peace in petty sessions.

John Carr (architect)

John Carr (architect)

John Carr (1723–1807) was a prolific English architect, best known for Buxton Crescent in Derbyshire and Harewood House in West Yorkshire. Much of his work was in the Palladian style. In his day he was considered to be the leading architect in the north of England.

Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the Neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France. It became one of the most prominent architectural styles in the Western world. The prevailing styles of architecture in most of Europe for the previous two centuries, Renaissance architecture and Baroque architecture, already represented partial revivals of the Classical architecture of ancient Rome and ancient Greek architecture, but the Neoclassical movement aimed to strip away the excesses of Late Baroque and return to a purer and more authentic classical style, adapted to modern purposes.

Ashlar

Ashlar

Ashlar is finely dressed stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared, or a structure built from such stones. Ashlar is the finest stone masonry unit, generally rectangular cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less frequently trapezoidal. Precisely cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks, and the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect.

Distyle in antis

Distyle in antis

In classical architecture, distyle in antis denotes a temple with the side walls extending to the front of the porch and terminating with two antae, the pediment being supported by two pilasters or sometimes caryatids. This is the earliest type of temple structure in the ancient Greek world. An example is the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi, built around 525 BCE.

Ionic order

Ionic order

The Ionic order is one of the three canonic orders of classical architecture, the other two being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan, and the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order. Of the three classical canonic orders, the Corinthian order has the narrowest columns, followed by the Ionic order, with the Doric order having the widest columns.

Modillion

Modillion

A modillion is an ornate bracket, more horizontal in shape and less imposing than a corbel. They are often seen underneath a cornice which it helps to support. Modillions are more elaborate than dentils. All three are selectively used as adjectival historic past participles as to what co-supports or simply adorns any high structure of a building, such as a terrace of a roof, parapet, pediment/entablature, balcony, cornice band or roof cornice. Modillions occur classically under a Corinthian or a Composite cornice, but may support any type of eaves cornice. They may be carved or plain.

Glassblowing

Glassblowing

Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble with the aid of a blowpipe. A person who blows glass is called a glassblower, glassmith, or gaffer. A lampworker manipulates glass with the use of a torch on a smaller scale, such as in producing precision laboratory glassware out of borosilicate glass.

Courts Act 1971

Courts Act 1971

The Courts Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom the purpose of which was to reform and modernise the courts system of England and Wales.

Craig Nelthorpe

Craig Nelthorpe

Craig Robert Nelthorpe is an English semi-professional footballer who plays as a left back or left winger for Northern Premier League Premier Division club Belper Town. He has played in the Football League for Doncaster Rovers and Darlington.

Michael Rankine

Michael Rankine

Michael Lee Rankine is an English former professional footballer who played as a striker. He played in the Football League for Scunthorpe United, AFC Bournemouth, Aldershot Town and York City.

Death Comes to Pemberley (TV series)

Death Comes to Pemberley (TV series)

Death Comes to Pemberley is a three-part British television drama based on the best-selling 2011 P.D. James novel of the same name. Her murder mystery was based on the style and characters of Jane Austen's 1813 novel Pride and Prejudice.

Source: "York Crown Court", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York_Crown_Court.

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References
  1. ^ a b c Historic England. "Crown Court and railings attached to front, Castle Precinct (Grade I) (1259328)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  2. ^ Pichot, Amédée (1825). Historical and Literary Tour of a Foreigner in England and Scotland. Vol. 2. Saunders & Otley. p. 247.
  3. ^ "Castle Piccadilly Conservation Area Appraisal". City of York Council. 23 March 2006. p. 8. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  4. ^ Strevens, Summer (2013). Murder and Crime York. History Press. ISBN 978-0752494364.
  5. ^ "York court to close for four weeks". York News. 25 July 2003. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  6. ^ Butler, Lawrence (1997). Clifford's Tower and the Castles of York. London: English Heritage. p. 23. ISBN 978-1850746737.
  7. ^ "Yorkshire Assizes". York Herald. 4 November 1882. p. 3. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  8. ^ Courts Act 1971 (Commencement) Order 1971 (SI 1971/1151)
  9. ^ "Assize Court". Heritage Gateway. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  10. ^ "York City players sentenced for city affray". BBC News. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  11. ^ "Dramatic gallows scene from Death Comes To Pemberley filmed in the Eye of York". York Press. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
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