Get Our Extension

Women and migration

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way

Almost half of international migrants are women, generally travelling as either migrant workers or refugees. Women migrant workers migrate from developing countries to high-income countries to engage in paid employment, typically in gendered professions such as domestic work. Because their work disproportionately takes place in private homes, they are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Wages earned are largely sent home to the originating country to support the cost of living of the family left behind.

Refugee women face multiple challenges including limited access to healthcare, discrimination, sexual violence, and risks of human trafficking. Mental and physical health are often affected as a result.

International migration

Almost half of international migrants are women, which is one of the most significant migrant-pattern changes in the last half century.[1] Women migrate alone or with their family members and community. Even though female migration is largely viewed as associations rather than independent migration, emerging studies argue complex and manifold reasons for this.[2]

Migrant workers

Filipina migrant workers in Hong Kong
Filipina migrant workers in Hong Kong

Women migrant workers from developing countries engage in paid employment in countries where they are not citizens.[3] While women have traditionally been considered companions to their husbands in the migratory process, most adult migrant women today are employed in their own right.[4] In 2017, of the 168 million migrant workers, over 68 million were women. The increase in proportion of women migrant workers since the early twentieth century is often referred to as the "feminization of migration".[5][6]

Most women workers immigrate from developing countries to high-income countries,[7] with significant impacts on both their countries of origin and destination countries. Women migrant workers send upwards of $300 billion in remittances to their countries of origin each year,[8][9] often using this money to pay for their families’ basic health, housing and education needs.[10] On a macroeconomic level, remittances from emigrant workers can account for up to 25% of national gross domestic product,[11] and help these developing countries cope with trade deficits and external debts.[12] However, women migrant workers have to leave their countries of origin to provide financially, and are often separated from their own families. This has led to an uneven distribution of reproductive labor globally: in destination countries, immigrant women help address the care worker shortage,[13] and enable more local women to enter the workforce.[14] On the other hand, in countries of origin, the emigration of large numbers of women forces other members of the community to shoulder greater domestic work burdens.[15]

Women migrant workers typically pursue gendered professions such as domestic work and disproportionately work in private homes. As a result, they are comparatively “hidden” from society and are more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.[16] A variety of governmental policies, moreover, have also increased the vulnerability of these women migrant workers to abuse. For example, in the Arab states, migrant domestic workers depend on their employers for legal status, causing the workers to tolerate a significant amount of abuse for fear of deportation.[17] Several countries also prohibit women migrant workers from having sex or becoming pregnant.[18]

Wage discrimination is when an employer pays different wages to two seemingly similar employees, usually on the basis of gender or race. Kampelmann and Rycx (2016) explain two different explanations for the differences observed in wages.[19] They explain that employer tastes and preferences for foreign workers and/or customers can translate into having a lower demand for them as a whole and as a result offering them lower wages, as well as the differences in career dynamics, whereas, if there is large differences between immigrant workers and “native” workers, it could lead to wage discrimination for immigrant workers.[19] Within the discrimination of domestic to foreign workers there is also discrimination among foreign workers based on gender.[19] Female migrant workers are faced with a “triple-discrimination”.[20] This "triple-discrimination" states that women foreign workers are more at risk to experience discrimination because they are women, unprotected workers, and migrant workers.[20]

Discover more about Migrant workers related topics

Women migrant workers from developing countries

Women migrant workers from developing countries

Women migrant workers from developing countries engage in paid employment in countries where they are not citizens. While women have traditionally been considered companions to their husbands in the migratory process, most adult migrant women today are employed in their own right. In 2017, of the 168 million migrant workers, over 68 million were women. The increase in proportion of women migrant workers since the early twentieth century is often referred to as the "feminization of migration".

Migrant worker

Migrant worker

A migrant worker is a person who migrates within a home country or outside it to pursue work. Migrant workers usually do not have the intention to stay permanently in the country or region in which they work.

Developing country

Developing country

A developing country is a sovereign state with a lesser developed industrial base and a lower Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on gross national income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries.

Citizenship

Citizenship

Citizenship is an allegiance of person to a state.

Remittance

Remittance

A remittance is a non-commercial transfer of money by a foreign worker, a member of a diaspora community, or a citizen with familial ties abroad, for household income in their home country or homeland. Money sent home by migrants competes with international aid as one of the largest financial inflows to developing countries. Workers' remittances are a significant part of international capital flows, especially with regard to labor-exporting countries.

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjective nature this measure is often revised before being considered a reliable indicator. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) may be more useful when comparing living standards between nations, while nominal GDP is more useful comparing national economies on the international market. Total GDP can also be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP.

Reproductive labor

Reproductive labor

Reproductive labor or work is often associated with care giving and domestic housework roles including cleaning, cooking, child care, and the unpaid domestic labor force. The term has taken on a role in feminist philosophy and discourse as a way of calling attention to how women in particular are assigned to the domestic sphere, where the labor is reproductive and thus uncompensated and unrecognized in a capitalist system. These theories have evolved as a parallel of histories focusing on the entrance of women into the labor force in the 1970s, providing an intersectionalist approach that recognizes that women have been a part of the labor force since before their incorporation into mainstream industry if reproductive labor is considered.

Care work

Care work

Care work is a sub-category of work that includes all tasks that directly involve care processes done in service of others. It is often differentiated from other forms of work because it is considered to be intrinsically motivated. This perspective defines care labor as labor undertaken out of affection or a sense of responsibility for other people, with no expectation of immediate pecuniary reward. Regardless of motivation, care work includes care activities done for pay as well as those done without remuneration.

Refugee women

Refugee Women in Chad
Refugee Women in Chad

Refugee women face gender-specific challenges in navigating daily life at every stage of their migration experience.[21] Common challenges for all refugee women, regardless of other demographic data, are access to healthcare and physical abuse and instances of discrimination, sexual violence, and human trafficking are the most common ones.[11] But even if women don't become victims of such actions, they often face abuse and disregard for their specific needs and experiences, which leads to complex consequences including demoralization, stigmatization, and mental and physical health decay.[22] The lack of access to appropriate resources from international humanitarian aid organizations is compounded by the prevailing gender assumptions around the world, though recent shifts in gender mainstreaming are aiming to combat these commonalities.[11]

Discover more about Refugee women related topics

Refugee women

Refugee women

Refugee women face gender-specific challenges in navigating daily life at every stage of their migration experience. Common challenges for all refugee women, regardless of other demographic data, are access to healthcare and physical abuse and instances of discrimination, sexual violence, and human trafficking are the most common ones. But even if women don't become victims of such actions, they often face abuse and disregard for their specific needs and experiences, which leads to complex consequences including demoralization, stigmatization, and mental and physical health decay. The lack of access to appropriate resources from international humanitarian aid organizations is compounded by the prevailing gender assumptions around the world, though recent shifts in gender mainstreaming are aiming to combat these commonalities.

Discrimination

Discrimination

Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of race, gender, age, religion, disability, or sexual orientation, as well as other categories. Discrimination especially occurs when individuals or groups are unfairly treated in a way which is worse than other people are treated, on the basis of their actual or perceived membership in certain groups or social categories. It involves restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to members of another group.

Sexual violence

Sexual violence

Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, act to traffic a person, or act directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim. It occurs in times of peace and armed conflict situations, is widespread, and is considered to be one of the most traumatic, pervasive, and most common human rights violations.

Human trafficking

Human trafficking

Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another.

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by the government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless, refugees, and victims of natural disasters, wars, and famines. Humanitarian relief efforts are provided for humanitarian purposes and include natural disasters and man-made disasters. The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain human dignity. It may, therefore, be distinguished from development aid, which seeks to address the underlying socioeconomic factors which may have led to a crisis or emergency. There is a debate on linking humanitarian aid and development efforts, which was reinforced by the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016. However, the conflation is viewed critically by practitioners.

Gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the implications for people of different genders of a planned policy action, including legislation and programmes. Mainstreaming offers a pluralistic approach that values the diversity among people of different genders.

Migration to the United States

Currently, there are over 20 million immigrant women residing in the United States. The American Immigration Council states that the majority of these immigrant women come from Mexico, meaning that the main demographic of immigrant women in the U.S. are Latina. As the fastest growing minority group in America, Latinas are becoming primary influencers in education, economics and culture in American society and the consumer marketplace.[23][24]

Source: "Women and migration", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_and_migration.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ "International Migration 2013 (wall chart)". UNFPA. 2013.
  2. ^ Thapan, M. (2008). Series Introduction in Palriwala and Uberoi (Eds.), Women and Migration in Asia (p. 359). New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-3675-6 (Pb)
  3. ^ Medarevic, A (November 2016). "Health status amongst migrants in Serbia during European migrant crisis". European Journal of Public Health. 26 (suppl_1). doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckw170.032. ISSN 1101-1262.
  4. ^ Marinucci, Roberto (2007). "Feminization of migration?" (PDF). Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana. 15: 5–22.
  5. ^ Gabaccia, Donna R. (2016-04-21). "Feminization of Migration". The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 1–3. doi:10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss732. ISBN 9781405196949.
  6. ^ Taran, Patrick (2016). "Migrant Women, Women Migrant Workers: Crucial Challenges for Rights-Based Action and Advocacy" (PDF). Geneva: Global Migration Policy Associets. 3.
  7. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". www.un.org. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
  8. ^ "A migrant centred approach to remittances (Labour migration)". www.ilo.org. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  9. ^ "World", Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016: Third Edition, The World Bank, 2016-04-08, pp. 20–21, doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0319-2_world, ISBN 9781464803192
  10. ^ Lowell, Briant (2006). "Gender-Specific Determinants of Remittances: Differences in Structure and Motivation". Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  11. ^ a b c Indra, Doreen (1987). "Gender: a key dimension of the refugee experience". Canada's Journal on Refugees. 6.
  12. ^ "Migration: a world on the move." United Nations Population Fund".
  13. ^ Browne, C. V.; Braun, K. L. (2008-02-01). "Globalization, Women's Migration, and the Long-Term-Care Workforce". The Gerontologist. 48 (1): 16–24. doi:10.1093/geront/48.1.16. ISSN 0016-9013. PMID 18381828.
  14. ^ Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Huang, Shirlena; Gonzalez, Joaquin (1999). "Migrant Female Domestic Workers: Debating the Economic, Social and Political Impacts in Singapore". The International Migration Review. 33 (1): 114–136. doi:10.2307/2547324. ISSN 0197-9183. JSTOR 2547324. PMID 12294976.
  15. ^ PARREÑAS, RHACEL SALAZAR (2016-06-30). "Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers and the International Division of Reproductive Labor". Gender & Society. 14 (4): 560–580. doi:10.1177/089124300014004005. S2CID 145663217.
  16. ^ Alcalá, Maria Jose (2015-10-05). Meghani, Zahra (ed.). Women Migrant Workers. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315677262. ISBN 9781315677262.
  17. ^ Pande, Amrita (2013). ""The Paper that You Have in Your Hand is My Freedom": Migrant Domestic Work and the Sponsorship (Kafala) System in Lebanon". The International Migration Review. 47 (2): 414–441. doi:10.1111/imre.12025. ISSN 0197-9183. JSTOR 24542827. S2CID 145377641.
  18. ^ Mahdavi, Pardis (2014-01-01). "Love, Motherhood and Migration: Regulating Migrant Women's Sexualities in the Persian Gulf". Anthropology of the Middle East. 9 (2). doi:10.3167/ame.2014.090203. ISSN 1746-0719.
  19. ^ a b c Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, François (2016-08-11). "Wage discrimination against immigrants: measurement with firm-level productivity data". IZA Journal of Migration. 5 (1). doi:10.1186/s40176-016-0063-1. ISSN 2193-9039.
  20. ^ a b Taran, Patrick A. (2009), "The need for a rights-based approach to migration in the age of globalization", in Cholewinski, Ryszard; De Guchteneire, Paul; Pecoud, Antoine (eds.), Migration and Human Rights, Cambridge University Press, pp. 150–168, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511811272.006, ISBN 978-0-511-81127-2
  21. ^ The United Nations Refugee Agency. Women’s Concerns. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  22. ^ International Rescue Committee. The Forgotten Frontline: The Effects of War on Women. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  23. ^ "Latina Power Shift" (PDF). Fronteras Desk. Nielson. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  24. ^ "Jeromy Alexander – Just a guy from Jackson".
Sources

Books

  • Knörr, Jacqueline. Women and Migration. Anthropological Perspectives, Frankfurt & New York: Campus Verlag & St. Martin's Press, 2000.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.