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Walter McCrone

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Walter C. McCrone
Born(1916-06-09)June 9, 1916
Wilmington, Delaware, United States
DiedJuly 10, 2002(2002-07-10) (aged 86)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materCornell University
Known forPolarized light microscopy
Ultra-microanalysis
Vinland Map
Shroud of Turin
AwardsACS Award in Analytical Chemistry (2000)
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry
InstitutionsCornell University, Illinois Institute of Technology, McCrone Research Institute
ThesisI. Derivatives of endomethylene tetrahydrophthalic acid II. Fusion methods in the study of crystals
Doctoral advisorClyde W. Mason

Walter Cox McCrone Jr. (June 9, 1916 – July 10, 2002) was an American chemist who worked extensively on applications of polarized light microscopy and is sometimes characterized as the "father of modern microscopy".[1][2] He was also an expert in electron microscopy, crystallography, ultra-microanalysis, and particle identification. In 1960 he founded the McCrone Research Institute, a non-profit educational and research organization for microscopy based in Chicago.

According to chemist and forensic scientist John A. Reffner, "during McCrone’s life, he taught microscopy to more students than anyone else in history."[3] To the general public, McCrone was best known for his work on the Vinland Map, the Shroud of Turin, and forensic science. In 2000 he received the American Chemical Society's National Award in Analytical Chemistry.[4]

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Chemist

Chemist

A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, chemical reaction rates, and other chemical properties. In Commonwealth English, pharmacists are often called chemists.

Polarized light microscopy

Polarized light microscopy

Polarized light microscopy can mean any of a number of optical microscopy techniques involving polarized light. Simple techniques include illumination of the sample with polarized light. Directly transmitted light can, optionally, be blocked with a polariser orientated at 90 degrees to the illumination. More complex microscopy techniques which take advantage of polarized light include differential interference contrast microscopy and interference reflection microscopy. Scientists will often use a device called a polarizing plate to convert natural light into polarized light.

Microscope

Microscope

A microscope is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.

Electron microscope

Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000× whereas most light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000×.

Crystallography

Crystallography

Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystallography is a fundamental subject in the fields of materials science and solid-state physics. The word "crystallography" is derived from the Greek word κρύσταλλος (krystallos) "clear ice, rock-crystal", with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and γράφειν (graphein) "to write". In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography.

Microanalysis

Microanalysis

Microanalysis is the chemical identification and quantitative analysis of very small amounts of chemical substances or very small surfaces of material. One of the pioneers in the microanalysis of chemical elements was the Austrian Nobel Prize winner Fritz Pregl.

McCrone Research Institute

McCrone Research Institute

The McCrone Research Institute is a not-for-profit educational and research organization for microscopy located in Chicago, Illinois. It was founded by Dr. Walter C. McCrone in 1960. With more than 30,000 enrollments since its incorporation, it is the largest private, independent, nonprofit microscopy and microanalysis institution in the United States dedicated solely to the teaching of microscopists. McCrone Research Institute maintains over one hundred polarized light and various other light microscopes in addition to electron microscopes, spectrometers, and scientific digital imaging systems for use in any of its over 50 intensive one-week courses offered each year.

Chicago

Chicago

Chicago is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwest. As the seat of Cook County, the city is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area, one of the largest in the world.

Shroud of Turin

Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin, also known as the Holy Shroud, is a length of linen cloth bearing the negative image of a man. Some describe the image as depicting Jesus of Nazareth and believe the fabric is the burial shroud in which he was wrapped after crucifixion.

Forensic science

Forensic science

Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic science is a broad field that includes; DNA analysis, fingerprint analysis, blood stain pattern analysis, firearms examination and ballistics, tool mark analysis, serology, toxicology, hair and fiber analysis, entomology, questioned documents, anthropology, odontology, pathology, epidemiology, footwear and tire tread analysis, drug chemistry, paint and glass analysis, digital audio video and photo analysis.

American Chemical Society

American Chemical Society

The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 155,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical engineering, and related fields. It is one of the world's largest scientific societies by membership. The ACS is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., and it has a large concentration of staff in Columbus, Ohio.

Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry

Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.

Biography

Walter McCrone was born in Wilmington, Delaware, but he grew up mostly in New York State.[2] His father was a civil engineer in charge of one of the first DuPont plants to manufacture cellophane.[5] McCrone received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Cornell University in 1938 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the same institution in 1942. From 1942 to 1944 he was a post-doctoral researcher at Cornell. In 1944, McCrone published a detailed study on The Microscopic Examination of High Explosives and Boosters.[6]

Also in 1944, McCrone began to work as a microscopist and materials scientist at the Armour Research Foundation, now the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Research Institute.[2] He was also a professor at IIT and served as assistant chairman of its Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department.[7] In 1948, McCrone and IIT electron microscopist Charles Tufts organized the first of the meetings that are now the International Microscopy Conference (Inter/Micro). Among the speakers at the first conference was Nobel laureate Frits Zernike.[8]

In 1956 McCrone left IIT and founded an analytical consulting firm, McCrone Associates, which is now located in Westmont, Illinois. In 1960, he established the McCrone Research Institute, a nonprofit organization for teaching and research in microscopy and crystallography, based in Chicago. In 1979 he retired from McCrone Associates in order to dedicate himself to teaching full time.[9] The proceeds from his work as a consulting chemist allowed McCrone to endow the Émile M. Chamot Professorship of Chemistry at Cornell, named in honor of McCrone's university mentor.[2]

For more than thirty years McCrone edited and published The Microscope, an international quarterly journal of microscopy that had been established in 1937 by the British microscopist Arthur L. E. Barron.[8] McCrone also wrote more than 400 technical articles along with sixteen books or chapters.[10] He is credited with expanding the usefulness of the optical microscopy to chemists, who had previously considered it primarily a tool for the biologist. One of his publications was the Particle Atlas, first published in 1967, which provided an exhaustive description of small particles and how to identify them with the aid of a microscope. That work became widely used in forensic laboratories.[6] The Particle Atlas, which was written in collaboration with other staff members of McCrone Associates, appeared in a six-volume second edition in 1973. In 1992 it became available in CD-ROM.[7][10]

Walter McCrone served on the board of directors and as president of the Ada S. McKinley Community Services, a nonprofit social services agency in Chicago.[7] He died of congestive heart failure at his home in Chicago, at the age of 86.[10] From 1957 until his death in 2000, he was married to Lucy B. McCrone, née Beman, who had worked as an analytical chemist for the management consulting firm Arthur D. Little when the two first met in Cambridge, Massachusetts. After their marriage, Lucy McCrone worked a chemical microanalyst for McCrone Associates in Chicago and was co-founder and director of the McCrone Research Institute until 1984.[8]

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DuPont

DuPont

DuPont de Nemours, Inc., commonly shortened to DuPont, is an American multinational chemical company first formed in 1802 by French-American chemist and industrialist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours. The company played a major role in the development of Delaware and first arose as a major supplier of gunpowder. DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kapton, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek, Sorona, Corfam and Lycra in the 20th century, and its scientists developed many chemicals, most notably Freon (chlorofluorocarbons), for the refrigerant industry. It also developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair.

Cellophane

Cellophane

Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose. Its low permeability to air, oils, greases, bacteria, and liquid water makes it useful for food packaging. Cellophane is highly permeable to water vapour, but may be coated with nitrocellulose lacquer to prevent this.

Cornell University

Cornell University

Cornell University is a private Ivy League statutory land-grant research university based in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, Cornell was founded with the intention to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge – from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals are captured in Cornell's founding principle, an 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell:I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study and research. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

IIT Research Institute

IIT Research Institute

IIT Research Institute (IITRI), also known historically and interchangeably as IIT Research Center, is a high-technology scientific research organization and applied research laboratory located in Chicago, Illinois. Previously known as the Armour Research Foundation, the IITRI is an independent corporation that operates collaboratively with the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and the U.S. Government.

Illinois Institute of Technology

Illinois Institute of Technology

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Tracing its history to 1890, the present name was adopted upon the merger of the Armour Institute and Lewis Institute in 1940. The university has programs in architecture, business, communications, design, engineering, industrial technology, information technology, law, psychology, and science. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity".

Frits Zernike

Frits Zernike

Frits Zernike was a Dutch physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953 for his invention of the phase-contrast microscope.

Chicago

Chicago

Chicago is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwest. As the seat of Cook County, the city is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area, one of the largest in the world.

Biologist

Biologist

A biologist is a scientist who conducts research in biology. Biologists are interested in studying life on Earth, whether it is an individual cell, a multicellular organism, or a community of interacting populations. They usually specialize in a particular branch of biology and have a specific research focus.

CD-ROM

CD-ROM

A CD-ROM is a type of read-only memory consisting of a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write or erase—CD-ROMs. Some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer.

Arthur D. Little

Arthur D. Little

Arthur D. Little is an international management consulting firm originally headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, founded in 1886 and formally incorporated in 1909 by Arthur Dehon Little, an MIT chemist who had discovered acetate. Arthur D. Little pioneered the concept of contracted professional services. The company played key roles in the development of business strategy, operations research, the word processor, the first synthetic penicillin, LexisNexis, SABRE, and NASDAQ. Today the company is a multinational management consulting firm operating as a partnership.

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. As part of the Boston metropolitan area, the city's population of the 2020 U.S. census was 118,403, making it the fourth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester, and Springfield. It is one of two de jure county seats of Middlesex County, although the county's executive government was abolished in 1997. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, once also an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders.

Vinland Map

The Vinland Map is a document that appears to be a 15th-century mappa mundi and which shows a landmass in the Atlantic Ocean, directly south-west of Greenland, labelled Vinlanda Insula ("Isle of Vinland"). It first came to light in 1957 and was acquired by Yale University in 1964. The map's authenticity would have established the awareness of a part of the American continent by European cartographers, before the voyages of Christopher Columbus. McCrone, already reputed for his expertise in authenticating ancient documents and works of art, was asked by Yale to analyze the map in 1972. In 1974, he published evidence that the ink of the map contained synthetic anatase (a form of titanium dioxide), a substance not used as a pigment until the 1920s. According to McCrone, the anatase is present in the yellow ink that the forger used to simulate the natural discoloration that appears over long periods of time around lines drawn on parchment in medieval iron gall ink.[11][12]

McCrone's work on the Vinland Map led to a protracted controversy, with other researchers continuing to argue for the document's authenticity and discounting the presence of titanium as insignificant. In 2021, Raymond Clemens, the curator of early books and manuscripts at Yale's Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library where the map is housed, declared that it had been conclusively shown to be a fake.[13] That judgment was largely based on the presence of synthetic anatase in the ink, as first identified by McCrone.[14]

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Vinland Map

Vinland Map

The Vinland Map was claimed to be a 15th-century mappa mundi with unique information about Norse exploration of North America but is now known to be a 20th-century forgery. The map first came to light in 1957 and was acquired by Yale University. It became well known due to the publicity campaign which accompanied its revelation to the public as a "genuine" pre-Columbian map in 1965. In addition to showing Africa, Asia and Europe, the map depicts a landmass south-west of Greenland in the Atlantic labelled as Vinland.

Mappa mundi

Mappa mundi

A mappa mundi is any medieval European map of the world. Such maps range in size and complexity from simple schematic maps 25 millimetres or less across to elaborate wall maps, the largest of which to survive to modern times, the Ebstorf map, was around 3.5 m in diameter. The term derives from the Medieval Latin words mappa and mundus (world).

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the "Old World" of Africa, Europe and Asia from the "New World" of the Americas in the European perception of the World.

Greenland

Greenland

Greenland is an island country in North America that is part of the Kingdom of Denmark. It is located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is the world's largest island. It is one of three constituent countries that form the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark and the Faroe Islands; the citizens of these countries are all citizens of Denmark and the European Union. Greenland's capital is Nuuk.

Vinland

Vinland

Vinland, Vineland, or Winland (Old Norse: Vínland ᚠᛁᚾᛚᛅᚾᛏ, ᛟᚱ ᚠᛁᚾᛖᛚᚨᚾᛞ᛫ was an area of coastal North America explored by Vikings. Leif Erikson landed there around 1000 AD, nearly five centuries before the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. The name appears in the Vinland Sagas, and describes Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick. Much of the geographical content of the sagas corresponds to present-day knowledge of transatlantic travel and North America.

Americas

Americas

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World.

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and navigator who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean sponsored by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, opening the way for the widespread European exploration and colonization of the Americas. His expeditions were the first known European contact with the Caribbean, Central America, and South America.

Anatase

Anatase

Anatase is a metastable mineral form of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with a tetragonal crystal structure. Although colorless or white when pure, anatase in nature is usually a black solid due to impurities. Three other polymorphs (or mineral forms) of titanium dioxide are known to occur naturally: brookite, akaogiite, and rutile, with rutile being the most common and most stable of the bunch. Anatase is formed at relatively low temperatures and found in minor concentrations in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Thin films of TiO2-coated glass show antifogging and self-cleaning properties under ultraviolet radiation.

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 (PW6), or CI 77891. It is a white solid that is insoluble to water, although mineral forms can appear black. As a pigment, it has a wide range of applications, including paint, sunscreen, and food coloring. When used as a food coloring, it has E number E171. World production in 2014 exceeded 9 million tonnes. It has been estimated that titanium dioxide is used in two-thirds of all pigments, and pigments based on the oxide have been valued at a price of $13.2 billion.

Parchment

Parchment

Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skins of young animals such as lambs and young calves.

Iron gall ink

Iron gall ink

Iron gall ink is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources. It was the standard ink formulation used in Europe for the 1400-year period between the 5th and 19th centuries, remained in widespread use well into the 20th century, and is still sold today.

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library is the rare book library and literary archive of the Yale University Library in New Haven, Connecticut. It is one of the largest buildings in the world dedicated to rare books and manuscripts. Established by a gift of the Beinecke family and given its own financial endowment, the library is financially independent from the university and is co-governed by the University Library and Yale Corporation.

Shroud of Turin

As a result of McCrone's work on the Vinland Map, British author and researcher Ian Wilson approached McCrone in 1974 about the possibility of scientifically analyzing the Shroud of Turin, a length of linen cloth that has been venerated for centuries as the burial shroud of Jesus upon which his image is miraculously imprinted.[11] This led to McCrone's involvement with the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP). In 1977, a team of scientists affiliated with STURP proposed a barrage of tests to be carried out on the Shroud. With permission from the Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Anastasio Ballestrero, STURP researchers conducted tests over a period of five days in October 1978, also using adhesive tape to obtain samples of the fibers from various parts on the Shroud's surface.[9]

Based on his microscopic and chemical analysis of the tape samples obtained by STURP, McCrone concluded that the image on the Shroud was painted with a dilute pigment of red ochre in a collagen tempera (i.e., gelatin) medium, using a technique similar to the grisaille employed in the 14th century by Simone Martini and other European artists. McCrone also found that the "bloodstains" in the image had been highlighted with vermilion (a bright red pigment made from mercury sulfide), also in a collagen tempera medium. McCrone reported that no actual blood was present in the samples taken from the Shroud.[11][12]

McCrone's results were rejected by other members of STURP and McCrone resigned from STURP in June 1980. Two other members of STURP, John Heller and Alan Adler, published their own analysis concluding that Shroud did show traces of blood.[15][16] Other STURP members also disputed McCrone's conclusion that the Shroud image was painted, finding that physical analyses excluded the presence of pigments in sufficient quantities to account for the visible image.[17]

McCrone continued to defend his results and to insist that polarized light microscopy, in which he was the only expert among the original members of STURP, was the correct technique to apply to the study of the Shroud.[9] In 1983 he confidently predicted that radiocarbon dating of the Shroud's linen would show that it had been made shortly before the first historically recorded exhibition of the Shroud in 1356.[18][19] The results of the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud vindicated McCrone's microscopic and chemical analyses.[7][6][12]

Until McCrone's death in 2002, he continued to comment upon and explain the analysis that he had performed, becoming a prominent figure in the ongoing controversies surrounding the Shroud that attracted considerable attention in the public press. He re-stated and summarized his evidence that the Shroud was painted in an article published in 1990 in the journal Accounts of Chemical Research.[9] He later wrote a book on the subject, Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin, which was published in 1996 by the McCrone Research Institute's Microscope Publications[20] and re-issued in 1999 by Prometheus Books (ISBN 1-57392-679-5).[21] In 2000, the American Chemical Society presented McCrone with its National Award in Analytical Chemistry for his work on the Shroud and for "his enduring patience for the defense of his methodologies."[2]

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Ian Wilson (author)

Ian Wilson (author)

Ian Wilson is a prolific author of historical and religious books. He has investigated such topics as the Shroud of Turin and life after death.

Linen

Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

Jesus

Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader; he is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible.

Anastasio Ballestrero

Anastasio Ballestrero

Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero - in religious Anastasio del Santissimo Rosario - was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal and professed member from the Discalced Carmelites who served as the Archbishop of Turin from 1977 until his resignation in 1989. Ballestrero was elevated to the cardinalate in 1979 and became a leading progressive voice in the Italian episcopate during his time as the head of the Italian Episcopal Conference in the pontificate of the conservative Pope John Paul II. Ballestrero likewise was known for being reserved when it came to the Shroud of Turin as opposed to the enthusiasm of John Paul II for the relic. The cardinal allowed for testing of the shroud and announced that the relic itself was a product of the Middle Ages as opposed to the genuine burial cloth of Jesus Christ.

Adhesive tape

Adhesive tape

Adhesive tape is one of many varieties of backing materials coated with an adhesive. Several types of adhesives can be used.

Ochre

Ochre

Ochre, or ocher in American English, is a natural clay earth pigment, a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand. It ranges in colour from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is also the name of the colours produced by this pigment, especially a light brownish-yellow. A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre".

Collagen

Collagen

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular matrix found in the body's various connective tissues. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen consists of amino acids bound together to form a triple helix of elongated fibril known as a collagen helix. It is mostly found in connective tissue such as cartilage, bones, tendons, ligaments, and skin.

Gelatin

Gelatin

Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient, commonly derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. It is brittle when dry and rubbery when moist. It may also be referred to as hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, and collagen peptides after it has undergone hydrolysis. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, beverages, medications, drug or vitamin capsules, photographic films, papers, and cosmetics.

Grisaille

Grisaille

Grisaille is a painting executed entirely in shades of grey or of another neutral greyish colour. It is particularly used in large decorative schemes in imitation of sculpture. Many grisailles include a slightly wider colour range. Paintings executed in brown are referred to as brunaille, and paintings executed in green are called verdaille.

Mercury sulfide

Mercury sulfide

Mercury sulfide, or mercury(II) sulfide is a chemical compound composed of the chemical elements mercury and sulfur. It is represented by the chemical formula HgS. It is virtually insoluble in water.

Polarized light microscopy

Polarized light microscopy

Polarized light microscopy can mean any of a number of optical microscopy techniques involving polarized light. Simple techniques include illumination of the sample with polarized light. Directly transmitted light can, optionally, be blocked with a polariser orientated at 90 degrees to the illumination. More complex microscopy techniques which take advantage of polarized light include differential interference contrast microscopy and interference reflection microscopy. Scientists will often use a device called a polarizing plate to convert natural light into polarized light.

Accounts of Chemical Research

Accounts of Chemical Research

Accounts of Chemical Research is a semi-monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry. It was established in 1968 and the editor-in-chief is Cynthia J. Burrows.

Other investigations

McCrone's work as a microscopist first attracted widespread public attention when he helped exonerate Lloyd Eldon Miller, a cabdriver who had been sentenced to death for the 1955 murder of an 8-year-old girl in Canton, Illinois. McCrone was able to show that the stains in a pair of undershorts that the prosecution had presented to the jury as blood were actually red paint.[5] Miller's conviction was overturned by the US Supreme Court in 1967. In later life, McCrone microscopically examined the physical evidence (hairs, fibers, blood, etc.) that led to the conviction of Wayne Williams as the Atlanta child killer. That work earned him the 1982 Certificate of Merit from the Forensic Sciences Foundation.[22]

On occasion, McCrone was given hair samples of famous people to analyze. Based on such analysis, he rejected the hypothesis that Napoleon had been poisoned with arsenic, but concluded that Beethoven had suffered from lead poisoning.[23]

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Canton, Illinois

Canton, Illinois

Canton is the largest city in Fulton County, Illinois, United States. The population was 14,704 at the 2010 census, down from 15,288 as of the 2000 census. The Canton Micropolitan Statistical Area covers all of Fulton County; it is in turn, part of the wider Peoria-Canton, IL Combined Statistical Area (CSA).

Supreme Court of the United States

Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal court cases, and over state court cases that involve a point of U.S. Constitutional or federal law. It also has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party." The court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. It is also able to strike down presidential directives for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions.

Wayne Williams

Wayne Williams

Wayne Bertram Williams is an American convicted murderer and suspected serial killer who is serving life imprisonment for the 1981 killing of two men in Atlanta, Georgia. Although never tried, he is nonetheless believed to be responsible for at least 24 of the 30 Atlanta murders of 1979–1981, also known as the Atlanta Child Murders.

Napoleon

Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte, later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the de facto leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy endures to this day, as a highly celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many liberal reforms that have persisted in society, and is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His wars and campaigns are studied by militaries all over the world. Between three and six million civilians and soldiers perished in what became known as the Napoleonic Wars.

Arsenic

Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form, which has a metallic appearance, is important to industry.

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. Beethoven remains one of the most admired composers in the history of Western music; his works rank amongst the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. His career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods. His early period, during which he forged his craft, is typically considered to have lasted until 1802. From 1802 to around 1812, his middle period showed an individual development from the styles of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and is sometimes characterized as heroic. During this time, he began to grow increasingly deaf. In his late period, from 1812 to 1827, he extended his innovations in musical form and expression.

Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning, also known as plumbism and saturnism, is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, infertility, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In severe cases, anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.

Pantheon of skeptics

At a meeting of the executive council of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) in Denver, Colorado in April 2011, McCrone was posthumously selected for inclusion in CSI's Pantheon of Skeptics. The Pantheon of Skeptics was created by CSI to remember the legacy of deceased fellows of CSI and their contributions to the cause of scientific skepticism.[24]

Source: "Walter McCrone", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_McCrone.

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References
  1. ^ Brooks, Donald A. (2002-11-01). "Walter C. McCrone (1916–2002)". Analytical Chemistry. 74 (21): 567 A. doi:10.1021/ac022150t.
  2. ^ a b c d e Varano, Cameron (2020). "Walter McCrone (1916–2002): A Life Lived Fully". Microscopy Today. 30 (3): 50–51. doi:10.1017/S1551929522000645.
  3. ^ Reffner, John A. (2004). "Remembering Walter C. McCrone—Scientist, Mentor, Leader and Friend". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 49 (2): 1–2. doi:10.1520/JFS2003327.
  4. ^ "ACS Award in Analytical Chemistry Recipients". American Chemical Society. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  5. ^ a b Woo, Elaine (2002-07-28). "Walter McCrone, 86; Expert on Light Microscope". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2023-01-22.
  6. ^ a b c Bell, Suzanne (2008). Crime and Circumstance: Investigating the History of Forensic Science. Praeger. pp. 132–135. ISBN 978-0-313-35386-4.
  7. ^ a b c d "Obituary: Dr Walter C. McCrone, 1970 Benedetti-Pichler Awardee, and founder of McCrone Associates, Inc". Microchemical Journal. 74 (1): 3–4. 2003. doi:10.1016/s0026-265x(02)00155-8.
  8. ^ a b c Ford, Brian J. (2008). "Inter Micro — The first 60 Years" (PDF). Microscope. 56 (2): 67–85.
  9. ^ a b c d McCrone, Walter C. (1990). "The Shroud of Turin: Blood or Artist's Pigment?" (PDF). Accounts of Chemical Research. 23 (3): 77–83. doi:10.1021/ar00171a004.
  10. ^ a b c Weaver, Robert (2003). "The Life Work of Walter C. McCrone Jr. – Bibliography and Selected Historical Facts" (PDF). Microscope. 51 (1): 31–44 A.
  11. ^ a b c McCrone, Walter C. (1999). "False Antiquities: Authentication of Art & Archaeological Objects — The Turin Shroud & The Vinland Map". Medico-Legal Journal. 67 (4): 135–146. doi:10.1258/rsmmlj.67.4.135.
  12. ^ a b c Ryland, Scott G.; Suzuki, Edward M. (2012). "Chapter 5: Analysis of Paint Evidence". In Kobilinsky, Lawrence (ed.). Forensic Chemistry Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 131–224. ISBN 978-0-471-73954-8.
  13. ^ Yuhas, Alan (2021-09-30). "Yale Says Its Vinland Map, Once Called a Medieval Treasure, Is Fake". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  14. ^ Cummings, Mike (2021-09-01). "Analysis unlocks secret of the Vinland Map — it's a fake". YaleNews. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
  15. ^ Heller, John H.; Adler, Alan D. (1980). "Blood on the Shroud of Turin". Applied Optics. 19 (16): 2742–2744. doi:10.1364/AO.19.002742.
  16. ^ Heller, John H.; Adler, Alan D. (1981). "A Chemical Investigation of the Shroud of Turin". Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 14 (3): 81–103. doi:10.1080/00085030.1981.10756882.
  17. ^ Schwalbe, L. A.; Rogers, R. N. (1982). "Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin: A summary of the 1978 investigation". Analytica Chimica Acta. 135 (1): 3–49. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)85263-6.
  18. ^ McCrone, W. C. (1983). "Editorial". Microscope. 30 (1): 1.
  19. ^ McCrone, Walter (1999). Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin. Prometheus Books. p. 246. ISBN 1-57392-679-5.
  20. ^ "McCrone: Judgement Day for the Turin Shroud". McCrone Research Institute. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  21. ^ "Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin". Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  22. ^ Janega, James (2002-07-21). "Walter C. McCrone Jr., 86". The Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
  23. ^ Lewis, Paul (2002-07-26). "Walter McCrone, Debunker Of Legends, Is Dead at 86". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
  24. ^ "The Pantheon of Skeptics". CSI. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
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