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Visoko

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Visoko
Високо
Grad Visoko
Град Високо
City of Visoko
Top to bottom, left to right: View from Visočica hill, Tabačka mosque, Church of St. Procopius, Franciscan monastery of St. Bonaventure, Old town of Visoki, Fojnička River at the confluence with River Bosna, View from Vrela hill
Official seal of Visoko
Location of municipality within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location of municipality within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Visoko is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Visoko
Visoko
Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 43°59′N 18°10′E / 43.983°N 18.167°E / 43.983; 18.167Coordinates: 43°59′N 18°10′E / 43.983°N 18.167°E / 43.983; 18.167
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
EntityFederation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Canton Zenica-Doboj
Government
 • MayorMirza Ganić (SDA)
Area
 • City230.8 km2 (89.1 sq mi)
Population
 (2013)
 • City39,938
 • Density80/km2 (206/sq mi)
 • Urban
11,205
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
71300
Area code+387 32
Websitewww.visoko.gov.ba

Visoko (Serbian Cyrillic: Високо, pronounced [ʋǐsɔkɔː]) is a city[1] located in the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the municipality had a population of 39,938 inhabitants with 11,205 living in Visoko town.[2] Located between Zenica and Sarajevo, Visoko lies where the river Fojnica joins the Bosna.

The Visoko region has evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to the 5th millennium BC. Archaeological excavations of Okolište have found one of the biggest neolithic settlements of the Butmir culture in southeastern Europe.[3]

It was an early political and commercial center[4] of the Bosnian medieval state, and the site where the first Bosnian king Tvrtko I was crowned. The Old town Visoki, located on Visočica hill, was a politically important fortress,[5] and its inner bailey Podvisoki was an early example of a Bosnian medieval urban area.[6] After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia, medieval Visoko grew as an Ottoman town. A key role in its development was played by the local Bosnian Ajas-pasha[7]

Ottoman rule ended in 1878 when the Bosnian Vilayet was occupied by Austria-Hungary. On 11 November 1911, in the last years of Austro-Hungarian rule, it was almost completely burned down by an accidental fire.[8] Before the Bosnian War, Visoko was the largest exporter of textile and leather in socialist Yugoslavia[9][10] As of 2006, Visoko attracts tens of thousands of tourists every year,[11][12][13] mainly because of Semir Osmanagić's claims.[14]

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Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two entities within the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments and legislatures.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH (БиХ) or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans. Bosnia and Herzegovina borders Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and Croatia to the north and southwest. In the south it has a narrow coast on the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean, which is about 20 kilometres long and surrounds the town of Neum. Bosnia, which is the inland region of the country, has a moderate continental climate with hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In the central and eastern regions of the country, the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and in the northeast it is predominantly flat. Herzegovina, which is the smaller, southern region of the country, has a Mediterranean climate and is mostly mountainous. Sarajevo is the capital and the largest city of the country followed by Banja Luka, Tuzla and Zenica.

Fojnička River

Fojnička River

Fojnička River is a left tributary of the Bosna in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It flows for 46 kilometres with a basin area of 727 km². The Željeznica and the Lepenica are tributaries of the Fojnička River. It is among last remaining sanctuaries for huchen in the Bosna river basin, others being the Krivaja, and possibly the Lašva and the Željeznica.

Bosna (river)

Bosna (river)

The Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas. The other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una, to the northwest; the Sava, to the north, and the Drina, to the east. This river is the namesake of Bosnia. The river Bosna flows for 282 kilometers (175 mi).

Neolithic

Neolithic

The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. This "Neolithic package" included the introduction of farming, domestication of animals, and change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settlement.

Butmir culture

Butmir culture

The Butmir culture was a major Neolithic culture in central Bosnia, developed along the shores of the river Bosna, spanning from Sarajevo to Zavidovići. It was discovered in 1893, at the site located in Butmir, in the vicinity of Ilidža, which gave its name to an entire cultural group of the Late Neolithic in central Bosnia, the Butmir culture. It is characterized by its unique elaborately decorated pottery and anthropomorphic Figurines, and is one of the best researched European cultures from 5100 to 4500 BC. It was part of the larger Danube civilization. The largest Butmir site is in Visoko basin, in Okolište.

Old town of Visoki

Old town of Visoki

The Old town of Visoki was a medieval royal castle town built during the 14th century on the top of the hill overlooking town of Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first mention of the town was on 1 September 1355, in the charter "in castro nosto Visoka vocatum" written by Tvrtko I of Bosnia while he was a young ban. The town was presumably abandoned before 1503, as it is not mentioned in the Turkish-Hungarian treaty from the mentioned year. In 1626, Đorđić mentioned Visoki among abandoned towns.

Inner bailey

Inner bailey

The inner bailey or inner ward of a castle is the strongly fortified enclosure at the heart of a medieval castle. It is protected by the outer ward and, sometimes also a Zwinger, moats, a curtain wall and other outworks. Depending on topography it may also be called an upper bailey or upper ward.

Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878, when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Three decades later, in 1908, Austria-Hungary provoked the Bosnian Crisis by formally annexing the occupied zone, establishing the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the joint control of Austria and Hungary.

Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Dual Monarchy, or Austria, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War and was dissolved shortly after its defeat in the First World War.

Bosnian War

Bosnian War

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started on 6 April 1992, following a number of earlier violent incidents. The war ended on 14 December 1995 when the Dayton accords were signed. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska, proto-states led and supplied by Croatia and Serbia, respectively.

Bosnian pyramid claims

Bosnian pyramid claims

The Bosnian pyramid complex is a pseudoarchaeological notion to explain the formation of a cluster of natural hills in the area of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 2005, Semir Osmanagić, a Bosnian-American businessman based in Houston, Texas, has claimed that these hills are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth. His claims have been overwhelmingly refuted by scientists but he has proceeded to promote the area as a tourist attraction.

Geography

The Visoko municipality covers 232 square kilometres with several characteristic, morphologically distinctive valleys formed by the foothills of the Central Bosnian mountains including Ozren, Vranica and Zvijezda. The altitude of the region ranges from 400 to 1,050 metres. Visoko's natural environment is defined by the river-valleys of the Bosna and Fojnica rivers. The municipality borders the towns of Kiseljak, Busovača, Kakanj, Vareš, Breza, Ilijaš and Ilidža, and is connected by rail to the Adriatic coast.

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Central Bosnia

Central Bosnia

Central Bosnia is a central subregion of Bosnia, which consists of a core mountainous area with several basins, valleys and mountains. It is bordered by Bosnian Krajina to the northwest, Tropolje to the west, Herzegovina to the south, Sarajevo to the east and Tuzla to the northeast. It is a part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is divided between the Central Bosnia Canton and the Zenica-Doboj Canton, with a population of around 800,000. The largest city in the region is Zenica, with the Sarajevo-Zenica basin being the most densely populated area. Its highest peaks are Vranica, Šćit and Bitovnja.

Bosna (river)

Bosna (river)

The Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas. The other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una, to the northwest; the Sava, to the north, and the Drina, to the east. This river is the namesake of Bosnia. The river Bosna flows for 282 kilometers (175 mi).

Kiseljak

Kiseljak

Kiseljak is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies in the valley of the Fojnica River, the Lepenica and the Kreševka River, which are a tributary of the Bosna, and it is on the intersection of roads from Visoko, Fojnica, Kreševo and Rakovica.

Busovača

Busovača

Busovača is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located 60 km (37 mi) from Sarajevo, 21 km (13 mi) from Zenica, and 30 km (19 mi) from Travnik.

Kakanj

Kakanj

Kakanj is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, the town has a population of 11,796 inhabitants, with 38,937 inhabitants in the municipality. It is situated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, north of Visoko and southeast of Zenica. It was built along the slopes of wide hills on either side of the Zgošća river.

Vareš

Vareš

Vareš is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is famous for the local mining activities and production of iron. As of 2013, it has a population of 8,892 inhabitants, with 2,917 in the town itself.

Breza, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Breza, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Breza is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is famous for mining and production of coal. It covers an area of 73 km2 (28 sq mi).

Ilijaš

Ilijaš

Ilijaš is a town and municipality located in Sarajevo Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located northwest of the inner city of Sarajevo and was established in May 1952 with the organization of people's committees. Those local people's committees founded the local municipalities, which led to the self-management of the municipalities, including the municipality of Ilijaš.

Ilidža

Ilidža

Ilidža is a town and a municipality located in Sarajevo Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a total population of 66,730 with 63,528 in Ilidža itself, and is a chief suburb of Sarajevo and de facto its neighborhood. It is best known for the Vrelo Bosne spring, as well as the natural environment of its surroundings and historical tradition dating back to Neolithic times. Sarajevo International Airport is located nearby.

Infrastructure

Visoko is directly connected to a highway along the European route E73 (A1 motorway) which directly connects it with Zenica and Sarajevo, which then continues to M17 road. It is connected to other places by the regional road R443 (Visoko - Kiseljak - Kreševo - Tarčin). It is located along the Šamac-Sarajevo railway. Visokogas is a public company in charge of the supply of natural gas, which supplies majority of city itself and some surrounding local communities.

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Highway

Highway

A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks. In some areas of the United States, it is used as an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc.

European route E3

European route E3

European route E3 is a series of roads in France, part of the United Nations International E-road network. It runs from Cherbourg to La Rochelle.

A1 (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

A1 (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

The A1 motorway is a motorway in Bosnia and Herzegovina that is part of the European route E73 and, together with Croatian motorways A10 and A5, and the Hungarian M6, will provide a modern and fast road connection from Budapest to Ploče, a seaport on the Adriatic Sea. The motorway will connect the capital Sarajevo with other large cities, such as Mostar and Zenica. It will also be the main link to Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Adriatic Sea and Central Europe.

Kiseljak

Kiseljak

Kiseljak is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies in the valley of the Fojnica River, the Lepenica and the Kreševka River, which are a tributary of the Bosna, and it is on the intersection of roads from Visoko, Fojnica, Kreševo and Rakovica.

Kreševo

Kreševo

Kreševo is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kreševo is a mountainous town, located in a narrow valley of the Kreševka river, under the slopes of Mount Bitovnje. An old Franciscan monastery of St. Catharine is located in the town's outskirts.

Tarčin

Tarčin

Tarčin is a village in the municipality of Hadžići, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Demographics

Population of Visoko municipality
Census 2013 1991 1981 1971
Bosniaks 36,697 (91.88%) 34,373 (74.46%) 28,838 (70.50%) 25,683 (72.34%)
Serbs 286 (0.71%) 7,471 (16.18%) 6,831 (16.70%) 7,166 (20.18%)
Croats 576 (1.44%) 1,872 (4.05%) 1,879 (4.59%) 1,914 (5.39%)
Yugoslavs 0.00 (0.00%) 1,464 (3.17%) 2,783 (6.80%) 392 (1.10%)
Others 2,062 (5.16%) 980 (2.12%) 570 (1.39%) 348 (0.98%)
Total 39,938 46,160 40,901 35,503

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Demographics of Visoko

Demographics of Visoko

Currently, town has a population an estimated at 17,000 residents, with municipality numbering 40,276 residents, of which there is 96% Bosniaks, 2% Serbs, 1% Croats and 1% other. With 173 residents per square kilometer it is one of densely populated area in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosniaks

Bosniaks

The Bosniaks are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the Southeast European historical region of Bosnia, which is today part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who share a common Bosnian ancestry, culture, history and language. They primarily live in Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo as well as in Austria, Germany, Turkey and Sweden. They also constitute a significant diaspora with several communities across Europe, the Americas and Oceania.

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians is an identity that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations: the first in a sense of common shared ethnic descent, i.e. panethnic or supraethnic connotation for ethnic South Slavs, and the second as a term for all citizens of former Yugoslavia regardless of ethnicity. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Although Bulgarians are a South Slavic group, attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were unsuccessful, and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification. Since the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the establishment of South Slavic nation states, the term ethnic Yugoslavs has been used to refer to those who exclusively view themselves as Yugoslavs with no other ethnic self-identification, many of these being of mixed ancestry.

History

Prehistoric era

The Visoko region shows evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to Paleolithic.[15] Because of the two rivers that go through Visoko, the Bosna and Fojnica, the Visoko basin was always fertile land for agriculture.[16] In the Neolithic period, the area of Central Bosnia played an important role as a mediator between the settlements of Adriatic Coast and the central Balkans. These metropolitan areas were connected by Neretva and Bosna rivers. Since Visoko was situated on the Bosna River, it has gained a lot of economic traffic between the two larger cities. Neolithic emplacements were founded on the shores of the rivers in places known today as Arnautovići, Donje Moštre, Okolište, Zbilje, Ginje, and Dvor. Arnautovići and Okolište were identified as part of Kakanj culture.

In September 2007 the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina continued archaeological excavations of Okolište, where it is estimated that around 3,000 people lived in the fortified settlement during the Neolithic Age making it one of the biggest in Southeastern Europe.[16] This settlement belonged to the Butmir culture. The age of settlement is estimated by Radiocarbon dating to be around 4700 to 4500 years BC. Later on, neolithic cultures came in contact with other cultures like Baden. Around 3000 B.C.E. first signs of Chalcolithic culture appear which can be contributed to Vučedol culture of south Bosnian type, with findings in Donje Moštre and at the location of Old town of Visoki.

Illyria and Roman empire

The Visoko area was inhabited by the Illyirian tribe of Daesitiates. They descended from Bronze Age and Iron Age culture called Central Bosnian culture group which was closely related to Glasinac culture. Best known archaeological evidence is grave of group of warriors dated to 4 B.C.E. found in Gornji Skladovi, Vratnica.[17][18] The Roman empire established its rule in 9 AD and built roads and fortresses in places like Kralupi, Seoča and Mokronozi. Area of Visoko was part of Roman province Illyricum.

Medieval Bosnia (958–1463)

Migration period saw introduction of new people to the Balkans - Slavs. Native Illyirian tribes through time became slavicized, but a lot of toponyms remained Illyirian in origin, like in example name of the river Bosna, which is namesake of country itself, but also a term for settlement which was used to reference the place called Bosna that existed in today's area of Visoko.[19] It is considered that this area in Visoko basin was nucleus of new medieval Bosnian state which emerged in around 1000 AD.[20] Only later on with construction of Old town of Visoki the term Bosna for the settlement would be rarely used.

Visoko is named after the Visoki Castle and the town of Visoki, which occupied Visočica hill. Podvisoki, Mile (today's Arnautovići), Biskupići and Moštre – together known as Visoko valley - were the early center of the medieval Bosnian kingdom. Many historical charters were made and written in Visoko valley, including the charter of first Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanić in 1355, in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum which was also the first direct mention of the town of Visoki. Visoki was also a place where many important documents and legislation of medieval Bosnia were signed and written. The town of Visoki had a defensive role in protecting trade center Podvisoki (Subvisoki) which was located just below the town and was one of earliest examples of the medieval urban environments in Bosnia. Podvisoki was long time main trade center in medieval Bosnia.

Medieval remains of Church in Mile
Medieval remains of Church in Mile

The Rusag met at Mile, where Tvrtko I was crowned in 1377 and eventually buried alongside his uncle, Stjepan II Kotromanić, the Ban of Bosnia who preceded him. The Medieval Bosnian State Archive was also located there. Mile is today known for its many ornamented tombs of kings, bans and other former rulers. Ban Kulin's Plate (dating from 1193) was discovered at Biskupići, along with the remains of another medieval church, grave sites and the foundations of several other contemporary structures. Moštre's university was knows for its scholarship in medicine, theology, cosmogeny and ethics, although because of its connection to the Bosnian Church, nothing remains of its archives. Its existence is documented only by a handful of references in the Vatican archives of its enemy, the Catholic Church.

Other notable medieval settlements in the vicinity included Sebinje town, Čajan town in Gračanica – which protected the roads between Visoko and Bobovac – and the town of Bedem i Goduša.

Ottoman Empire (1463–1878)

Painting of Visoko depicting the Ottoman time of governing Bosnia
Painting of Visoko depicting the Ottoman time of governing Bosnia

The area of Visoko was conquered by Ottoman Empire around 1463, and it is from this time period that modern Visoko was formed. The founder of the town of Visoko was Ajas-beg (pasha), who was originally from Visoko but converted to Islam from Bogomilism. Visoko was a municipality at that time. From 1483, a voivod served at the head of the Visoko municipality, who together with the serdar (military commander) was the representative of the military and administration. The main imam (reisu-l-eimme), who existed in Visoko, fulfilled religious duties and duties to society. The court (or judicial) administration was carried out by the naib (or judge), who received help for bringing decisions by a jury of respected people from Visoko. The naib effected the law and his court according to sheriat.

During his rule, up to 1477, Ajas-beg built hammam, a religious primary school (mekteb), an aqueduct, bridge on the river Bosna, and a madrassa (Islamic high school), and also founded Dervish tekke (monastery), which is preserved to this day. In a short period, Visoko developed into the administrative center of the municipality and into the heart of trade and crafts, as well as the heart of cultural and spiritual life in the region. Visoko by then had the imbibe look of an Islamic oriental-style town with all the religious and cultural institutions.

Austro-Hungarian Empire (1878–1918)

Example of building built in pseudo-Moorish style during Austro-Hungarian rule.
Example of building built in pseudo-Moorish style during Austro-Hungarian rule.

The Vilayet of Bosnia was occupied by Austro-Hungary in 1878 (officially annexed in 1908) and only small local militias showed resistance and fought. In the early years of Austro-Hungarian rule, Visoko did not significantly change and kept its oriental-style look. In 1882, Visoko was an organized settlement with developed trade, offices, and other institutions. Increasing contact with western culture directed Visoko's style in a slightly different way such that buildings of that time were built in Pseudo-Moorish style. The Tabhana mosque was founded in Visoko center and the city itself was expanded further to the banks of the Fojnica River. The main street was developed towards the town of Jalija, located at the delta of and a bridge across the Bosna River.

The first buildings of this period included the train station from 1882, the court building from 1895, a church with a Franciscan gymnasium (1899–1900), the municipality office, and a primary school from 1910. All were mainly built in the pseudo-Moorish style. Further development of the city was stalled by jangija, the big fire in 1911. The upper city area was completely burned, as well all the houses down the main street alongside Beledija, Shadrvan mosque and the high school. In all, 450 homes, stores and other small buildings were burned down. In the spring of 1912, the rebuilding of the city started and the government decided that all houses would be built with bricks and a tile roof in a traditional Bosnian style. After the mayor rebuilt Visoko, it had a unique mix of oriental and Western styles. Some houses from this time period still stand in the old district of the town.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia, NDH and WWII (1918–45)

After World War I and the defeat of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Visoko was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the new state, the structure of houses did not change nor did the town develop. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Visoko was included in the newly formed Nazi Germany-sponsored Independent State of Croatia. Allied bombers pursued German and NDH forces and dropped nine bombs in the Visoko area, destroying strategic targets. Throughout the war, the town was not a battlefront and did not suffer much damage from the war itself. However, of the 1205 soldiers from the Visoko area, 142 of them were killed during the war. Visoko was liberated on 7 April 1945 by the 7th, 9th and 17th Krajina brigades from the Tenth division of the forces of the Yugoslav Partisans.

SFR Yugoslavia (1945–92)

Urban settlement Luke in Visoko, most densely populated part of the city.
Urban settlement Luke in Visoko, most densely populated part of the city.

After World War II, Visoko, like many other towns in Bosnia, began industrialisation and further urban expansion. From 1950, the town expanded to the extensive lowlands along Bosna and Fojnica shores, which were mostly used as farms. For ages, Visoko was known for its quality leather industry and with new age of industrialisation, the biggest leather company in Yugoslavia, KTK, had its headquarters in Visoko. Besides the leather industry, Visoko was distinctive for its textile, trade, metal and food industries, making the town one of the largest exporters in Socialist Yugoslavia. By 1991, Visoko had 92,5 million dollars of exported good, with 80 million of that from KTK's leather industry. Due to the economic success of Visoko, Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito came to Visoko to visit the factories and the town itself.

During this period, the town developed necessary institutions like a post office, police and fire stations, health care, hotels, supermarkets, sport stadiums, and halls. Culture bloomed with the founding of a theatre, museum, cinema and library. Education was also improved by building three new schools: a primary Safvet-beg Bašagić, two high schools with a gymnasium and mixed high school center, Hazim Šabanović. In 1983 Zlatko Ugljen received Aga Khan Award for Architecture for Šerefudin's White Mosque. The late 1980s and early 1990s were years of hasty urbanization and building of whole settlements like Luke which represents the most densely populated area of Visoko.

In 1953, Visoko's handball club, RK Bosna, (previously Vitex) was founded and eventually competed in the first Yugoslavia handball league. A football club called Bosna was created in 1953 by merging two existing clubs Jadran (founded 1923) and Radnički (founded 1934). Aero club Izet Kurtalić is also one of the successful clubs which won numerous gold and other medals in Yugoslavia.

Bosnian War (1992–95)

Street in Visoko.
Street in Visoko.

On 6 April 1992, a state of emergency was proclaimed, with local Serbs already armed and surrounding the town. Local residents began to arm themselves or were armed by the Bosniak SDA party. The quick reaction of the local population prevented the town's capture by seizing two local JNA barracks finally on 26 April, where newly formed local TO (territory defence) forces captured most of the arms in the barracks, which was a turning point at the start of the war in the Visoko area.

The end of January embarked conflict between the Bosnian Croat HVO and Army of Bosnia & Herzegovina (which succeed TO). On 27 January Visoko and neighbouring units prevented the blockade of Fojnica. On 2 November ARBiH units captured nearby HVO-held Vareš. The last days of 1994 brought a ceasefire between HVO and ARBiH, forming a united Federation and begin concentrating the fight on the much better-armed VRS (Army of Republika Srpska).

On 15 June Visoko was center of preparations for breaking the blockage on nearby Sarajevo. The action was however executed but with no significant gains, only some portion of the territory was liberated but Sarajevo stayed besieged. This big manoeuvre helped ARBiH forces outside Sarajevo to capture whole several towns and villages.

Finally, the Dayton agreement removed all front lines who were all 4 years dangerously close to town itself but never changed considerably, and only changes were made by Visoko's forces by capturing nearby Zimča and other minor hills which only prevented town being surrounded which was accomplished. Visoko itself was heavily damaged; especially, economic resources and factories were purposely hit, damaged and destroyed. The damage to the economy was about $200 million. For four years of war Visoko area units lost 297 soldiers, 600 were wounded and disabled. 23 soldiers from Visoko area got highest ranking in ARBiH Zlatni Ljiljan (Golden Lily), and 19 members of police got Golden Police Star. Civilians also suffered, many of them wounded or killed, although, throughout the whole war, Visoko served as a center for refugees across Bosnia and Herzegovina, as it was considered well defended by their units, thus Visoko was a logistical center of Army BiH because it had industrial capacity and an improvised aerodrome.

Bosnian pyramids claims

Visočica is a hill overlooking the town of Visoko. In October 2005, Bosnian native and author Semir Osmanagić claimed that this hill and several surrounding hills concealed pyramids.[21]

Scientific investigations of the site show there is no pyramid.[22][23][24] Additionally, scientists have criticised the Bosnian authorities for supporting the pyramid claim saying, "This scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science."[25]

Bosnian archaeologists have asked that the government cancel the digging permits given to Osmanagić and concentrate on work on the medieval town.[26]

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Bosna (river)

Bosna (river)

The Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas. The other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una, to the northwest; the Sava, to the north, and the Drina, to the east. This river is the namesake of Bosnia. The river Bosna flows for 282 kilometers (175 mi).

Neolithic

Neolithic

The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. This "Neolithic package" included the introduction of farming, domestication of animals, and change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settlement.

Bosnia (region)

Bosnia (region)

Bosnia is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.

Neretva

Neretva

The Neretva, also known as Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. Four HE power-plants with large dams provide flood protection, power and water storage. It is recognized for its natural environment and diversity of its landscape.

Kakanj culture

Kakanj culture

Kakanj culture was an early Neolithic culture that appeared in Central Bosnia and covered periods dated from 6230–5990 to 5300–4900 BC.

National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina

National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in central Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Butmir culture

Butmir culture

The Butmir culture was a major Neolithic culture in central Bosnia, developed along the shores of the river Bosna, spanning from Sarajevo to Zavidovići. It was discovered in 1893, at the site located in Butmir, in the vicinity of Ilidža, which gave its name to an entire cultural group of the Late Neolithic in central Bosnia, the Butmir culture. It is characterized by its unique elaborately decorated pottery and anthropomorphic Figurines, and is one of the best researched European cultures from 5100 to 4500 BC. It was part of the larger Danube civilization. The largest Butmir site is in Visoko basin, in Okolište.

Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

Baden culture

Baden culture

The Baden culture was a Chalcolithic culture from c. 3520–2690 BC. It was found in Central and Southeast Europe, and is in particular known from Moravia, Hungary, southern Poland, Slovakia, northern Croatia and eastern Austria. Imports of Baden pottery have also been found in Germany and Switzerland. It is often grouped together with the Coțofeni culture as part of the Baden-Coțofeni culture.

Chalcolithic Europe

Chalcolithic Europe

The European Chalcolithic, the Chalcolithic period of Prehistoric Europe, lasted roughly from 5000 to 2000 BC, developing from the preceding Neolithic period and followed by the Bronze Age.

Old town of Visoki

Old town of Visoki

The Old town of Visoki was a medieval royal castle town built during the 14th century on the top of the hill overlooking town of Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first mention of the town was on 1 September 1355, in the charter "in castro nosto Visoka vocatum" written by Tvrtko I of Bosnia while he was a young ban. The town was presumably abandoned before 1503, as it is not mentioned in the Turkish-Hungarian treaty from the mentioned year. In 1626, Đorđić mentioned Visoki among abandoned towns.

Illyria

Illyria

In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of people collectively known as the Illyrians. Illyrians spoke the Illyrian language, an Indo-European language, which in ancient times perhaps also had speakers in some parts of Southern Italy.

Economy

Traditional Bosnian facility for processing leather
Traditional Bosnian facility for processing leather
The building on the right side of the picture was the former center of the company Velepromet from the time of Socialist Yugoslavia
The building on the right side of the picture was the former center of the company Velepromet from the time of Socialist Yugoslavia

Visoko, experienced intensive modernization during the socialist era until 1991 with industrial exports accounting for a significant proportion of the town's economic activity. Official Yugoslav data from 1991 state that Visoko achieved over 1 million dollars worth of export. The town's economy was led by 20 sizable enterprises operating in the leather and textile industrial sectors led by KTK and Vitex.

Bosnian War left much of industry destroyed where damages are estimated at around 400 million KM (Convertible mark). Still, even the heavy bombardment by artillery and aircraft didn't stop Visoko's industry from producing goods for the army and civil population of Visoko and area.

Post-war economy still relies on leather industry as Prevent employs over 1500 workers and makes products mainly for export for European automobile industry. Food industry Vispak received Guinness certificate on 29 July 2005 for making largest coffee pot in the world. Visoko is traditionally known for its dried meat products like sujuk, and was made at least from the 1750s.[27][28] Best known product is "Visočka pečenica" which is permanent charcuterie product obtained from high quality parts of beef, dry salted only with kitchen salt and cold smoked and dried. Association of meat processors from Visoko was founded which goal is to create and geographically protect "Visočka pečenica" as a brand[29][30] with official application submitted on 29 January.[31]

Tourism

From 2006, tens of thousands[11][12] of tourists have visited Visoko because of Semir Osmanagić discredited Bosnian pyramid claims. The city invested around €250,000 (500,000 KM) for tourism in 2018[32]

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Bosnian War

Bosnian War

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started on 6 April 1992, following a number of earlier violent incidents. The war ended on 14 December 1995 when the Dayton accords were signed. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of Herzeg-Bosnia and Republika Srpska, proto-states led and supplied by Croatia and Serbia, respectively.

Artillery

Artillery

Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons that launch munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls and fortifications during sieges, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility generally providing the largest share of an army's total firepower.

Guinness

Guinness

Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, in 1759. It is one of the most successful alcohol brands worldwide, brewed in almost 50 countries, and available in over 120. Sales in 2011 amounted to 850,000,000 liters. In spite of declining consumption since 2001, it is the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes almost €2 billion worth of beer annually.

Dried meat

Dried meat

Dried meat is a feature of many cuisines around the world. Examples include:Kulen Slanina Pečenica Aliya, sun-dried meat from Kenya Bakkwa or rougan, Chinese salty-sweet dried meat sheets. Biltong, a cured meat that originated in Southern Africa. Bògoǫ, a dried and smoked meat, often caribou, of the Dené people of northern Canada. Borts, air-dried strips of horse or cow meat used as traveling food or to last the winter in Mongolia. Often ground into powder and mixed with water to create soup. Bresaola, air-dried salted beef originally from the Valtellina valley in northern Italy. Brési, made in the canton of Jura and in Jura Bernois in Switzerland and in the department of Doubs in France. Bündnerfleisch, air-dried meat from Kanton Graubünden in Switzerland. Carne-de-sol, sun-dried salt beef from Brazil. Carne seca, air-dried meat from Mexico. Cecina, lightly smoked, dried, and salted meat from northwestern Spain, Cuba, Nicaragua and Mexico. Charqui, made from llama or alpaca, in South America. Chipped beef, partially dried beef sold in small, thin, flexible leaves in jars or plastic packets. Droëwors, from South Africa, dried sausage Fenalår from Norway is the salted, dried thigh of a sheep predominantly, but it can also come from other animals such as roe deer, deer, moose or reindeer. Hunter beef, a corned beef from Pakistan marinated and baked for use in sandwiches and salads. Idiyirachi is a traditional Kerala-style delicacy made of pounded and shredded buffalo dry meat. Jerky, meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, marinated, and dried or smoked. Kawaab, air-dried, spiced meat of the Hyderabadi community of India. Kilishi, a dried, spicy Nigerian meat. Coated with a peanut sauce as well as other spices. Kuivaliha, air-dried salted meat of northern Finland. Laap mei, also called "wax meats" or air-dried meats, are a southern Chinese speciality. Lahndi or qadid, air-dried salted meat of Pushtoon Tribe of Pakistan, Northern Afghanistan and Northern Africa (gueddid). Mipku, air-dried strips of meat, often caribou or reindeer, of the Inuvialuit people of Northern Canada. Pânsâwân, smoked dried strips of bison meat traditionally of the plains Cree peoples of Western Canada and the United States. Pastirma, air-dried salted and often spiced meat of in Armenia, Greece, Turkey, and the Balkans. Pemmican, a meat mixture, sometimes with dried fruit, used by the native peoples of North America. Pindang, dried buffalo meat from the Philippines. Po, dried meat in Korean cuisine. Yukpo, dried beef in Korean cuisine. Uppukandam, dried boneless salted mutton from Tamilnadu in India Sukhad is a dried game meat from Bhopal,India. Suho meso, a smoked beef eaten in Bosnia. Sukuti, air-dried, spiced meat of the Newari community of Nepal. Walliser Rohschinken, air-dried ham from Kanton Wallis in Switzerland. Walliser Trockenfleisch, air-dried beef from Kanton Wallis in Switzerland. Walliser Trockenspeck, air-dried bacon from Kanton Wallis in Switzerland. Walliser Trockenwurst, air-dried sausage from Kanton Wallis in Switzerland. Gakhaj, sun or oven-dried meat from Gakh region in Azerbaijan.

Sujuk

Sujuk

Sujuk or sucuk is a dry, spicy and fermented sausage which is consumed in several Balkan, Middle Eastern and Central Asian cuisines. Sujuk mainly consists of ground meat and animal fat usually obtained from beef or lamb, but beef is mainly used in Turkey, Armenia, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

Beef

Beef

Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle.

Semir Osmanagić

Semir Osmanagić

Semir Osmanagić, also known as Sam Osmanagich, is a Bosnian businessman and author. He is best known for promoting his pseudo-archaeological project in central Bosnia related to the so-called "Bosnian pyramids". Osmanagić claims that a cluster of natural hills in central Bosnia and Herzegovina are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth. He has conducted extensive marketing about the site and promoted tourism there.

Bosnian pyramid claims

Bosnian pyramid claims

The Bosnian pyramid complex is a pseudoarchaeological notion to explain the formation of a cluster of natural hills in the area of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 2005, Semir Osmanagić, a Bosnian-American businessman based in Houston, Texas, has claimed that these hills are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth. His claims have been overwhelmingly refuted by scientists but he has proceeded to promote the area as a tourist attraction.

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

The convertible mark is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 Pfenig or Fening (Пфениг/Фенинг) and locally abbreviated KM. While the currency and its subunits are uniform for both constituent polities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, namely the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republika Srpska (RS), the designs of the KM 10, KM 20, KM 50, and KM 100 banknotes are differentiated for each polity.

Education

There is not much detailed data about medieval universities in the Visoko area, or the place called Bosnia as it was referred to in one of the Vatican archives. It was in 1175 when the university was first mentioned, the high academy of Bosnian religious organization (see Bosnian Church). This university was known for its scholarship in medicine, theology, cosmogeny and ethics. There are four documents that directly or indirectly point to existence of the high academy in the Visoko area. Modern education started with introduction of Rüşdiye's — Ottoman parallel to European high schools of that time, built in 1870, closed after Austro-Hungarian annexation in 1879. Around 1881. new authorities established Municipal schools where classes were held in various houses. In 1910 first proper school was built by the Austro-Hungarian authorities, which still stands today. In 1900 Franciscan gymnasium was relocated from Guča Gora to Visoko. As leather industry played big part in Visoko's economy, in 1929. Leather school was formed.

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Medieval university

Medieval university

A medieval university was a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher education. The first Western European institutions generally considered to be universities were established in present-day Italy, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of France, Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Scotland between the 11th and 15th centuries for the study of the arts and the higher disciplines of theology, law, and medicine. During the 14th century there was an increase in growth of universities and colleges around Europe. These universities evolved from much older Christian cathedral schools and monastic schools, and it is difficult to define the exact date when they became true universities, though the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe held by the Vatican are a useful guide.

Bosnian Church

Bosnian Church

The Bosnian Church was a Christian church in medieval Bosnia and Herzegovina that was independent of and considered heretical by both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox hierarchies.

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, historically and colloquially the Turkish Empire, was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Secondary school

Secondary school

A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, i.e., both levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale, but these can also be provided in separate schools.

Franciscans

Franciscans

The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant Christian religious orders within the Catholic Church. Founded in 1209 by Italian Catholic friar Francis of Assisi, these orders include three independent orders for men, orders for women religious such as the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis open to male and female members. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary. Several smaller Protestant Franciscan orders exist as well, notably in the Anglican and Lutheran traditions.

Gymnasium (school)

Gymnasium (school)

Gymnasium is a term in various European languages for a secondary school that prepares students for higher education at a university. It is comparable to the US English term preparatory high school. Before the 20th century, the gymnasium system was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many European countries.

Society and culture

Concrete bridge built in 1928.
Concrete bridge built in 1928.

National monuments and architecture

Tabačka (Tabačica) mosque in Visoko, Bosnia, national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tabačka (Tabačica) mosque in Visoko, Bosnia, national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina

There are 6 National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Visoko:

Šerefudin's White Mosque is of great architectural importance to the city and area. The mosque's architect was Zlatko Ugljen. Its most notable award came in 1983, when it received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture.[39]

Museums

In Visoko there is a homeland museum which exhibits the cultural and historic heritage of the Visoko area, and Bosnia. Most of the exhibits are related to the medieval Bosnian state, because the Visoko valley was notable political and economical centre for Bosnian kings. In Goduša there is an extension of the museum where there are antique works of old Goduša's crafts, which are mostly woodcarving.

Health

Visoko has a health centre with polyclinic which was built in 1953. In 2006 polyclinic was modernized with modern laboratory and computer equipment.

Music

In nearby Mulići there is Sevdah Institute of Omer Pobrić, whose mission is to preserve Bosniak music, tradition, and sevdalinka.

Sport

RK Bosna Visoko playing at their home Mladost hall. Handball is the most popular sport in Visoko.
RK Bosna Visoko playing at their home Mladost hall. Handball is the most popular sport in Visoko.

Organized sports began to emerge with the opening of confessional and state schools. In 1909, the Soko society was formed and supported many sports activities. The building of the sports center on 16 June 1934 let developing men and women play volleyball, football, and later handball. Handball club RK Bosna Visoko has won Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1997 and 1999, and Handball Cup of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1998 and 2001. In season 1999–2000 they achieved their best international result, losing 48–44 in Eight-finals of EHF Cup, to eventual champions RK Metković Jumbo.

Football club NK Bosna Visoko was the winner of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Football Cup and the Supercup of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1999. In Yugoslavia, the club managed to enter the Second League in 1963. Aero club "Izet Kurtalić", formed in 1960, was the most successful team in the country, winning numerous domestic and international events.

From 28 February to 2 March 2008 Visoko's hall Mladost was host of Group 2 qualifiers for Futsal World Cup 2008 in Brasil.

Club Leagues Venue Established
RK Bosna Visoko Premier handball league Hall "Mladost" 1953
NK Bosna Visoko Second League of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Luke Stadium 1923 (Jadran), 1934 (Radnički); Merged in 1953

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List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina

List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina include:sites, places, immovable and movable heritage of historical and cultural importance, as designated by the Commission to preserve national monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the basis of Annex 8 to the Dayton Agreement; and world heritage sites in accordance to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention.

Okolište (Neolithic site)

Okolište (Neolithic site)

Neolithic site Okolište is located in the municipality of Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was proclaimed a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the largest Butmir culture site. Excavations have identified at least nine phases in settlement history.

Butmir culture

Butmir culture

The Butmir culture was a major Neolithic culture in central Bosnia, developed along the shores of the river Bosna, spanning from Sarajevo to Zavidovići. It was discovered in 1893, at the site located in Butmir, in the vicinity of Ilidža, which gave its name to an entire cultural group of the Late Neolithic in central Bosnia, the Butmir culture. It is characterized by its unique elaborately decorated pottery and anthropomorphic Figurines, and is one of the best researched European cultures from 5100 to 4500 BC. It was part of the larger Danube civilization. The largest Butmir site is in Visoko basin, in Okolište.

Old town of Visoki

Old town of Visoki

The Old town of Visoki was a medieval royal castle town built during the 14th century on the top of the hill overlooking town of Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first mention of the town was on 1 September 1355, in the charter "in castro nosto Visoka vocatum" written by Tvrtko I of Bosnia while he was a young ban. The town was presumably abandoned before 1503, as it is not mentioned in the Turkish-Hungarian treaty from the mentioned year. In 1626, Đorđić mentioned Visoki among abandoned towns.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops via local synods. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the head of the Catholic Church—the pope—but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognized by them as primus inter pares. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The Eastern Orthodox Church officially calls itself the Orthodox Catholic Church.

Procopius of Scythopolis

Procopius of Scythopolis

Procopius of Scythopolis was a 4th century martyr who is venerated as a saint. He was a reader and exorcist in the church at Scythopolis; he also was famous as an ascetic and erudite theologian. Eusebius of Caesarea wrote of his martyrdom, which occurred during the persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian, and stated that "he was born at Jerusalem, but had gone to live in Scythopolis, where he held three ecclesiastical offices. He was reader and interpreter in the Syriac language, and cured those possessed of evil spirits." Eusebius wrote that Procopius was sent with his companions from Scythopolis to Caesarea Maritima, where he was decapitated.

Bonaventure

Bonaventure

Bonaventure, born Giovanni di Fidanza, was an Italian Catholic Franciscan, bishop, cardinal, scholastic theologian and philosopher.

Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods, when political and social changes determined the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the region.

Architect

Architect

An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, the term architect derives from the Latin architectuscode: lat promoted to code: la , which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.

Aga Khan Award for Architecture

Aga Khan Award for Architecture

The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) is an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It aims to identify and reward architectural concepts that successfully address the needs and aspirations of Muslim societies in the fields of contemporary design, social housing, community development and improvement, restoration, reuse and area conservation, as well as landscape design and improvement of the environment.

Polyclinic

Polyclinic

A polyclinic is a clinic or health care facility that provides both general and specialist examinations and treatments for a wide variety of diseases and injuries to outpatients and is usually independent of a hospital. When a polyclinic is so large that it is in fact a hospital, it is also called a general hospital.

Bosniaks

Bosniaks

The Bosniaks are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the Southeast European historical region of Bosnia, which is today part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who share a common Bosnian ancestry, culture, history and language. They primarily live in Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Kosovo as well as in Austria, Germany, Turkey and Sweden. They also constitute a significant diaspora with several communities across Europe, the Americas and Oceania.

Notable people

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United Nations

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the world's largest and most familiar international organization. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City, and has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague.

Matrakçı Nasuh

Matrakçı Nasuh

Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, commonly known as Matrakçı Nasuh for his competence in the combat sport of Matrak which was invented by himself, was a 16th-century Turk-Bosniak statesman of the Ottoman Empire, polymath, mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer, cartographer, swordmaster, navigator, inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist.

Mustafa Cerić

Mustafa Cerić

Mustafa Cerić is a Bosnian imam who served as the Grand Mufti (Reis-ul-Ulema) of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is currently president of the World Bosniak Congress. He was also a candidate for a Bosniak member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 2014 general election.

Grand Mufti

Grand Mufti

The Grand Mufti is the head of regional muftis, Islamic jurisconsults, of a state. The office originated in the early modern era in the Ottoman empire and has been later adopted in a number of modern countries.

Zaim Muzaferija

Zaim Muzaferija

Zaim Muzaferija was a Bosnian film, television and stage actor, and poet. The magazine 6yka (Buka) called Muzaferija a "legend of Bosnian cinema."

Haris Mujezinović

Haris Mujezinović

Haris Mujezinović is a Bosnian former professional basketball player. He played at the power forward position.

Elvedina Muzaferija

Elvedina Muzaferija

Elvedina Muzaferija is a female alpine skier from Bosnia and Herzegovina who competed for Bosnia and Herzegovina at the 2018 Winter Olympics. She carried her nation's flag at the 2018 Winter Olympics opening ceremony.

Enes Begović

Enes Begović

Enes Begović is a Bosnian singer-songwriter and producer.

Ognjen Prica

Ognjen Prica

Ognjen Prica was a Yugoslav communist politician and journalist known for his roles in the League of Communist Youth of Yugoslavia and the League of Communists of Croatia. He was a victim of the Nazi-backed NDH in 1941 and was posthumously awarded the Order of the People's Hero.

Order of the People's Hero

Order of the People's Hero

The Order of the People's Hero or the Order of the National Hero, was a Yugoslav gallantry medal, the second highest military award, and third overall Yugoslav decoration. It was awarded to individuals, military units, political and other organisations who distinguished themselves by extraordinary heroic deeds during war and in peacetime. The recipients were thereafter known as People's Heroes of Yugoslavia or National Heroes of Yugoslavia. The vast majority was awarded to partisans for actions during the Second World War. A total of 1,322 awards were awarded in Yugoslavia, and 19 were awarded to foreigners.

Twin towns – sister cities

Visoko is twinned with:[41]

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List of twin towns and sister cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

List of twin towns and sister cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This is a list of municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina which have standing links to local communities in other countries known as "town twinning" or "sister cities".

Sister city

Sister city

A sister city or a twin town relationship is a form of legal or social agreement between two geographically and politically distinct localities for the purpose of promoting cultural and commercial ties.

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey, officially the Republic of Türkiye, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest. Cyprus is off the south coast. Most people are Turks, and Kurds are the largest minority. Ankara is Turkey's capital, while Istanbul is its largest city and financial centre.

Altındağ

Altındağ

Altındağ is a metropolitan district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, part of the city of Ankara. According to the 2000 census, the population of the district is 407,101, of which 400,023 live in the urban center of Altındağ. The district covers an area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi), and the average elevation is 850 m (2,789 ft).

Croatia

Croatia

Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe. Its coast lies entirely on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest. Its capital and largest city, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, with twenty counties. The country spans 56,594 square kilometres, and has a population of nearly 3.9 million.

Bjelovar

Bjelovar

Bjelovar is a city in central Croatia. It is the administrative centre of Bjelovar-Bilogora County. At the 2021 census, there were 36,433 inhabitants, of whom 93.06% were Croats.

Kartal

Kartal

Kartal is a district of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the Asian side of the city, on the coast of the Marmara Sea between Maltepe and Pendik.

Source: "Visoko", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visoko.

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See also
Sources
  • Strategija razvoja općine Visoko
  • Ćošković, Pejo (2009), Kotromanići (in Croatian), Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža
  • Anđelić, Pavao (1984), Doba stare bosanske države, Visoko i okolina kroz historiju 1, Visoko 1984, 101-309, lat. (in Serbo-Croatian), Skupština Općine Visoko
  • Filipović, Milenko S. (2002), Visočka nahija (in Serbian), Mak, ISBN 9789958977701
  • Vego, Marko (1982), Postanak srednjovjekovne bosanske države (in Serbo-Croatian), Svjetlost
  • Anđelić, Pavao (1973), "Bobovac i Kraljeva Sutjeska, Sarajevo", Informatica Museologica (in Serbo-Croatian), 6 (29): 8–0
  • Kujundžić-Vejzagić, Muller; Rassmann, Schuler (2004), Okolište – iskopavanje i geofizička prospekcija centralnobosanskog tel-naselja iz prve polovine petog milenija prije n.e (in Bosnian), Centar za balkanološka ispitivanja, ANUBiH, Sarajevo
  • Kreševljaković, Hamdija (1934), Visoko (in Bosnian)
References
  1. ^ "Federacija BiH dobila sedam novih gradova". Klix.ba (in Bosnian). Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Naseljena Mjesta 1991/2013" (in Bosnian). Statistical Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
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