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Vehicle registration plates of the Philippines

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Current design of Philippine license plates issued since 2018, an update of the 2014 design.
Current design of Philippine license plates issued since 2018, an update of the 2014 design.

Vehicle license plates in the Philippines are issued and regulated by the Land Transportation Office (LTO), a government agency under the Department of Transportation (DOTr).

History

In January 2013, the Land Transportation Office began a license plate standardization project by issuing plates with modern security features, including holograms and bar codes. They also planned to slowly phase out the old 1981 plate format. In the new format, the LTO will issue LLL-DDDD plates (where L represents a letter and D represents a one-digit number) for four-wheel vehicles and DDD-LLL/L-DDD-LL plates for motorcycles.

The new license plate designs first issued in 2014.
The new license plate designs first issued in 2014.

The new plate format series and design was originally scheduled for release on September or October 2013.[1][2][3][4] However, it was delayed several times primarily due to concerns about the release of funds for the license plate project, as well as the increase in purchases of new cars using temporary license plates bearing the conduction sticker number.[5] Eventually, in May 2014, the first batch of new license plates was released.[6] By January 2015, vehicle owners were required to pay PHP 450 to change their old plates into a modern series plate.

In 2016, the LTO issued "virtual plates" as a temporary measure to address the backlog in physical license plates. New vehicles were issued a virtual identification consisting of a combination of alphanumeric symbols, which will make it easier for the LTO to release the permanent license plates once they were available.[7]In August 2017, the Department of Transportation selected the winning bidder under the government's "Moving Forward Program" to reduce the backlog of 3.4 million plates spanning from July 2016 to December 2017.

In January 2018, the Supreme Court ordered the release of license plates held due to restraining orders saddling the plate modernization program. It was expected that the distribution of new plates would commence at full swing by mid-February 2018. The machines were delivered to the LTO in February 2018 and were installed in a new plate making facility. The new license plates were released in July 2018 throughout the country. Under this new plate series, the first letter of the license plate will determine where the vehicle is registered. This is the same designation that was implemented during the 1981 series.

Discover more about History related topics

History of vehicle registration plates of the Philippines

History of vehicle registration plates of the Philippines

Philippine vehicle registration plates have a long history. The earliest license plates were introduced around 1912 with the introduction of Legislative Act No. 2159.

Vehicle registration plate

Vehicle registration plate

A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate, license plate, or licence plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle or vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person also varies by issuing agency. There are also electronic license plates.

Holography

Holography

Holography is a technique that enables a wavefront to be recorded and later re-constructed. Holography is best known as a method of generating three-dimensional images, but it also has a wide range of other applications. In principle, it is possible to make a hologram for any type of wave.

Barcode

Barcode

A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths, spacings and sizes of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D), can be scanned by special optical scanners, called barcode readers, of which there are several types. Later, two-dimensional (2D) variants were developed, using rectangles, dots, hexagons and other patterns, called matrix codes or 2D barcodes, although they do not use bars as such. 2D barcodes can be read using purpose-built 2D optical scanners, which exist in a few different forms. 2D barcodes can also be read by a digital camera connected to a microcomputer running software that takes a photographic image of the barcode and analyzes the image to deconstruct and decode the 2D barcode. A mobile device with an inbuilt camera, such as smartphone, can function as the latter type of 2D barcode reader using specialized application software.

Motorcycle

Motorcycle

A motorcycle, often called a motorbike, bike, cycle, or trike, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies greatly to suit a range of different purposes: long-distance travel, commuting, cruising, sport, and off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and being involved in other related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies.

Philippine peso

Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso, is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 sentimo, also called centavos.

Supreme Court of the Philippines

Supreme Court of the Philippines

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the Philippines. The Supreme Court was established by the Second Philippine Commission on June 11, 1901 through the enactment of its Act No. 136, an Act which abolished the Real Audiencia de Manila, the predecessor of the Supreme Court.

Current plate design specifications

Proposed design for Automobile Vehicle Registration Plate back in 2013.
Proposed design for Automobile Vehicle Registration Plate back in 2013.

Plate Number Dimension and Font Style

The current version of the license plates measure 390 mm wide and 140 mm high, while current motorcycle plates measure 235 mm wide and 135 mm high. The characters are stamped on an aluminum plate, which is then painted with reflective paint. FE-Schrift was chosen as the font to be used on license plates in 2018 because the style of the font makes it difficult to modify the letters.[8]

Registration Area Prefixes

After the release of the new plate number design in 2018, all virtual and temporary plates that were issued from July 2016 to December 2017 using the 2014 design were updated to 2018's alphabetical designation.[9][10] The first letter in the 2018 automobile plate number design represents the prefix, which denotes the region where the vehicle was registered. The letter S is used to indicate a government-owned vehicle.

Automobile and Motorcycle Plate Number Prefixes in 2018 series
Prefix Region
B Region 2 (Cagayan Valley)
C Region 3 (Central Luzon)
D Region 4A (CALABARZON)
E Region 5 (Bicol Region)
F Region 6 (Western Visayas)
G Region 7 (Central Visayas)
H Region 8 (Eastern Visayas)
I Region 1 (Ilocos Region)
J Region 9 (Zamboanga Peninsula)
K Region 10 (Northern Mindanao)
L Region 11 (Davao Region)
M Region 12 (SOCCSKSARGEN)
N National Capital Region (NCR)
O Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM)
V Region 4B (MIMAROPA)
Y Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Z Region 13 (Caraga)

Vehicle Classification by Second Letter

The second letter on the number plate classifies whether the vehicle is a wheeled trailer or an automobile. Letter U in the second letter represents a Private Used Trailer, while Z represents a Public Used Trailer. Trailers registered from 2016 onwards currently use 6-Numbered temporary plates as trailer plates are not yet in production.

On the motorcycle license plates, Y and Z represent private use for three-wheeled motorcycles, while V, W and X represent public use in all types of motorcycles.

Vehicle Classification by Color Scheme

Pattern Class Notes
PBC 1234

123PBC P123BC

Private Vehicles Private vehicles, not for commercial use
PBC 1234

123PBC P123BC

Public utility
vehicles
Public utility vehicles and other for-hire vehicles (eg; taxis, jeepneys)
SBC 1234

123SBC S123BC

Government
vehicles
Vehicles for official government use (eg; police cars, ambulances, and fire trucks).
00000

000000

Diplomat Vehicles in diplomatic use
  • Small decal is placed on the bottom left part with a "CM" (e.g. 30478, 204589)
  • Plates with decal numbers between 10000 – 99999 contain another small decal on the bottom left, that displays the text "DC", for "diplomatic corps".
0000 Other Exempted Vehicles Vehicles in embassy use
  • Plates with decal numbers between 1000 – 9999, contain a small decal on the bottom left displaying the text "OEV", which stands for "other exempt vehicle".

Motorcycle Classification by Color Strip and its position

Motorcycle registration plates released in 2020 are color-coded to indicate the region where they are registered.

Color of the strip Position of the strip Region
N/A N/A National Capital Region (NCR)
pink Top Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Bottom Region 13 (Caraga)
green Top Region 1 (Ilocos Region)
Bottom Region 8 (Eastern Visayas)
gray Top Region 5 (Bicol Region)
Bottom Region 10 (Northern Mindanao)
blue Top Region 3 (Central Luzon)
Bottom Region 11 (Davao Region)
violet Top Region 4A (CALABARZON)
Bottom Region 6 (Western Visayas)
orange Top Region 4B (MIMAROPA)
Bottom Region 7 (Central Visayas)
red Top Region 2 (Cagayan Valley)
Bottom Region 9 (Zamboanga Peninsula)
brown Bottom Region 12 (SOCCSKSARGEN)

Discover more about Current plate design specifications related topics

Aluminium

Aluminium

Aluminium is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile. It has one stable isotope, 27Al; this isotope is very common, making aluminium the twelfth most common element in the Universe. The radioactivity of 26Al is used in radiodating.

FE-Schrift

FE-Schrift

The FE-Schrift or Fälschungserschwerende Schrift is a sans serif typeface introduced for use on licence plates. Its monospaced letters and numbers are slightly disproportionate to prevent easy modification and to improve machine readability. It has been developed in Germany where it has been mandatory since November 2000.

Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley, is an administrative region in the Philippines, located in the northeastern section of Luzon Island. It is composed of five Philippine provinces: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. The region hosts four chartered cities of Cauayan, Ilagan, Santiago, and Tuguegarao.

Central Luzon

Central Luzon

Central Luzon, designated as Region III, is an administrative region in the Philippines, primarily serving to organize the 7 provinces of the vast central plains of the island of Luzon, for administrative convenience. The region contains the largest plain in the country and produces most of the country's rice supply, earning itself the nickname "Rice Granary of the Philippines". Its provinces are: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales. Pangasinan was formerly a province of Central Luzon before President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1, 1972, incorporating it into Ilocos Region. Additionally, the province of Aurora was part of the defunct political region Southern Tagalog when the region was divided into Calabarzon and Mimaropa, upon the issuance of Executive Order No. 103, dated May 17, 2002, by then-President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, which transferred Aurora to Central Luzon.

Calabarzon

Calabarzon

Calabarzon, formally known as the Southern Tagalog Mainland, is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IV-A. The region comprises five provinces: Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Quezon, and Rizal; and one highly urbanized city, Lucena. The region is the most populous region in the Philippines according to the Philippine Statistics Authority, having over 14.4 million inhabitants in 2020, and is also the country's second most densely populated after the National Capital Region. 

Bicol Region

Bicol Region

Bicol, known formally as the Bicol Region or colloquially as Bicolandia, is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces, four on the Bicol Peninsula mainland – Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, and Sorsogon – and the offshore island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate.

Central Visayas

Central Visayas

Central Visayas is an administrative region in the Philippines, numerically designated as Region VII. It consists of four provinces: and three highly urbanized cities: Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, and Mandaue).

Eastern Visayas

Eastern Visayas

Eastern Visayas is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region VIII. It consists of three main islands, Samar, Leyte and Biliran. The region has six provinces, one independent city and one highly urbanized city namely, Biliran, Leyte, Northern Samar, Samar, Eastern Samar, Southern Leyte, Ormoc and Tacloban. The highly urbanized city of Tacloban is the sole regional center. These provinces and cities occupy the easternmost islands of the Visayas group of islands.

Davao Region

Davao Region

Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao, is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI. It is situated at the southeastern portion of Mindanao and comprises five provinces: Davao de Oro, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental.

Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro

Bangsamoro, officially the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, is an autonomous region located in the southern Philippines.

Cordillera Administrative Region

Cordillera Administrative Region

The Cordillera Administrative Region, also known as the Cordillera Region, or simply, Cordillera, is an administrative region in the Philippines, situated within the island of Luzon. It is the only landlocked region in the insular country, bordered by the Ilocos Region to the west and southwest, and by the Cagayan Valley Region to the north, east, and southeast. It is the least populous region in the Philippines, with a population less than that of the city of Manila.

Caraga

Caraga

Caraga, officially the Caraga Administrative Region and designated as Region XIII, is an administrative region in the Philippines occupying the northeastern section of Mindanao. The region was created through Republic Act No. 7901 on February 23, 1995. The region comprises five provinces: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Norte, and Surigao del Sur; six cities: Bayugan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Surigao and Tandag; 67 municipalities and 1,311 barangays. Butuan, the most urbanized city in Caraga, serves as the regional administrative center.

Special plate number designs

High-ranking government plates

These plates are reserved for top government officials of the Republic of the Philippines, and have the same paint scheme as private vehicles.

Personalized plates

A motorist who would like to have personalized plates can choose any letter combination upon three conditions:

  1. It is unique i.e., the plate does not have a registered duplicate anywhere else in the Philippines.
  2. The plate is not in the same format as those of government vehicles.
  3. The motorist can afford to pay its PHP 25,000 ($500+) price tag.

[11][12][13][14]

Discover more about Special plate number designs related topics

Philippines

Philippines

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2021, it had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's thirteenth-most populous country. The Philippines has diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the country's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City; both lie within the urban area of Metro Manila.

President of the Philippines

President of the Philippines

The president of the Philippines is the head of state, head of government and chief executive of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

President of the Senate of the Philippines

President of the Senate of the Philippines

The president of the Senate of the Philippines, commonly known as the Senate president, is the presiding officer and the highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines, and third highest and most powerful official in the government of the Philippines. They are elected by the entire body to be their leader. The Senate president is second in the line of succession to the presidency, behind only the vice president and ahead of the speaker of the House of Representatives.

Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines

Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines

The speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, more popularly known as the House speaker, is the presiding officer and the highest-ranking official of the lower house of Congress, the House of Representatives, as well as the fourth-highest official of the government of the Philippines.

Cabinet of the Philippines

Cabinet of the Philippines

The Cabinet of the Philippines consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government of the Philippines. Currently, it includes the secretaries of 22 executive departments and the heads of other several other minor agencies and offices that are subordinate to the president of the Philippines.

Senate of the Philippines

Senate of the Philippines

The Senate of the Philippines is the upper house of Congress of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines with the House of Representatives as the lower house. The Senate is composed of 24 senators who are elected at-large under plurality-at-large voting.

House of Representatives of the Philippines

House of Representatives of the Philippines

The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower house of Congress, the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, with the Senate of the Philippines as the upper house. The lower house is usually called Congress, although the term collectively refers to both houses.

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of fifteen members of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the highest court in the Philippines. The Chief Justice presides over the high court, but carries only one of the 15 votes in the court. Traditionally, the Chief Justice is deemed primus inter pares among the justices.

Armed Forces of the Philippines

Armed Forces of the Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of three main service branches; the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy. The President of the Philippines is the Commander-in-Chief of the AFP and forms military policy with the Department of National Defense, an executive department acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out, while the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines serves as the overall commander and the highest-ranking officer in the AFP.

Philippine National Police

Philippine National Police

The Philippine National Police is the armed national police force in the Philippines. Its national headquarters is located at Camp Crame in Bagong Lipunan ng Crame, Quezon City. Currently, it has approximately 220,000 personnel to police a population in excess of 100 million.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo, often referred to by her initials GMA, is a Filipino academic and politician serving as one of the House Deputy Speakers since 2022, and previously from 2016 to 2017. She previously served as the 14th president of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. She is the longest serving president of the Philippines since Ferdinand Marcos. Before her accession to the presidency, she served as the 10th vice president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001 under President Joseph Estrada, making her the country's first female vice president, despite having run on an opposing ticket. She was also a senator from 1992 to 1998. After her presidency, she was elected as the representative of Pampanga's 2nd district in 2010 and later became the speaker of the House of Representatives from 2018 until her retirement in 2019. She later came out of retirement to be elected as representative of the same district in 2022. She is one of the only 2 Filipinos to hold at least three of the four highest offices in the country: vice president, president, and house speaker, alongside former President Sergio Osmeña.

Philippine peso

Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso, is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 sentimo, also called centavos.

Temporary plate numbers

Motor Vehicle File Number

The MV File Number for each vehicle has 15 digits, which are based on where the initial registration of the vehicle was carried out. (e.g. MV File # 1301-00000012345 registered in NCR).

Region MV File Number Temporary Plate

Number (PUV's)

NCR 13**-***********

18**-***********

13****

18****

CAR
14**-*********** 14****
Region I 01**-*********** 01****
Region II 02**-*********** 02****
Region III 03**-*********** 03****
Region IV 04**-*********** 04****
Region V 05**-*********** 05****
Region VI 06**-*********** 06****
Region VII 07**-*********** 07****
Region VIII 08**-*********** 08****
Region IX 09**-*********** 09****
BARMM 17**-*********** 17****
Region X 10**-*********** 10****
Region XI 11**-*********** 11****
Region XII 12**-*********** 12****
Region XIII 30**-***********

15**-***********

30****

15****

LTO-Authorized 6-digit temporary plate number

The temporary plate number was later issued by LTO, which has 6 digits based on where the initial purchase location of the vehicle was and its use as a PUV. (e.g. 130123 for NCR use). It is widely used due to extensive backlog of vehicle plate distribution from 2016 to 2019.

Public utility vehicles registered from July 1, 2016 onwards currently use private plates (white), MV File Number or the 6-digit Temporary Plate Number since yellow plates are in production.

Government vehicles registered from 2020 onwards currently use private plates (white) but in February 2022 the red plates released by LTO.

Former plate number designs still in use

1981 Series

Plate number design

The 1981 design was the most widely used plate number design, in production from 1981 to 2014. LTO issued the numbering format LLL-DDD for automobile vehicles, and LL-DDDD and DDDD-LL for motorcycles. Color-coded year stickers appeared in 1982, based on the license plate's color scheme. Stickers for vehicle classification appeared in the same year.

Registration area prefix

The first letter in the 1981 series of license plates represents the prefix, which denotes the following region where the vehicle was registered. The letter S is used to indicate a government-owned vehicle.

Prefix Region
A Region 1 (Ilocos Region) and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
B Region 2 (Cagayan Valley)
C Region 3 (Central Luzon)
D Region 4A (CALABARZON) and Region 4B (MIMAROPA)
E Region 5 (Bicol Region)
F Region 6 (Western Visayas)
G Region 7 (Central Visayas)
H Region 8 (Eastern Visayas)
J Region 9 (Zamboanga Peninsula) and Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (BARMM)
K Region 10 (Northern Mindanao)
L Region 11 (Davao Region) and Region 13 (Caraga)
M Region 12 (SOCCSKSARGEN)
N National Capital Region (NCR)
P
R Region 3 (Central Luzon)
T National Capital Region (NCR)
U
V Region 4A (CALABARZON) and Region 4B (MIMAROPA)
W National Capital Region (NCR)
X
Y Region 7 (Central Visayas)
Z National Capital Region (NCR)

The letters I and O were not used in plates as the prefix to avoid confusion with the numbers 1 and 0. In 2009, they are displayed either in the middle or end, which is exclusively for private vehicles.

The letter Q was also used on regular plate circulation for motorcycles in public use. In 2009, it was used as a middle or last letter for NCR plates, while it was used as a last letter for Region 7 plates.

Vehicle classification by second letter

The second letter on the number plate classifies whether the vehicle is a wheeled trailer or an automobile. It is also used to classify whether the vehicle is private or public use. Letter U in the second letter represents a privately-used trailer, while Z represents a publicly-used trailer. Letters V, W, X and Y were used to indicate public utility vehicles

Vehicle classification by paint scheme

  • Green on White: The most common type of registration plate, for privately owned vehicles. White background replaced by Jose Rizal Monument in 2003 for automobiles.
  • Black on Yellow: Commercial vehicle or public utility vehicles
  • Red on White: Government-owned vehicles. Color white replaced by Jose Rizal Monument in 2009 for automobiles.
  • Blue on White: Vehicles in Diplomatic Use and Other Exempted Vehicles. Color white replaced by Jose Rizal Monument placed in left side in 2009 for automobiles.

Inscriptions

  • PILIPINAS ("Philippines", the most common inscription, in production 1981–1995, 2001–2003 for private and government vehicles, 2001–2014 for commercial and public utility vehicles)
  • PHILIPPINES 2000 (1995–2000)
  • ANGAT PINOY 2004 ("Rising Filipino 2004", in production 2000–2001)
  • PILIPINAS - PERLAS NG SILANGAN ("Pearl of the Orient", in production 2002–2003)
  • MATATAG NA REPUBLIKA ("Strong Republic", in production 2003 – April 12, 2014 for private, tourist and government vehicles)
  • MC (used for private motorcycles, placed in top left)
  • TC (used for motorcycles and tricycles in public use or for-hire, placed in top left)

Source: "Vehicle registration plates of the Philippines", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plates_of_the_Philippines.

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See also
References
  1. ^ LTO to issue new series of license plates in mid-2013. GMA News. February 22, 2013. Accessed January 6, 2015
  2. ^ Padua, Reinir. LTO to issue plates with bar codes by June. The Philippine Star. February 26, 2013. Accessed January 6, 2015
  3. ^ Dumaboc, Fe Marie. LTO to roll out new vehicle plates in January 2013. Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 20, 2012. Accessed January 6, 2014.
  4. ^ Get ready to scrap your car's license plates. BusinessWorld. Accessed January 6, 2015
  5. ^ Agcaoili, Lawrence (February 23, 2014). "New license plates out April – DOTC". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  6. ^ Joel Locsin (May 8, 2014). "LTO releases 1st batch of new license plates". GMA News. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  7. ^ Ramirez, Robertzon (March 30, 2016). "LTO's 'Virtual Plates' Draw Flak from Netizens". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  8. ^ "LTO Marks 106th Anniversary with Inauguration of Plate Making Plant".
  9. ^ [1]. LTO. June 28, 2018. Accessed October 16, 2018
  10. ^ [2]. CNN Philippines. April 10, 2018. Accessed October 16, 2018
  11. ^ "The Land Transportation Office of the Philippines". Archived from the original on March 16, 2005. Retrieved May 7, 2005.
  12. ^ "Optional Motor Vehicle Special Plates (OMVSP)". Archived from the original on March 16, 2005. Retrieved May 7, 2005.
  13. ^ License Plates of the World – Philippines
  14. ^ http://plaque.free.fr/as/rp/ Pictures of Philippine license plates from Francoplaque

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