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Valerius Maximus

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Page from an incunable of Valerius Maximus, Facta et dicta memorabilia, printed in red and black by Peter Schöffer (Mainz, 1471)
Page from an incunable of Valerius Maximus, Facta et dicta memorabilia, printed in red and black by Peter Schöffer (Mainz, 1471)

Valerius Maximus (/vəˈlɪəriəs ˈmæksɪməs/) was a 1st-century Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("Nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia). He worked during the reign of Tiberius (14 AD to 37 AD).

During the Middle Ages, Valerius Maximus was one of the most copied Latin prose authors, second only to Priscian. More than 600 medieval manuscripts of his books have survived as a result.[1]

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Latin

Latin

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th century, when other regional vernaculars supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition.

Tiberius

Tiberius

Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus was the second Roman emperor. He reigned from AD 14 until 37, succeeding his stepfather, the first Roman emperor Augustus. Tiberius was born in Rome in 42 BC. His father was the politician Tiberius Claudius Nero and his mother was Livia Drusilla, who would eventually divorce his father, and marry the future-emperor Augustus in 38 BC. Following the untimely deaths of Augustus' two grandsons and adopted heirs, Gaius and Lucius Caesar, Tiberius was designated Augustus' successor. Prior to this, Tiberius had proved himself an able diplomat, and one of the most successful Roman generals: his conquests of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and (temporarily) parts of Germania laid the foundations for the empire's northern frontier.

Middle Ages

Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Priscian

Priscian

Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar, which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages. It also provided the raw material for the field of speculative grammar.

Biography

Nothing is known of his life except that his family was poor and undistinguished, and that he owed everything to Sextus Pompeius (consul AD 14),[2] proconsul of Asia, whom he accompanied to the East in 27. Pompeius was the center of a literary circle to which Ovid belonged; he was also an intimate friend of the most literary prince of the imperial family, Germanicus.[3] Although he shared the same name as a prestigious family of the Republic, John Briscoe says "it is unlikely in the extreme" that Valerius Maximus belonged to the patrician Valerii Maximi. He suggests instead that he was either a descendant of the plebeian Valerii Tappones or Triarii, or earned the Roman citizenship thanks to the patronage of a Valerius of the Republic.[4]

His attitude towards the imperial household is controversial: he has been represented as a mean flatterer of Tiberius,[5] of the same type as Martial. Chisholm in 1911 argued however that, if the references to the imperial administration are carefully scanned, they will be seen to be extravagant neither in kind nor in number: few will now grudge Tiberius, when his whole action as a ruler is taken into account, such a title as salutaris princeps, which seemed to a former generation a specimen of shameless adulation. A quarter of a century later still, however, H J Rose claimed that Valerius “cares nothing for historical truth if by neglecting it he can flatter Tiberius, which he does most fulsomely”.[6]

Chisholm also maintained that the few allusions to Caesar's murderers and to Augustus hardly pass beyond the conventional style of the writer's day; and that the only passage which can fairly be called fulsome is the violently rhetorical tirade against Sejanus.[3]

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Sextus Pompeius (consul 14)

Sextus Pompeius (consul 14)

Sextus Pompeius was a Roman senator who lived during the 1st century BC and into the 1st century AD. He appeared to have a witty character and to be very intelligent. Sextus was a patron of literature and the Roman poet Ovid addressed to him four poems when he was living in exile. These poems were collected in the fourth book of Epistulae ex Ponto.

Consul

Consul

Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city-states through antiquity and the Middle Ages, in particular in the Republics of Genoa and Pisa, then revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic. The related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis.

Ovid

Ovid

Publius Ovidius Naso, known in English as Ovid, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian considered him the last of the Latin love elegists. Although Ovid enjoyed enormous popularity during his lifetime, the emperor Augustus banished him to Tomis, a Dacian province on the Black Sea, where he remained a decade until his death.

Germanicus

Germanicus

Germanicus Julius Caesar was an ancient Roman general and politician most famously known for his campaigns in Germania. The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the Younger, Germanicus was born into an influential branch of the patrician gens Claudia. The agnomen Germanicus was added to his full name in 9 BC when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honor of his victories in Germania. In AD 4 he was adopted by his paternal uncle Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus as Roman emperor a decade later. As a result, Germanicus became an official member of the gens Julia, another prominent family, to which he was related on his mother's side. His connection to the Julii Caesares was further consolidated through a marriage between himself and Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus. He was also the father of Caligula, the maternal grandfather of Nero, and the older brother of Claudius.

Roman Republic

Roman Republic

The Roman Republic was a form of government of Rome and the era of the classical Roman civilization when it was run through public representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire, Rome's control rapidly expanded during this period—from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Patrician (ancient Rome)

Patrician (ancient Rome)

The patricians were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the Roman Kingdom, and the early Republic, but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders. By the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance.

Valeria gens

Valeria gens

The gens Valeria was a patrician family at ancient Rome, prominent from the very beginning of the Republic to the latest period of the Empire. Publius Valerius Poplicola was one of the consuls in 509 BC, the year that saw the overthrow of the Tarquins, and the members of his family were among the most celebrated statesmen and generals at the beginning of the Republic. Over the next ten centuries, few gentes produced as many distinguished men, and at every period the name of Valerius was constantly to be found in the lists of annual magistrates, and held in the highest honour. Several of the emperors claimed descent from the Valerii, whose name they bore as part of their official nomenclature.

Martial

Martial

Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, and subsequently became dictator from 49 BC until his assassination in 44 BC. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

Augustus

Augustus

Caesar Augustus, also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He is known for being the founder of the Roman Principate, which is the first phase of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an imperial cult as well as an era associated with imperial peace, the Pax Romana or Pax Augusta. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Sejanus

Sejanus

Lucius Aelius Sejanus, commonly known as Sejanus, was a Roman soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. Of the Equites class by birth, Sejanus rose to power as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, of which he was commander from AD 14 until his execution for treason in AD 31.

Style

The style of Valerius's writings seems to indicate that he was a professional rhetorician; and his writing represents much of the worst rhetorical tendencies of the Silver Latin age. Direct and simple statement is avoided and novelty pursued at any price, producing a clumsy obscurity.[7] The diction is like that of poetry; the uses of words are strained; metaphors are invented; there are startling contrasts, innuendoes and epithets; variations are played upon grammatical and rhetorical figures of speech.[3]

In his preface, Valerius intimates that his work is intended as a commonplace book of historical anecdotes for use in the schools of rhetoric, where the pupils were trained in the art of embellishing speeches by references to history. According to the manuscripts, its title is Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX (shorter title Facta et dicta memorabilia), "Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings." The stories are loosely and irregularly arranged, each book being divided into sections, and each section bearing as its title the topic, most commonly some virtue or vice, or some merit or demerit, which the stories in the section are intended to illustrate.[3]

Most of the tales are from Roman history, but each section has an appendix consisting of extracts from the annals of other peoples, principally the Greeks. The exposition exhibits strongly the two currents of feeling which are intermingled by almost every Roman writer of the Empire—the feeling that the Romans of the writer's own day are degenerate creatures when confronted with their own republican predecessors, and the feeling that, however degenerate, the latter-day Romans still tower above the other peoples of the world, and in particular are morally superior to the Greeks.[3]

The author's chief sources are Cicero, Livy, Sallust and Pompeius Trogus, especially the first two.[8] Valerius's treatment of his material is careless and inaccurate in the extreme;[9] but in spite of his confusions, contradictions and anachronisms, the excerpts are apt illustrations, from the rhetorician's point of view, of the circumstance or quality they were intended to illustrate.[10] And even on the historical side we owe something to Valerius. He often used sources now lost, and where he touches on his own time he affords us some glimpses of the much debated and very imperfectly recorded reign of Tiberius;[3] as well as some fragmentary information on Hellenistic art;[11] and a revealing glimpse into the early imperial consensus on the need for the orderly logic and stability of the ancient Roman religion, in a politically unsettled world.[12]

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic, is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or speakers utilize to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law, for passage of proposals in the assembly, or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, he calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric typically provides heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.

Cicero

Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

Livy

Livy

Titus Livius, known in English as Livy, was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled Ab Urbe Condita, ''From the Founding of the City'', covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional founding in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime. He was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a friend of Augustus, whose young grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, he exhorted to take up the writing of history.

Sallust

Sallust

Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust, was a Roman historian and politician from an Italian plebeian family. Probably born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines, Sallust became a partisan of Julius Caesar, circa 50s BC. He is the earliest known Latin-language Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which Conspiracy of Catiline, The Jugurthine War, and the Histories remain extant. As a writer, Sallust was primarily influenced by the works of the 5th-century BC Greek historian Thucydides. During his political career he amassed great and ill-gotten wealth from his governorship of Africa.

Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus

Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus

Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus (fl. 1st century BC), also anglicized as Pompey Trogue, was a Gallo-Roman historian from the Celtic Vocontii tribe in Narbonese Gaul who lived during the reign of the emperor Augustus. He was nearly contemporary with Livy.

Legacy

Simon de Hesdin presents his translation of Valerius Maximus' 'Facta et dicta memorabilia' to Charles V, king of France
Simon de Hesdin presents his translation of Valerius Maximus' 'Facta et dicta memorabilia' to Charles V, king of France

The collection of Valerius was much used for school purposes, and its popularity in the Middle Ages is attested by the large number of manuscripts in which it has been preserved: indeed, B. G. Niebuhr went so far as to claim that it was then “the most important book next to the Bible”.[13] Like other schoolbooks it was epitomised: one complete epitome, probably of the 4th or 5th century, bearing the name of Julius Paris, has come down to us; also a portion of another by Januarius Nepotianus [fr].[14] Only in the Renaissance, however, did it enter the central Latin curriculum in unabridged form, and it is then that its influence was arguably at its peak.[15] Dante for example used Valerius for details in his account of the generosity and modesty of Pisistratus.[16]

Although in the manuscripts of Valerius a tenth book is given, which consists of the so-called Liber de Praenominibus, this is the work of some grammarian of a much later date.[17]

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Middle Ages

Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Renaissance

Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity. It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages and was associated with great social change. In addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a "long Renaissance" may put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century.

Pisistratus

Pisistratus

Pisistratus or Peisistratus was a politician in ancient Athens, ruling as tyrant in the late 560s, the early 550s and from 546 BC until his death. His unification of Attica, the triangular peninsula of Greece containing Athens, along with economic and cultural improvements laid the groundwork for the later pre-eminence of Athens in ancient Greece. His legacy lies primarily in his institution of the Panathenaic Games, historically assigned the date of 566 BC, and the consequent first attempt at producing a definitive version of the Homeric epics. Pisistratus' championing of the lower class of Athens is an early example of populism. While in power, he did not hesitate to confront the aristocracy and greatly reduce their privileges, confiscating their lands and giving them to the poor. Pisistratus funded many religious and artistic programs, in order to improve the economy and spread the wealth more equally among the Athenian people.

Editions and translations

Editions by C. Halm (1865), C. Kempf (1888), contain the epitomes of Paris and Nepotianus.[3] New editions have been produced by R. Combès (1995-) with a French translation, J. Briscoe (1998), and D.R. Shackleton Baily (2000) with an English translation. Recent discussions of Valerius' work include W. Martin Bloomer, Valerius Maximus and the Rhetoric of the New Nobility (Chapel Hill, 1992), Clive Skidmore, Practical Ethics for Roman Gentlemen: the Work of Valerius Maximus (Exeter, 1996), and Hans-Friedrich Mueller, Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (London, 2002).

A translation into Dutch was published in 1614,[18] and was read by Rembrandt and other artists (and their patrons), stimulating interest in some new subjects such as Artemisia drinking her husband's ashes.[19]

600 manuscripts of Valerius have survived, 800 when counting epitomes, more than any other Latin prose writer after the grammarian Priscian. Most manuscripts date from the late Middle Ages, but 30 predates the 12th century.[1] The three oldest manuscripts are the authoritative sources for the text:

  • Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Switzerland, n°366 (manuscript A).
  • Laurentian Library, Florence, Italy, Ashburnham 1899 (manuscript L). Both A and L were written in northern France in the 9th century and share a common source.
  • Royal Library, Brussels, Belgium, n°5336 (manuscript G). It was probably written at the Gembloux Abbey (south of Brussels) in the 11th century. Briscoe says that G has a different parent from A and L, as several mistakes shared by A and L are not found in G.[20]

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Rembrandt

Rembrandt

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, usually simply known as Rembrandt, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, printmaker and draughtsman. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is generally considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. It is estimated Rembrandt produced a total of about three hundred paintings, three hundred etchings and two thousand drawings.

Artemisia II of Caria

Artemisia II of Caria

Artemisia II of Caria was a naval strategist, commander and the sister and the successor of Mausolus, ruler of Caria. Mausolus was a satrap of the Achaemenid Empire, yet enjoyed the status of king or dynast of the Hecatomnid dynasty. After the death of her brother/husband, Artemisia reigned for two years, from 353 to 351 BCE. Her ascension to the throne prompted a revolt in some of the island and coastal cities under her command due to their objection to a female ruler. Her administration was conducted on the same principles as that of her husband; in particular, she supported the oligarchical party on the island of Rhodes.

Priscian

Priscian

Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar, which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages. It also provided the raw material for the field of speculative grammar.

Burgerbibliothek of Berne

Burgerbibliothek of Berne

The Burgerbibliothek of Berne is a public library located at Münstergasse 63 in Berne, Switzerland.

Bern

Bern

Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to as the "federal city". With a population of about 133,000, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland, behind Zurich, Geneva, Basel and Lausanne. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000.

Laurentian Library

Laurentian Library

The Laurentian Library is a historic library in Florence, Italy, containing more than 11,000 manuscripts and 4,500 early printed books. Built in a cloister of the Medicean Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze under the patronage of the Medici pope Clement VII, the library was built to emphasize that the Medici were no longer just merchants but members of intelligent and ecclesiastical society. It contains the manuscripts and books belonging to the private library of the Medici family. The library building is renowned for its architecture that was designed by Michelangelo and is an example of Mannerism.

Florence

Florence

Florence is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.

Royal Library of Belgium

Royal Library of Belgium

The Royal Library of Belgium is the national library of Belgium. The library has a history that goes back to the age of the Dukes of Burgundy. In the second half of the 20th century, a new building was constructed on the Mont des Arts/Kunstberg in central Brussels, near the Central Station. The library owns several collections of historical importance, like Library of the Dukes of Burgundy, and is the depository for all books ever published in Belgium or abroad by Belgian authors.

Brussels

Brussels

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region.

Gembloux Abbey

Gembloux Abbey

Gembloux Abbey was a Benedictine abbey in Wallonia near the town of Gembloux in the province of Namur, Belgium. Since 1860, its buildings host the University of Liège's Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech faculty and campus.

Source: "Valerius Maximus", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 24th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerius_Maximus.

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References
  1. ^ a b Briscoe, Valerius Maximus, p. 15.
  2. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 356
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm 1911.
  4. ^ Briscoe, Valerius Maximus, p. 1.
  5. ^ H Nettleship, A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (London 1891) p. 664
  6. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 356
  7. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 356
  8. ^ H Nettleship, A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (London 1891) p. 664
  9. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 356
  10. ^ Reading for the moral in Valerius Maximus
  11. ^ J Boardman ed, The Oxford History of the Classical World (1986) p. 495
  12. ^ H-F Mueller, Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (2002) p. 2 and p. 118
  13. ^ Quoted in M Crab, Exemplary Reading (2015) p. 1
  14. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 356
  15. ^ M Crab, Exemplary Reading (2015) p. 2-3
  16. ^ Dante, Purgatory, Canto XV (Penguin 1971; p. 187)
  17. ^ H J Rose, A Handbook of Latin Literature (London 1966) p. 357
  18. ^ Valerii Maximi Des alder-vermaertsten ende welsprekensten Histori-schryvers Negen Boecken, Van ghedenck-Weerdighe / loflicke woorden / daden ende gheschiedenissen der Romeynen en de uytlansche volcken. Overgheset uyt de Latijnsche in onse Nederduytsche tale door Conradum Mirkinium. Tot Rotterdam, By Jan Leendertsz. Berewout / Boeckverkooper op de Hoogh-straet int Schrijfboeck. 1614. Available at https://books.google.nl/books/about/Des_alder_vermaertsten_ende_wel_sprekens.html?id=sfKtoECJbq8C&redir_esc=y
  19. ^ Golahny, Amy, Rembrandt's Reading: The Artist's Bookshelf of Ancient Poetry and History, pp. 129-133, 2003, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 9053566090, 9789053566091
  20. ^ Briscoe, Valerius Maximus, pp. 15–21.

Attribution

Bibliography
  • Bloomer, W. Martin. Valerius Maximus and the Rhetoric of the New Nobility. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1992.
  • Briscoe, John. "Some Notes on Valerius Maximus." Sileno 19: 398–402, 1993.
  • ——, Valerius Maximus, Facta Et Dicta Memorabilia, Book 8: Text, Introduction, and Commentary, Berlin/Boston, de Gruyter, 2019.
  • Farrell, Joseph. "The Poverty of Our Ancestral Speech." Latin Language and Latin Culture from Ancient to Modern Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Guerrini, Roberto. Studi su Valerio Massimo. Pisa, Italy: Giardini, 1981.
  • Holford-Strevens, Leofranc. “Getting Away with Murder: The Literary and Forensic Fortune of Two Roman ‘Exempla.’” International Journal of the Classical Tradition, vol. 7, no. 4, 2001, pp. 489–514.
  • Ker, James. “Roman Repraesentatio.” The American Journal of Philology, vol. 128, no. 3, 2007, pp. 341–365.
  • Koster, Isabel K. “How to Kill a Roman Villain: The Deaths of Quintus Pleminus.” The Classical Journal, vol. 109, no. 3, 2014, pp. 309–332.
  • Lennon, Jack. “Dining and Obligation in Valerius Maximus: The Case of the Sacra Mensae.” The Classical Quarterly, vol. 65, no. 2, 2015, pp. 719–731.
  • Lobur, John Alexander. Consensus, Concordia and the Formation of Roman Imperial Ideology, Routledge, 2008 (chapter six).
  • Mueller, Hans-Friedrich. Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus. Routledge: London, 2002.
  • Murray, J. and Wardle, D. (eds). Reading by Example: Valerius Maximus and the Historiography of Exempla. Brill: Leiden/Boston, 2022.
  • Nguyen, V. Henry T. Christian Identity in Corinth: A Comparative Study of 2 Corinthians, Epictetus and Valerius Maximus. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. 2. Reihe 243. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.
  • Skidmore, Clive. Practical Ethics for Roman Gentlemen: The Work of Valerius Maximus. University of Exeter Press: Exeter, 1996.
  • Vorobyova, Nataliya. "Valerius Maximus: Moral Exempla in Kierkegaard’s Writings" in Kierkegaard and the Roman World edited by Jon Bartley Stewart. Ashgate: Farnham, 2009.
  • Wardle, David. “Valerius Maximus and the End of the First Punic War.” Latomus, vol. 64, no. 2, 2005, pp. 377–384.
  • Wardle, David. The Sainted Julius: Valerius Maximus and the Dictator. Classical Philology 92:323–345, 1997.
  • Wardle, David. Valerius Maximus' Memorable Deeds and Sayings: Book 1. Oxford University Press (Clarendon Ancient History Series): Oxford and New York, 1998.
  • Welch, Tara S. "Was Valerius Maximus a Hack?" American Journal of Philology 134:67–82, 2013.
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