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Unveiling of the Gundulić monument

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Official Unveiling Ivan Gundulić monument 1893
Official Unveiling Ivan Gundulić monument 1893

The unveiling of the Gundulić monument in Dubrovnik on May 20, 1893, was a symbolical event in the political history of Dubrovnik, since it brought to the surface the wider tensions between the two political sides of the city, the Croats and the Serb-Catholics in the pre-World War I political struggles in the region.

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Ivan Gundulić

Ivan Gundulić

Dživo Franov Gundulić, better known today as Ivan Gundulić, was the most prominent Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa. He is regarded as the Croatian national poet. His work embodies central characteristics of Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation: religious fervor, insistence on "vanity of this world" and zeal in opposition to "infidels". Gundulić's major works—the epic poem Osman, the pastoral play Dubravka, and the religious poem Tears of the Prodigal Son are examples of Baroque stylistic richness and, frequently, rhetorical excess.

Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik, historically known as Ragusa, is a city on the Adriatic Sea in the region of Dalmatia, in the southeastern semi-exclave of Croatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, a seaport and the centre of the Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615. In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in recognition of its outstanding medieval architecture and fortified old town.

Croats

Croats

The Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group who share a common Croatian ancestry, culture, history and language. They are also a recognized minority in a number of neighboring countries, namely Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia.

World War I

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, and referred to by some Anglophone authors as the "Great War" or the "War to End All Wars", was a global conflict which lasted from 1914 to 1918, and is considered one of the deadliest conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, the United States, and the Ottoman Empire, with fighting occurring throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific, and parts of Asia. An estimated 9 million soldiers were killed in combat, plus another 23 million wounded, while 5 million civilians died as a result of military action, hunger, and disease. Millions more died in genocides within the Ottoman Empire and in the 1918 influenza pandemic, which was exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war.

The preparation

At its session of March 9, 1880, the Municipal Council of Dubrovnik adopted the proposition received from the "Dubrovnik Youth", an organization known as part of the Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik, to raise a monument for the 300th anniversary of the birth of Gundulić in 1888.[1] The mayor of the city at the time was Rafael "Rafo" Pucić. It was decided that a five-member committee would be nominated to oversee the monument's construction. The members were esteemed intellectuals Medo Pucić, Pero Budmani, Ivo Kaznačić, Mato Vodopić and Luko Zore.[2] In 1882, the budget for the monument's erection was 11,000 florins.[3]

In 1882, the oversight committee president Medo Pucić died, as did Ivan August Kaznačić in 1883. Mato Vodopić relinquished his membership when he was named Bishop in 1882, and Budmani also left the committee to focus on his work for the Academy's Dictionary; the work was hampered by lack of funding as well.[2]

When the political coalition of the Serb-Catholic and Autonomist party members re-initiated work on it, the committee was reconstituted in 1891 with new members Marinica Giorgi, Lujo Bizzarro, Niko Bošković, Ivo Bogoević, Luko Bona, Brnja Caboga, Baldo Kostić, Vlaho Matijević, Jero Pugliesi, Stijepo Tomašević, Luko Zore and Nikola Ucov.[4] The budget for the monument's erection was increased to 15,800 florins.[3] The new committee organized new ways of funding, advertized the effort in newspapers and among various dignitaries, even reaching out to the emigrants in Argentina.[3]

The construction was financed by King of Serbia Aleksandar Obrenović and among the others investors were Niko Pucić, who gave 5 florins, and Vlaho DeGiulli, who gave 10 florins.

The monument was erected on May 20, 1893, in Dubrovnik's largest square, Poljana. It was made by the Croatian sculptor Ivan Rendić. The official unveiling was scheduled for the next month.

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Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik

Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik

The Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik was a cultural and political movement of people from Dubrovnik who, while Catholic, declared themselves Serbs, while Dubrovnik was part of the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Dalmatia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Initially spearheaded by intellectuals who espoused strong pro-Serbian sentiments, there were two prominent incarnations of the movement: an early pan-Slavic phase under Matija Ban and Medo Pucić that corresponded to the Illyrian movement, and a later, more Serbian nationalist group that was active between the 1880s and 1908, including a large number of Dubrovnik intellectuals at the time. The movement, whose adherents are known as Serb-Catholics or Catholic Serbs, largely disappeared with the creation of Yugoslavia.

Rafael Pucić

Rafael Pucić

Rafael Pucić was a lawyer and politician from Dubrovnik. He was a member of the Austrian Imperial Council and served as mayor of Dubrovnik.

Medo Pucić

Medo Pucić

Orsat "Medo" Pucić, was a Ragusan writer and an important member of the Catholic Serb movement.

Pero Budmani

Pero Budmani

Petar "Pero" Budmani was a writer, linguist, grammarian, and philologist from Dubrovnik and a renowned polyglot.

Mato Vodopić

Mato Vodopić

Mato Vodopić was a Croatian prelate of the Catholic Church who served as bishop of Dubrovnik from 1882 until his death in 1893 and Apostolic Administrator of Trebinje Mrkan from 1882 until 1890. He wrote poems for some special occasions, and was a storyteller and collector of folk ballads. He remains the only native to serve as the bishop of Dubrovnik since the abolishment of the Republic of Ragusa in 1808.

Luko Zore

Luko Zore

Luko Zore was a Serbian philologist and Slavist from Dubrovnik. He was one of the leaders of the opposition to Austro-Hungarian Empire and Italy in Dubrovnik and a member of the Serb Catholic movement in Dubrovnik. Later in life he lived in Montenegro.

Austro-Hungarian florin

Austro-Hungarian florin

The florin was the currency of the lands of the House of Habsburg between 1754 and 1892, when it was replaced by the Austro-Hungarian crown as part of the introduction of the gold standard. In Austria, the florin was initially divided into 60 kreutzers. The currency was decimalized in 1857, using the same names for the unit and subunit.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Niko Pucić

Niko Pucić

Niko Pucić de Zagorien was a writer and politician from the old Ragusan noble family.

Ivan Rendić

Ivan Rendić

Ivan Rendić was a Croatian sculptor.

The unveiling

The unveiling, like all the official celebrations in that period, was not only cultural, but also strongly national and political. The members of the Croatian Party of Rights and the Croatian People's Party together tried to bring to Dubrovnik as many Croats as possible from various Croat regions to give the Croatian national and political character to the celebration. On the other hand, the members of the Serb Party (Serb-Catholics) tried to gather as many Serbs-Catholics as possible to give a Serbian flavor to the celebration.

It was officially revealed on Sunday, July 26, 1893, by the last male member of the family, Baron Frano Getaldić-Gundulić (see House of Gundulić). The celebration included more people from outside Dubrovnik than the citizens.

Source: "Unveiling of the Gundulić monument", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unveiling_of_the_Gundulić_monument.

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References
  1. ^ Grkeš 2021, pp. 211–212.
  2. ^ a b Grkeš 2021, p. 212.
  3. ^ a b c Grkeš 2021, p. 213.
  4. ^ Grkeš 2021, pp. 212–213.
Sources

In Croatian:

  • Ivo Perić, Mladi Supilo (Young Supilo), Zagreb, 1996
  • Newspaper Crvena Hrvatska (Red Croatia), Dubrovnik, No. 32, August 12, 1893, pp. 1–2.
  • Ivo Banac, Dubrovački eseji (Dubrovnik essays), Dubrovnik, 1992
  • Grkeš, Ivan (2021). "Spomenik kao prijeporno mjesto. Trodnevna proslava otkrivanja Gundulićeva spomenika u Dubrovniku 1893. godine" [Monument as a Place of Controversy: A Three-Day Celebration Marking the Unveiling of Gundulić’s Monument in Dubrovnik in 1893]. Anali Zavoda za povijesne znanosti Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti u Dubrovniku (in Croatian) (59). Retrieved 2022-11-25.

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