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United States Asiatic Fleet

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United States Asiatic Fleet
Houston while at Tsingtao, China.
The then-flagship of the Asiatic Fleet, the heavy cruiser Houston, at Tsingtao, China, on 4 July 1933. She flies the four-star pennant of the fleet's commander-in-chief, Admiral Montgomery M. Taylor and is dressed overall for Independence Day.
Active1902–07
1910–42
Allegiance United States
Branch United States Navy
TypeNaval fleet
Admiral Frank B. Upham, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Asiatic Fleet (front row, center), and his staff officers, c. 1935
Admiral Frank B. Upham, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Asiatic Fleet (front row, center), and his staff officers, c. 1935

The United States Asiatic Fleet was a fleet of the United States Navy during much of the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, the fleet patrolled the Philippine Islands. Much of the fleet was destroyed by the Japanese by February 1942, after which it was dissolved, and the remnants incorporated into the naval component of the South West Pacific Area command, which eventually became the Seventh Fleet.

The fleet was created when its predecessor, the Asiatic Squadron, was upgraded to fleet status in 1902. In early 1907, the fleet was downgraded and became the First Squadron of the United States Pacific Fleet. However, on 28 January 1910, it was again organized as the Asiatic Fleet. Thus constituted, the Asiatic Fleet, based in the Philippines, was organizationally independent of the Pacific Fleet, which was based on the United States West Coast until it moved to Pearl Harbor in the Territory of Hawaii in 1940.

Although much smaller than any other U.S. Navy fleet and indeed far smaller than what any navy generally considers to be a fleet, the Asiatic Fleet from 1916 was commanded by one of only four four-star admirals authorized in the U.S. Navy at the time. This reflected the prestige of the position of Asiatic Fleet commander-in-chief, who generally was more powerful and influential with regard to the affairs of the United States in China than was the American minister, or later United States Ambassador, to China.[1]

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United States Navy

United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most powerful navy in the world, with the estimated tonnage of its active battle fleet alone exceeding the next 13 navies combined, including 11 allies or partner nations of the United States as of 2015. It has the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction, and five other carriers planned. With 336,978 personnel on active duty and 101,583 in the Ready Reserve, the United States Navy is the third largest of the United States military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 290 deployable combat vessels and more than 2,623 operational aircraft as of June 2019.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to the Allied supreme military command in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. It was one of four major Allied commands in the Pacific War. SWPA included the Philippines, Borneo, the Dutch East Indies, East Timor, Australia, the Territories of Papua and New Guinea, and the western part of the Solomon Islands. It primarily consisted of United States and Australian forces, although Dutch, Filipino, British and other Allied forces also served in the SWPA.

United States Seventh Fleet

United States Seventh Fleet

The Seventh Fleet is a numbered fleet of the United States Navy. It is headquartered at U.S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka, in Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is part of the United States Pacific Fleet. At present, it is the largest of the forward-deployed U.S. fleets, with 50 to 70 ships, 150 aircraft and 27,000 Sailors and Marines. Its principal responsibilities are to provide joint command in natural disaster or military operations and operational command of all US naval forces in the region.

Asiatic Squadron

Asiatic Squadron

The Asiatic Squadron was a squadron of United States Navy warships stationed in East Asia during the latter half of the 19th century. It was created in 1868 when the East India Squadron was disbanded. Vessels of the squadron were primarily involved in matters relating to American commerce with China and Japan, though it participated in several conflicts over 34 years of service until becoming the Asiatic Fleet in 1902.

United States Pacific Fleet

United States Pacific Fleet

The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level component command of the United States Navy, located in the Pacific Ocean. It provides naval forces to the Indo-Pacific Command. Fleet headquarters is at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, Hawaii, with large secondary facilities at Naval Air Station North Island, California.

Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor is an American lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It was often visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U.S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands are now a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U.S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887. The surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on December 7, 1941, led the United States to declare war on the Empire of Japan, making the attack on Pearl Harbor the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II.

Territory of Hawaii

Territory of Hawaii

The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 30, 1900, until August 21, 1959, when most of its territory, excluding Palmyra Island, was admitted to the United States as the 50th U.S. state, the State of Hawaii. The Hawaii Admission Act specified that the State of Hawaii would not include Palmyra Island, the Midway Islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston Atoll, which includes Johnston Island and Sand Island.

Admiral (United States)

Admiral (United States)

Admiral is a four-star commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or informally America, is a country in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. It is the third-largest country by both land and total area. The United States shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. It has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 331 million, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans five geographical time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

1902–1907

In 1904, all armored cruisers were withdrawn from the Far East. Gunboats patrolled the Yangtze River in the Yangtze Patrol.

After Rear Admiral Charles J. Train became commander-in-chief of the fleet in March 1905, it was involved in various ways with the closing weeks of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. After the Imperial Japanese Navy's decisive defeat of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Battle of Tsushima Strait in May 1905, units of the Asiatic Fleet escorted three fleeing Russian cruisers into Manila Bay in the Philippine Islands, where Train ensured that their crews were well taken care of during a lengthy stay until they were able to return to Russia.[2]

In November 1905, Train was at the center of a diplomatic dispute while with a group of American officers on a pheasant-hunting expedition near Nanking, China, when he accidentally shot a Chinese woman with birdshot, inflicting minor injuries on her. A mob of hundreds of Chinese villagers formed around Train's party and attacked it, pushing Train into the mud, seizing the officers' guns, and taking Train's son, Navy Lieutenant Charles R. Train, hostage. When the Asiatic Fleet landed 40 United States Marines to rescue the officers, the villagers attacked them with pitchforks and the Marines fired two shots. Local Chinese officials refused to return the officers' guns, but Train and his companions were able to extricate themselves without further injury to anyone. The governor of Nanking later apologized for the mob's actions, returned the American officers' guns, and punished the ringleaders of the mob.[2][3]

On 4 August 1906, Train died in Yantai (known to Westerners at the time as "Chefoo"), China, while still in command of the Asiatic Fleet. After a memorial ceremony, which Japanese Admiral Heihachiro Togo and other dignitaries attended at Yokohama, aboard Train's flagship, the battleship USS Ohio, the steamer Empress of China carried his body out of the harbor under escort en route to Washington, D.C.[4]

In early 1907, the Asiatic Fleet was abolished, and its ships and personnel became the First Squadron of the United States Pacific Fleet.

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Armored cruiser

Armored cruiser

The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was designed like other types of cruisers to operate as a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship and fast enough to outrun any battleship it encountered.

Far East

Far East

The Far East was a European term to refer to the geographical regions that includes East and Southeast Asia as well as the Russian Far East to a lesser extent. The Indian subcontinent is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.

Gunboat

Gunboat

A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.

Charles J. Train

Charles J. Train

Rear Admiral Charles Jackson Train was an officer in the United States Navy. He served in the Spanish–American War and later as the second Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet.

Russo-Japanese War

Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire during 1904 and 1905 over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and the Korean Empire. The major theatres of military operations were located in Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria, and the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean both for its navy and for maritime trade. Vladivostok remained ice-free and operational only during the summer; Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by the Qing dynasty of China from 1897, was operational year round. Russia had pursued an expansionist policy east of the Urals, in Siberia and the Far East, since the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan had feared Russian encroachment would interfere with its plans to establish a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria.

Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed between 1952–1954 after the dissolution of the IJN.

Imperial Russian Navy

Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy operated as the navy of the Russian Tsardom and later the Russian Empire from 1696 to 1917. Formally established in 1696, it lasted until dissolved in the wake of the February Revolution of 1917. It developed from a smaller force that had existed prior to Tsar Peter the Great's founding of the modern Russian navy during the Second Azov campaign in 1696. It expanded in the second half of the 18th century and reached its peak strength by the early part of the 19th century, behind only the British and French fleets in terms of size.

Cruiser

Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.

Manila Bay

Manila Bay

Manila Bay is a natural harbor that serves the Port of Manila, in the Philippines. Strategically located around the capital city of the Philippines, Manila Bay facilitated commerce and trade between the Philippines and its neighboring countries, becoming the gateway for socio-economic development even prior to Spanish occupation. With an area of 1,994 km2 (769.9 sq mi), and a coastline of 190 km (118.1 mi), Manila Bay is situated in the western part of Luzon and is bounded by Cavite and Metro Manila on the east, Bulacan and Pampanga on the north, and Bataan on the west and northwest. Manila Bay drains approximately 17,000 km2 (6,563.7 sq mi) of watershed area, with the Pampanga River contributing about 49% of the freshwater influx. With an average depth of 17 m (55.8 ft), it is estimated to have a total volume of 28.9 billion cubic meters. Entrance to the bay is 19 km (11.8 mi) wide and expands to a width of 48 km (29.8 mi). However, width of the bay varies from 22 km (13.7 mi) at its mouth and expanding to 60 km (37.3 mi) at its widest point.

Russian Empire

Russian Empire

The Russian Empire was the final period of the Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended the Great Northern War. The rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighbouring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Qajar Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and Qing China. It also held colonies in North America between 1799 and 1867. Covering an area of approximately 22,800,000 square kilometres (8,800,000 sq mi), it remains the third-largest empire in history, surpassed only by the British Empire and the Mongol Empire; it ruled over a population of 125.6 million people per the 1897 Russian census, which was the only census carried out during the entire imperial period. Owing to its geographic extent across three continents at its peak, it featured great ethnic, linguistic, religious, and economic diversity.

Pheasant

Pheasant

Pheasants are birds of several genera within the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Although they can be found all over the world in introduced populations, the pheasant genera native range is restricted to Eurasia. The classification "pheasant" is paraphyletic, as birds referred to as pheasants are included within both the subfamilies Phasianinae and Pavoninae, and in many cases are more closely related to smaller phasianids, grouse, and turkey than to other pheasants.

Charles R. Train (admiral)

Charles R. Train (admiral)

Charles Russell Train was rear admiral of the United States Navy. He served as President Herbert Hoover's naval aide from 1929 to 1932. He was a recipient of the Navy Cross, Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus and the War Cross of Military Valor.

1910–1937

On 28 January 1910, the United States Asiatic Fleet was reestablished.

In December 1922 the U.S. Navy was restructured, with the U.S. Pacific Fleet and United States Atlantic Fleet combining to form a unified United States Fleet.[5] However, the Asiatic Fleet remained a separate entity and was charged with defending the Philippines and Guam and with upholding the Open Door Policy in China.

Due to political unrest in China, the Asiatic Fleet assigned the gunboats USS Sacramento (PG-19) and USS Tulsa (PG-22) and destroyers to the Chinese ports of Amoy, Fuchow, and Swatow in 1932 to protect American lives and property.[6]

In late July 1937, the Asiatic Fleet's commander-in-chief, Admiral Harry E. Yarnell, took his flagship, the heavy cruiser Augusta, to the Soviet Union's main naval base in the Pacific, Vladivostok, along with four of the fleet's destroyers. The visit, urged by the Soviet government, was an attempt to display solidarity between the Soviet Union and the United States in the face of increasingly aggressive Japanese behavior in China and along the border between the Soviet Union and the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. The visit was unsuccessful in deterring further Japanese military operations in either area.[7]

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Guam

Guam

Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean. It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States ; its capital Hagåtña (144°45'00"E) lies further west than Melbourne, Australia (144°57'47"E). In Oceania, Guam is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is Hagåtña, and the most populous village is Dededo.

Open Door Policy

Open Door Policy

The Open Door Policy is the United States diplomatic policy established in the late 19th and early 20th century that called for a system of equal trade and investment and to guarantee the territorial integrity of Qing China. The policy was enunciated in US Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 and circulated to the major European powers. In order to prevent them from "carving of China like a melon," as they were doing in Africa, the Note asked the powers to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis and called upon all powers, within their spheres of influence to refrain from interfering with any treaty port or any vested interest, to permit Chinese authorities to collect tariffs on an equal basis, and to show no favors to their own nationals in the matter of harbor dues or railroad charges. The policy was accepted only grudgingly, if at all, by the major powers, and it had no legal standing or enforcement mechanism. In July 1900, as the powers contemplated intervention to put down the violently anti-foreign Boxer uprising, Hay circulated a Second Open Door Note affirming the principles. Over the next decades, American policy-makers and national figures continued to refer to the Open Door Policy as a basic doctrine, and Chinese diplomats appealed to it as they sought American support, but critics pointed out that the policy had little practical effect.

Gunboat

Gunboat

A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.

USS Sacramento (PG-19)

USS Sacramento (PG-19)

The second USS Sacramento (PG-19) was a gunboat in the United States Navy.

USS Tulsa (PG-22)

USS Tulsa (PG-22)

USS Tulsa (PG-22), nicknamed the Galloping Ghost of the South China Coast, was an Asheville-class gunboat of the United States Navy that was in commission from 1923 to 1946. She was named after the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the county seat of Tulsa County.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against powerful short range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Admiral (United States)

Admiral (United States)

Admiral is a four-star commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

Harry E. Yarnell

Harry E. Yarnell

Admiral Harry Ervin Yarnell was an American naval officer whose career spanned over 51 years and three wars, from the Spanish–American War through World War II.

Flagship

Flagship

A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag. Used more loosely, it is the lead ship in a fleet of vessels, typically the first, largest, fastest, most heavily armed, or best known.

Heavy cruiser

Heavy cruiser

The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range and high speed, armed generally with naval guns of roughly 203 mm (8 inches) in caliber, whose design parameters were dictated by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. The heavy cruiser is part of a lineage of ship design from 1915 through the early 1950s, although the term "heavy cruiser" only came into formal use in 1930. The heavy cruiser's immediate precursors were the light cruiser designs of the 1900s and 1910s, rather than the armored cruisers of the years before 1905. When the armored cruiser was supplanted by the battlecruiser, an intermediate ship type between this and the light cruiser was found to be needed—one larger and more powerful than the light cruisers of a potential enemy but not as large and expensive as the battlecruiser so as to be built in sufficient numbers to protect merchant ships and serve in a number of combat theaters.

USS Augusta (CA-31)

USS Augusta (CA-31)

USS Augusta (CL/CA-31) was a Northampton-class cruiser of the United States Navy, notable for service as a headquarters ship during Operation Torch, Operation Overlord, Operation Dragoon, and for her occasional use as a presidential flagship carrying both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman under wartime conditions. She was named after Augusta, Georgia, and was sponsored by Miss Evelyn McDaniel of that city.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War began on 7 July 1937 with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. The United States was not a participant in the conflict, but it complicated the Asiatic Fleet's mission as the fleet continued to maintain a presence and take action to protect American lives and property.

On 14 August 1937, Augusta with Yarnell aboard arrived at Shanghai from Tsingtao just after the Battle of Shanghai began. That day, aircraft of the Republic of China Air Force mistakenly attacked the Royal Navy heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland in the harbor at Shanghai, but the bombs fell wide of Cumberland and did not damage her.[8] Two bombs also fell close alongside Augusta, but there were no fatalities.[8]

Japanese Special Naval Landing Force and Imperial Japanese Army forces landed on the coast of China at Swatow on 21 June 1939 and seized Swatow 12 hours later.[9] At the time, 40 American citizens and 80 British nationals were ashore at Swatow and the Asiatic Fleet destroyer USS Pillsbury (DD-227) and the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Thanet were in the harbor.[9] The Japanese peremptorily ordered the two ships to leave, and when the demand reached Yarnell aboard Augusta — anchored 1,500 miles (2,400 km) to the north at Chinwangtao — Yarnell requested instructions from the United States Government, which in turn granted U.S. military personnel in China the authority to make decisions on their own initiative, a response to the Japanese government's habit of blaming any confrontation between Japanese and international forces in China on local Japanese commanders.[9] With this authority in hand, Yarnell ordered Pillsbury to remain at Swatow, sent the destroyer USS Pope (DD-225) there as a reinforcement, and informed his Japanese counterpart, the commander-in-chief of the China Area Fleet, Vice Admiral Koshirō Oikawa, that U.S. Navy ships would remain present anywhere where U.S lives and property were in danger.[9] Thanet also remained at Swatow, reinforced by the destroyer HMS Scout, and the Japanese did not take further action against any of the ships or against U.S. or British nationals at Swatow.[9]

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Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) or War of Resistance was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific Theater of the Second World War. The beginning of the war is conventionally dated to the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 7 July 1937, when a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops in Peking escalated into a full-scale invasion. Some Chinese historians believe that the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 18 September 1931 marks the start of the war. This full-scale war between the Chinese and the Empire of Japan is often regarded as the beginning of World War II in Asia.

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugou Bridge Incident or the July 7 Incident, was a July 1937 battle between China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.

Shanghai

Shanghai

Shanghai is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flowing through it. With a population of 24.89 million as of 2021, Shanghai is the most populous urban area in China with 39,300,000 inhabitants living in the Shanghai metropolitan area, the second most populous city proper in the world and the only city in East Asia with a GDP greater than its corresponding capital. Shanghai ranks second among the administrative divisions of Mainland China in human development index. As of 2018, the Greater Shanghai metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of nearly 9.1 trillion RMB, exceeding that of Mexico with GDP of $1.22 trillion, the 15th largest in the world. Shanghai is one of the world's major centers for finance, business and economics, research, education, science and technology, manufacturing, tourism, culture, dining, art, fashion, sports, and transportation, and the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port. In 2019, the Shanghai Pudong International Airport was one of the world's 10 busiest airports by passenger traffic, and one of the two international airports serving the Shanghai metropolitan area, the other one being the Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport.

Battle of Shanghai

Battle of Shanghai

The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It lasted from August 13, 1937, to November 26, 1937, and was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, later described as "Stalingrad on the Yangtze", and is often regarded as the battle where World War II started. After over three months of extensive fighting on land, in the air and at sea, the battle concluded with a victory for Japan.

Republic of China Air Force

Republic of China Air Force

The Republic of China Air Force, retroactively known by its historical name the Chinese Air Force and unofficially referred to as the Taiwanese Air Force, is the military aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces, currently based in Taiwan. The ROCAF was founded in 1920 by the Kuomintang. While its historical name sometimes used especially in domestic circles, it is now not as often used internationally due to the current ambiguous political status of Taiwan and to avoid confusion with the People's Liberation Army Air Force of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Royal Navy

Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is consequently known as the Senior Service.

Heavy cruiser

Heavy cruiser

The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range and high speed, armed generally with naval guns of roughly 203 mm (8 inches) in caliber, whose design parameters were dictated by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. The heavy cruiser is part of a lineage of ship design from 1915 through the early 1950s, although the term "heavy cruiser" only came into formal use in 1930. The heavy cruiser's immediate precursors were the light cruiser designs of the 1900s and 1910s, rather than the armored cruisers of the years before 1905. When the armored cruiser was supplanted by the battlecruiser, an intermediate ship type between this and the light cruiser was found to be needed—one larger and more powerful than the light cruisers of a potential enemy but not as large and expensive as the battlecruiser so as to be built in sufficient numbers to protect merchant ships and serve in a number of combat theaters.

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Cumberland (57)

HMS Cumberland was a County-class heavy cruiser of the Royal Navy that saw action during the Second World War.

Imperial Japanese Army

Imperial Japanese Army

The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the Imperial Japanese Navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.

HMS Thanet (H29)

HMS Thanet (H29)

HMS Thanet was an S-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. Built during, and commissioned shortly after the First World War, she went on to see service in the Second World War, being sunk early in 1942.

Qinhuangdao

Qinhuangdao

Qinhuangdao is a port city on the coast of China in northern Hebei. It is administratively a prefecture-level city, about 300 km (190 mi) east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. Its population during the 2020 national census was 3,136,879, with 1,881,047 people living in the built-up area made up of 4 urban districts.

Government of Japan

Government of Japan

The Government of Japan consists of legislative, executive and judiciary branches and is based on popular sovereignty. The Government runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947. It is a unitary state, containing forty-seven administrative divisions, with the Emperor as its Head of State. His role is ceremonial and he has no powers related to Government. Instead, it is the Cabinet, comprising the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister, that directs and controls the Government and the civil service. The Cabinet has the executive power and is formed by the Prime Minister, who is the Head of Government. The Prime Minister is nominated by the National Diet and appointed to office by the Emperor.

World War II

On 25 July 1939,[10] Admiral Thomas C. Hart was appointed the commander-in-chief of the fleet. It was based at Cavite Naval Base and Olongapo Naval Station on Luzon, with its headquarters at the Marsman Building in Manila. On 22 July 1941, the Mariveles Naval Base was completed and the Asiatic Fleet began to use it as well.

Hart had permission to withdraw to the Indian Ocean, in the event of war with Japan, at his discretion.

Hart's submarines, commanded by Commander, Submarines, Asiatic Fleet (COMSUBAF) Captain John E. Wilkes were six elderly S-class submarines (plus submarine tender Canopus)[11] and seven Porpoises ( Submarine Squadron 5).[12] In October 1941, 12 Salmons or Sargos—in Captain Stuart "Sunshine" Murray's Submarine Division 15 and Captain Joseph A. Connolly's Submarine Division 16, accompanied by the tender Holland, were added. Walter E. "Red" Doyle was assigned as Wilkes' relief.[13] Hart's defensive plan relied heavily on his submarines, which were believed to be "the most lethal arm of the insignificant Asiatic Fleet",[12] to interdict the Japanese and whittle down their forces prior to a landing, and to disrupt attempts at reinforcing after the landings took place.[14] When war began, Doyle's inexperience in Asian waters meant Wilkes remained de facto COMSUBAF.[13]

Problems were encountered almost from the beginning. No defensive minefields were laid.[15] Ineffective and unrealistic peacetime training, inadequate (or nonexistent) defensive plans, poor deployments, and defective torpedoes combined to make submarine operations in defense of the Philippines a foregone conclusion.[15] No boats were placed in Lingayen Gulf, widely expected to be where the Japanese would land;[16] in the event, several S boats, aggressively handled, scored successes there.[17] Nor were any boats off ports of Japanese-held Formosa, despite more than a week's warning of impending hostilities.[16] Successes were few in the early days of the war.[18]

Chinese detachment

From 1901 to 1937, the United States maintained a strong military presence in China, to protect trade interests in the Far East, and to pursue a permanent alliance with the Chinese Republic, after long diplomatic difficulties with the Chinese Empire. The relationship between the U.S. and China was mostly on-again off-again, with periods of both cordial diplomatic relations accompanied by times of severed relations and violent anti-United States protests. China's central government was relatively weak in comparison to the local influence of regional warlords. Armed renegade soldiers and boatmen prowled the Yangtze River ready to seize any vessel unable to defend itself.[19]

The cooks, bakers, stewards, and mess attendants were exclusively Chinese aboard all gunboats and cruisers in Chinese waters. These men did not wear naval uniforms, but wore traditional Chinese civilian attire. They wore black satin slippers and a skullcap with a decorative button on top. The remainder of their clothing was made of white satin, consisting of long, rather loose pantaloons tied around the ankles and a short jacket fastened in front with frogs. Not considered part of the ships' crew were the Chinese girls who lived aboard sampans tied to the stern of each gunboat while moored at Shanghai. These sampans would shuttle members of the gunboat crew ashore upon request. The girls also painted the gunboat and polished brightwork in exchange for the ship's garbage.[19]

In the 1920s and 1930s, the Asiatic Fleet was based from China, and the image of the "China Sailor" developed, as many U.S. Navy members remained at postings in China for 10–12 years, then retired and continued to live there. The classic film The Sand Pebbles is a dramatization on the life of the China Sailors.

The U.S. military also created several awards and decorations to recognize those personnel who had performed duty in China. The China Service Medal and Yangtze Service Medal were all military medals which could be presented to those who had performed duty in China.

With the approach of World War II, the U.S. military in China was slowly withdrawn to protect other U.S. interests in the Pacific. With the rise of Communist China, there was no further U.S. military presence in mainland China, a status which continues to this day.

Early in November 1941, the Navy Department ordered Hart to withdraw the fleet's Marines and gunboats stationed in China. Five of the gunboats were moved to Manila; Wake was left with a skeleton crew as a radio base and was seized by the Japanese on 8 December; and Tutuila was transferred to the Republic of China Navy under Lend-Lease.

The majority of the 4th Marine Regiment was stationed at Shanghai, and other detachments were at Peking (Beijing) and Tientsin (Tianjin). These troops were loaded onto two passenger liners, President Madison and President Harrison, on 27–28 November (at either Shanghai or Chinwangtao (Qinghuangdao) and arrived in the Philippines on 30 November-1 December.

President Harrison returned to Chinwangtao for the remaining Marines, but was captured by the Japanese on 7 December. Those Marines who had reached the Philippines were tasked with defending the naval stations, particularly Mariveles Naval Base.

Minefields

Manila Bay and Subic Bay had Army-operated minefields as well as naval mines. The Army minefields were operated by the Coast Artillery's Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays. These minefields were designed to stop all vessels except submarines and shallow-draft surface craft. In Manila Bay, two controlled minefields were placed, one between Corregidor and La Monja Islands, and the other between Corregidor Island and the Bataan Peninsula east of Mariveles Bay, both operated from Corregidor. Also, in mid-1941 US Navy minefields of contact mines were laid between Mariveles Bay and La Monja Island, and between Corregidor and Carabao Islands.[20][21] The Subic Bay minefield was laid in July 1941 and operated from Fort Wint, with the controlled Army mines in the ship channel, and naval mines to the sides of the channel.[22]

Vessels of the Asiatic Fleet and the 16th Naval District: 8 December 1941

The Asiatic Fleet and the 16th Naval District possessed:[23]

(Losses noted below were during the Philippines campaign (1941-42) and the Dutch East Indies campaign)

US government / Commonwealth of the Philippines ships

U.S. Army Mine Planter Service ships

United States Army Forces in the Far East ships

The Offshore Patrol (technically part of the United States Army Forces in the Far East)

Civilian ships present

Aircraft of the Asiatic Fleet: 8 December 1941

The aviation elements of the Asiatic Fleet comprised Patrol Wing 10 (Capt. Frank D. Wagner),[34] with two patrol squadrons (VPs or PatRons), a utility unit, and the aviation units aboard the Fleet's two cruisers and the large seaplane tender Langley.

Patrol Wing 10 had been commissioned in December 1940, and included Patrol Squadrons 101 (VP 101) and 102 (VP 102), each equipped with fourteen Consolidated PBY-4 Catalina flying boats. By Mid-1941, these 28 PBYs were numbered 1 through 14 for VP 101, 16 through 29 for VP 102. The Utility Unit included Grumman J2F Duck amphibians (1 J2F-2 and 4 J2F-4s), as well as five new Vought OS2U-2 Kingfisher floatplanes, delivered in the late summer. Also, a number of Curtiss SOC Seagull floatplanes were present. Houston carried four, Marblehead two, and Langley two or three, and two more were under repair or in storage at the Aircraft Overhaul Shop (Shop X 34) at Cavite Navy Yard.

As of 8 December, PBYs of Patrol Wing 10 patrolled the northwest and northeast of Luzon daily. These flights were based at either NAS Sangley Point, the Navy's auxiliary seaplane station at Olongapo on Subic Bay, or seaplane tender Childs in Manila Bay. Trios of PBYs rotated down to the southern islands to base on William B. Preston at Malalag Bay on Davao Gulf, Mindanao. These patrols over the Philippine Sea to the east bordered with similar patrols flown by Royal Netherlands Naval Air Service flying boats based in the Netherlands East Indies. Seaplane tender Heron, with a detachment of four OS2U-2s from the Utility Unit, ran morning and evening patrols from Port Ciego, Balabac Island, over the strategically important Balabac Straits from 4–13 December.

Early in the morning of 8 December, Preston dispatched one aircraft on patrol and a short time later was attacked by aircraft from the small Japanese carrier Ryūjō, and her other two PBYs were sunk on the water.

Patrol Wing 10 was ordered south into the Netherlands East Indies on 12 December, when the collapsing defenses of the islands made further operations untenable. Within the first 90 days of the war, Patrol Wing 10 had fallen back to Perth, Western Australia, being reinforced by VP 22 from Hawaii but losing 41 of 44 PBYs to enemy action together with Langley. Patrol Wing 10 also lost all but one utility aircraft.[35]

  • PBY-4 (28. Added: 12 PBY-5s from VP 22 and 5 ex-Dutch Catalinas in January)
  • J2F-2 or -4 (4)
  • OS2U-2 (5)
  • SOC-1 or -2 / SON (10-12)

Asiatic Fleet components: 8 December 1941

Asiatic Fleet Headquarters, ashore from mid-1941 at the Marsman Building on the Manila waterfront. The Fleet flagship, Houston, was assigned to lead Task Force 5 (TF 5).

TF 4, Asiatic Fleet: Patrol Wing 10, seaplane tenders, and aviation resources.

TF 5, Asiatic Fleet: surface strike forces, including cruisers and Destroyer Squadron 29 (DesRon 29).

TF 6, Asiatic Fleet: submarines force, including all submarines, tenders and rescue ships.

TF 7, Asiatic Fleet: patrol force, including gunboats Tulsa and Asheville.

4th Marine Regiment

Commandant 16th Naval District (COM16): The Cavite Navy Yard and all the shore establishment on Luzon, including the radio station, ammunition depot, hospital, Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron THREE, naval air station, mine depot, and similar facilities on Corregidor, at Mariveles, Bataan, and Olongpago, on Subic Bay.

The historic Yangtze Patrol was concluded in early December 1941. Of the five remaining gunboats, Tutuila remained at Chungking, Wake was in reduced commission at Shanghai as a radio station for the U.S. State Department, and ComYangPat sailed in Luzon with Oahu for Manila, joined by Mindanao.

Battles fought by the Asiatic Fleet: early 1942

As the Japanese sought sources of oil and minerals in the Netherlands East Indies and Borneo immediately following Pearl Harbor, the only fleet available to defend against them was the Asiatic Fleet. Outnumbered, outgunned, outmanned, the U.S. Navy, part of the ABDA (American, British, Dutch and Australian) force was unable to stop the Japanese, and could only attempt to slow them down.

Battle of Balikpapan: 24 January 1942

Catching a Japanese invasion fleet of 16 transports, a cruiser and several destroyers anchored in Balikpapan Bay, four U.S. "four stacker" destroyers—John D. Ford, Pope, Paul Jones and Parrott—attacked at night using torpedoes and gunfire to sink four transports and one patrol craft. The Japanese believed that the attack came from submarines, and sent cruiser and destroyers out to sea in pursuit, leaving the transports unprotected. This was the first American surface action of the Pacific War and the first since the Spanish–American War. Although it significantly boosted morale, it had a negligible effect on Japanese operations.[36]

Battle of Flores Sea: 4 February 1942

Encouraged by the success of the Balikpapan raid, an attempt was made to break up another invasion when word was received that a Japanese force was planning a landing at Makassar on Celebes Island.

Planning a night attack, the ABDA force had to sail some distance in open water in daylight. It was attacked by Japanese bombers which severely damaged the light cruiser Marblehead and disabled turret No. 3 on the heavy cruiser Houston. The force retreated to Tjilatjap, Java, having failed to prevent the Japanese landing.

Battle of Badung Strait: 19/20 February 1942

In an effort to break up another invasion, a small force of ABDA ships arrived on the island of Bali after the Japanese had made their landing and had retired, leaving only four Japanese destroyers on station. This attack failed. Three Japanese destroyers were damaged by gunfire, but the Dutch destroyer Piet Hein was sunk and a Dutch and American destroyer were damaged.[37]

Battle of Java Sea: 27 February 1942

This was the largest battle fought in the area. The ABDA force of five cruisers and 11 destroyers, led by Dutch Admiral Doorman[38] sailed against a Japanese force of seven cruisers and 25 destroyers. The Japanese had air cover, while ABDA did not (nor in any of the other battles described here). It was a rout, fought during the afternoon and evening, a running gun battle with Japanese planes constantly dropping flares to illuminate the ABDA ships. The Dutch lost two cruisers and a destroyer, the British two destroyers. One Japanese destroyer was damaged.[39]

Battle of Sunda Strait: 28 February 1942

Retreating south to Batavia after the Battle of Java Sea the day before, the U.S. cruiser Houston and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth—while heading at high speed for Sunda Strait, between Sumatra and Java—came upon a Japanese invasion force making a landing in Bantam (now Banten) Bay. In a confused night battle, both ships were sunk inside the Bay and not in Sunda Strait as is usually written. The two Allied ships fought bravely, but were overwhelmed by superior numbers. Four of the Japanese transports were torpedoed, most likely by their own side. The Japanese fired 87 torpedoes in the first half-hour of the battle.[40]

Battle of Java: 27 February 1942 to 3 March 1942

Eight U.S. Navy Asiatic Fleet ships were sunk by enemy warships or airplanes during the Battle of Java when the Japanese invaded the island of Java. This was the final battle of the Dutch East Indies campaign. The seaplane tender (former aircraft carrier) Langley was transporting 32 brand new Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighter planes from Australia to Java when she was sunk with 16 killed on 27 February. Hundreds more Langley survivors were killed when the other naval ships that rescued them were also sunk soon afterwards. The oil tanker Pecos was trapped and attacked by numerous Japanese ships and airplanes and was sunk on 1 March. 232 survivors were rescued and over 400 Pecos crew and survivors from Langley were left behind and drowned due to Japanese submarines threatening the U.S. ships that were rescuing the survivors. The destroyer Pope was attached to an Allied fleet as the only U.S. vessel and was sunk in the Second Battle of the Java Sea. The destroyer Stewart was badly damaged and scuttled at Surabaya on 2 March 1942. On 3 March the submarine Perch was sunk while attacking a Japanese convoy northwest of Surabaya. A major tragedy happened when three Asiatic Fleet warships (2 destroyers: Edsall and Pillsbury / 1 gunboat: Asheville) were sunk on 1–3 March 1942 with no survivors while supporting the Allied forces during the Battle of Java. There were reports that there were prisoners-of-war from these 3 ships but none of them survived Japanese prisoner-of-war camps to tell their stories. No logs and no records of these three ships' final hours exist. The U.S. Navy didn't even know what happened to the ships and fallen sailors until after World War II. From these 3 ships approximately 450 crewmen and officers were killed or died while prisoners-of-war.[41][42]

Half the U.S. Fleet lost

Of the 40 surface vessels in the Asiatic Fleet on Pearl Harbor Day, 19 were sunk by 5 May 1942, the day General Wainwright surrendered to the Japanese at Corregidor in the Philippines. Most of the surviving ships safely reached Australia.

Aftermath

After the defeats in the defense of the Philippine Commonwealth and the Dutch East Indies, the remaining vessels retreated to Australia. They would fall under the command of the South West Pacific Area which would establish the 7th Fleet in 1943.

Discover more about World War II related topics

Admiral (United States)

Admiral (United States)

Admiral is a four-star commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

Thomas C. Hart

Thomas C. Hart

Thomas Charles Hart was an admiral in the United States Navy, whose service extended from the Spanish–American War through World War II. Following his retirement from the navy, he served briefly as a United States Senator from Connecticut.

Luzon

Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. Located in the northern portion of the Philippines archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 64 million as of 2021,  it contains 52.5% of the country's total population and is the fourth most populous island in the world. It is the 15th largest island in the world by land area.

Manila

Manila

Manila, known officially as the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city. It is highly urbanized and as of 2019 was the world's most densely populated city proper. Manila is considered to be a global city and rated as an Alpha – City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). It was the first chartered city in the country, designated as such by the Philippine Commission Act 183 of July 31, 1901. It became autonomous with the passage of Republic Act No. 409, "The Revised Charter of the City of Manila", on June 18, 1949. Manila is considered to be part of the world's original set of global cities because its commercial networks were the first to extend across the Pacific Ocean and connect Asia with the Spanish Americas through the galleon trade; when this was accomplished, it marked the first time in world history that an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circling the planet had been established. It is among the most populous and fastest growing cities in Southeast Asia.

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or ~19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Andaman Sea.

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Submarine

Submarine

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Submarines are referred to as boats rather than ships irrespective of their size.

Captain (naval)

Captain (naval)

Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The rank is equal to the army rank of colonel and air force rank of group captain.

John E. Wilkes

John E. Wilkes

John E. Wilkes was a vice admiral in the United States Navy, who served in World War I and World War II. In December 1941 he was appointed Commander of Submarines, Asiatic Fleet. In 1944 Wilkes was commander of all ports in Northern Europe. From 1945 to 1951 he was the chief U.S. Naval Officer in Occupied Germany. He retired in 1951.

Submarine tender

Submarine tender

A submarine tender is a type of depot ship that supplies and supports submarines.

Stuart S. Murray

Stuart S. Murray

Stuart Shadrick Murray was a Vice Admiral of the United States Navy who served during World War II.

Lingayen Gulf

Lingayen Gulf

The Lingayen Gulf is a large gulf on northwestern Luzon in the Philippines, stretching 56 km (35 mi). It is framed by the provinces of Pangasinan and La Union and sits between the Zambales Mountains and the Cordillera Central. The Agno River and the Balili River drain into Lingayen Gulf.

Commanders-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet

The commanders-in-chief of the Asiatic Fleet were:[43]

Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans 29 October 1902 21 March 1904
Rear Admiral Philip H. Cooper 21 March 1904 11 July 1904
Rear Admiral Yates Stirling 11 July 1904 23 March 1905
Rear Admiral William M. Folger 23 March 1905 30 March 1905
Rear Admiral Charles J. Train 30 March 1905 4 August 1906
Rear Admiral Willard H. Brownson 15 October 1906 31 March 1907
Rear Admiral William S. Cowles 1 April 1907 August 1908
Asiatic Fleet abolished,
became First Squadron,
United States Pacific Fleet
1908
Asiatic Fleet reestablished 28 January 1910
Rear Admiral John Hubbard 19 February 1910 16 May 1911
Rear Admiral Joseph B. Murdock 16 May 1911 24 July 1912
Rear Admiral Reginald F. Nicholson 24 July 1912 3 May 1914
Admiral Walter C. Cowles 3 May 1914 9 July 1915
Admiral Albert G. Winterhalter 9 July 1915 4 April 1917
Admiral Austin M. Knight 22 May 1917 7 December 1918
Vice Admiral William Ledyard Rodgers 7 December 1918 1 September 1919
Admiral Albert Gleaves 1 September 1919 4 February 1921
Admiral Joseph Strauss 4 February 1921 28 August 1922
Admiral Edwin A. Anderson Jr. 28 August 1922 11 October 1923
Admiral Thomas Washington 11 October 1923 14 October 1925
Admiral Clarence S. Williams 14 October 1925 9 September 1927
Admiral Mark L. Bristol 9 September 1927 9 September 1929
Admiral Charles B. McVay Jr. 9 September 1929 1 September 1931
Admiral Montgomery M. Taylor 1 September 1931 18 August 1933
Admiral Frank B. Upham 18 August 1933 4 October 1935
Admiral Orin G. Murfin 4 October 1935 30 October 1936
Admiral Harry E. Yarnell 30 October 1936 25 July 1939
Admiral Thomas C. Hart 25 July 1939 14 February 1942

Discover more about Commanders-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet related topics

Robley D. Evans (admiral)

Robley D. Evans (admiral)

Robley Dunglison Evans, born in Floyd County, Virginia, was a rear admiral in the United States Navy, who served from the American Civil War to the Spanish–American War. In 1907–1908, he commanded the Great White Fleet on its worldwide cruise from the Atlantic Ocean through the Straits of Magellan to the Pacific Ocean.

Philip H. Cooper

Philip H. Cooper

Rear Admiral Philip Henry Cooper was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the American Civil War and served as Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy and as commander-in-chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet.

Charles J. Train

Charles J. Train

Rear Admiral Charles Jackson Train was an officer in the United States Navy. He served in the Spanish–American War and later as the second Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet.

Squadron (naval)

Squadron (naval)

A squadron, or naval squadron, is a significant group of warships which is nonetheless considered too small to be designated a fleet. A squadron is typically a part of a fleet. Between different navies there are no clear defining parameters to distinguish a squadron from a fleet, and the size and strength of a naval squadron varies greatly according to the country and time period. Groups of small warships, or small groups of major warships, might instead be designated flotillas by some navies according to their terminology. Since the size of a naval squadron varies greatly, the rank associated with command of a squadron also varies greatly.

United States Pacific Fleet

United States Pacific Fleet

The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level component command of the United States Navy, located in the Pacific Ocean. It provides naval forces to the Indo-Pacific Command. Fleet headquarters is at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, Hawaii, with large secondary facilities at Naval Air Station North Island, California.

John Hubbard (admiral)

John Hubbard (admiral)

Rear Admiral John Hubbard was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the Spanish–American War, played a prominent role in the independence of Panama from Colombia in 1903, and served as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet.

Joseph B. Murdock

Joseph B. Murdock

Rear Admiral Joseph Ballard Murdock, sometimes spelled Murdoch, was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the Spanish–American War, was Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, and came out of retirement to serve during World War I. In retirement, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives. He also was an author of books on naval and scientific subjects.

Reginald F. Nicholson

Reginald F. Nicholson

Rear Admiral Reginald Fairfax Nicholson was an officer in the United States Navy. He fought in the American Civil War and Spanish–American War, was Commander-in-Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet, and came out of retirement during World War I to serve as the first U.S. naval attaché to Ecuador and Peru. He retired as the last active-duty U.S. Navy officer to have served in the American Civil War.

Admiral (United States)

Admiral (United States)

Admiral is a four-star commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

Walter C. Cowles

Walter C. Cowles

Admiral Walter Cleveland Cowles was an admiral in the United States Navy. He served as commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet and commander in chief of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet.

Albert G. Winterhalter

Albert G. Winterhalter

Albert Gustav Winterhalter was an admiral in the United States Navy. He was commander in chief of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet from 1915 to 1917. He could speak or read eleven languages by the time he was appointed to command the Asiatic Fleet.

Austin M. Knight

Austin M. Knight

Austin Melvin Knight was an admiral in the United States Navy. He was commander in chief of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet from 1917 to 1918. His 1901 textbook Modern Seamanship was a standard reference for over eight decades.

Source: "United States Asiatic Fleet", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Asiatic_Fleet.

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Notes
  1. ^ Foreword by Kemp Tolley in Winslow, p. xii.
  2. ^ a b Anonymous, "Admiral Train Dies at Che-Foo, China", The New York Times, 4 August 1906.
  3. ^ Tenth report of the Secretary of the Class of 1865 of Harvard College, July 1900 to July 1907, Boston: Geo. H. Ellis Co., 1907, p. 57.
  4. ^ Anonymous, "In Honor of Adm. Train". The Evening News, San Jose, California, 8 August 1906, p. 8.
  5. ^ Albert A. Nofi (20 December 2010). To Train The Fleet For War: The U.S. Navy Fleet Problems, 1923-1940: The U.S. Navy Fleet Problems, 1923-1940. Government Printing Office. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-884733-87-1.
  6. ^ Hackett, Bob, "RISING STORM - THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY AND CHINA 1931–1941: The Seizure of Fuchow (Fuzhou) - 1941," combinedfleet.com, 17 April 2013 Accessed 1 January 2022
  7. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, p. 3.
  8. ^ a b Hackett, Bob, Sander Kingsepp, and Anthony Tully, "RISING STORM - THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY AND CHINA: 1931-1941: The Beginning of The Second Sino-Japanese War - "The Marco Polo Bridge Incident and the Fall of Peiping and Shanghai - 1937," combinedfleet.com, 1 November 2013 Accessed 14 December 2021
  9. ^ a b c d e Hackett, Bob, Sander Kingsepp, and Anthony Tully, "RISING STORM - THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY AND CHINA: 1931-1941: Amphibious Assault on Swatow (Shantou) - 1939," combinedfleet.com, 28 February 2013 Accessed 14 December 2021
  10. ^ Leutze, James (1981). A Different Kind of Victory: A Biography of Admiral Thomas C. Hart. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 0-87021-056-4.
  11. ^ Blair, Silent Victory (Bantam, 1976), p.77.
  12. ^ a b Blair, p.77.
  13. ^ a b Blair, p.82.
  14. ^ Roscoe, Theodore, United States Submarine Operations in World War II (Annapolis, 1949), pp. 23-24.
  15. ^ a b Blair, pp. 156-160.
  16. ^ a b Blair, p. 158.
  17. ^ Blair, pp. 127-156
  18. ^ Stern, Robert C., U.S. Subs in Action ( Squadron/Signal Publications, 1979), p. 5.
  19. ^ a b Wylly, Thomas S. (1986). "The Pearl of the Orient". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute. 112 (2): 138&139.
  20. ^ Lewis, pp. 83-89
  21. ^ Forts in the Philippines at American Forts Network
  22. ^ Bogart, Charles M., Subic Bay and Fort Wint: Keys to Manila, p. 2 at Corregidor.org
  23. ^ Wright, David X. "United States Asiatic Fleet Order of Battle, December 1941". The United States Asiatic Fleet. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  24. ^ a b Williams, Greg H. (11 May 2018). The Last Days of the United States Asiatic Fleet: The Fates of the Ships and Those Aboard, December 8, 1941-February 5, 1942. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 9781476672489.
  25. ^ Blair, p.82fn2.
  26. ^ Roberts, Stephen S. (15 November 2008). "Small YAG's acquired July-December 1941". shipscribe.com. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  27. ^ Cressman, Robert J. (15 October 2016). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591146384.
  28. ^ "Naval Events, January 1942, Part 1 of 2, Thursday 1st – Wednesday 14th". Naval History. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  29. ^ a b c d e Gordon, John (15 February 2017). Fighting for MacArthur: The Navy and Marine Corps' Desperate Defense of the Philippines. Naval Institute Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-1682471869.
  30. ^ a b "Report of the Army Transport Services Actives in the Philippine Islands from 8 December 1941 to 6 May 1942" (PDF). Philippine Archives Collection. 8 March 1946. p. 6-9.
  31. ^ "The Philippine Navy" (PDF). De La Salle University.
  32. ^ "They Were Expendable Too: The Torpedo Boats of the Off-Shore Patrol". The Bataan Campaign. 22 February 2014.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Memorandum: On the Commercial Activity of Mr. Vicente Madrigal before and at the Outbreak of the War in December 1941, and during the Japanese Occupation in January 1942 until February 1945" (PDF). Philippine Archives Collection. p. 11-15.
  34. ^ Alsleben, Allan (1999–2000). "US Patrol Wing 10 in the Dutch East Indies, 1942". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
  35. ^ "H-003-3 the Valor of the Asiatic Fleet". www.history.navy.mil. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  36. ^ Muir, Dan (1999–2000). "The Balikpapan Raid". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
  37. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Badung Strait Battle". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  38. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Rear-Admiral Karel W.F.M. Doorman". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
  39. ^ L, Klemen (1999–2000). "The Java Sea Battle". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
  40. ^ Visser, Jan (1999–2000). "The Sunda Strait Battle". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  41. ^ "H-003-3 the Valor of the Asiatic Fleet". www.history.navy.mil. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  42. ^ "H-Gram 003". www.history.navy.mil. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  43. ^ Tolley, Kemp (2000). Yangtze Patrol: The U.S. Navy in China. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-1-55750-883-6.
References
  • Blair, Clay, Jr. Silent Victory. New York: Bantam, 1976.
  • Gleaves, Albert. The Admiral: The Memoirs of Albert Gleaves, Admiral, USN. Hope Publishing, 1985.
  • L, Klemen (2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942".
  • Lewis, Emanuel Raymond (1979). Seacoast Fortifications of the United States. Annapolis: Leeward Publications. ISBN 978-0-929521-11-4.
  • Winslow, W. G. The Fleet the Gods Forgot: The U.S. Asiatic Fleet in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1982.
Further reading
  • James D. Hornfischer, Ship of Ghosts: The Story of the USS Houston, FDR's Legendary Lost Cruiser, and the Epic Saga of Her Survivors.
  • Robert W. Love, History of the U.S. Navy
  • Kemp Tolley, Cruise of the Lanakai
  • Dwight R. Messimer, In the Hands of Fate
External links

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