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United Nations list of non-self-governing territories

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UN General Assembly
Resolution 66 (I)
UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (1).pdf
United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/66 (I) dated 14 January 1946
Date14 December 1946
Meeting no.Sixty fourth
CodeA/RES/66(1) (Document)
SubjectTransmission of information under Article 73e of the Charter [relating to non-self-governing territories]
ResultAdopted

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter defines a non-self-governing territory (NSGT) as a territory "whose people have not yet attained a full measure of self-government". In practice, an NSGT is a territory deemed by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to be "non-self-governing". Chapter XI of the UN Charter also includes a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations in control of such territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the UNGA has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control. Since its inception, dozens of territories have been removed from the list, typically when they attained independence or internal self-government, while other territories have been added as new administering countries joined the United Nations or the General Assembly reassessed the status of certain territories.

Since 1961 the list has been maintained by the Special Committee on Decolonization.

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Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter deals with non-self-governing territories.

United Nations General Assembly

United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. Currently in its 77th session, its powers, composition, functions, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter. The UNGA is responsible for the UN budget, appointing the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appointing the UN secretary-general, receiving reports from other parts of the UN system, and making recommendations through resolutions. It also establishes numerous subsidiary organs to advance or assist in its broad mandate. The UNGA is the only UN organ wherein all member states have equal representation.

Dependent territory

Dependent territory

A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state, yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.

Member states of the United Nations

Member states of the United Nations

The United Nations member states are the 193 sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly. The UN is the world's largest intergovernmental organization.

Independence

Independence

Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory. The commemoration of the independence day of a country or nation celebrates when a country is free from all forms of foreign colonialism; free to build a country or nation without any interference from other nations.

Special Committee on Decolonization

Special Committee on Decolonization

The United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, or the Special Committee on Decolonization (C-24), is a committee of the United Nations General Assembly that was established in 1961 and is exclusively devoted to the issue of decolonization.

History

Chapter XI of the UN Charter contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories.[1] Article 73(e) requires UN member states to report to the United Nations annually on the development of NSGTs under their control. From the initial reports provided by eight member states (Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States), a list was compiled in 1946 listing 72 NSGTs.[2][3] In several instances, administering states were later allowed to remove dependent territories from the list, either unilaterally (as in the case of French overseas territories such as French Polynesia),[4][5] or by a vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).

Map of territories on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories.
Map of territories on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories.

The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the list and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, when Portugal joined the United Nations it contended that it did not control any non-self-governing territory, claiming that areas such as Angola and Mozambique were an integral part of the Portuguese state, but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. Similarly with Namibia, which was seen, due to its former status as a League of Nations mandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa, until it was removed in 1990 upon its independence. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960.[6] Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the "Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly. A revised list in 1963 listed 64 NSGTs.

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French Polynesia

French Polynesia

French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of France and its sole overseas country. It comprises 121 geographically dispersed islands and atolls stretching over more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) in the South Pacific Ocean. The total land area of French Polynesia is 3,521 square kilometres (1,359 sq mi), with a population of 299,356.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, is a Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida, between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. It has roughly 3.2 million residents, and its capital and most populous city is San Juan. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates.

Greenland

Greenland

Greenland is an island country in North America that is part of the Kingdom of Denmark. It is located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is the world's largest island. It is one of three constituent countries that form the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark and the Faroe Islands; the citizens of these countries are all citizens of Denmark and the European Union. Greenland's capital is Nuuk.

Netherlands Antilles

Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea. The islands were also informally known as the Dutch Antilles. The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies. The Antilles were dissolved in 2010. The Dutch colony of Surinam, although it was relatively close by on the continent of South America, did not become part of the Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country in 1954. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs. As a group they are still commonly called the Dutch Caribbean, regardless of their legal status. People from this former territory continue to be called Antilleans in the Netherlands.

Colonialism

Colonialism

Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process of colonisation, colonisers may impose their religion, language, economics, and other cultural practices. The foreign administrators rule the territory in pursuit of their interests, seeking to benefit from the colonised region's people and resources. It is associated with but distinct from imperialism.

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter

Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter deals with non-self-governing territories.

Angola

Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country located on the west coast of Southern Africa. It is the second-largest Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) country in both total area and population, and is the seventh-largest country in Africa. It is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda, that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital and most populous city is Luanda.

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros, Mayotte and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east. The capital and largest city is Maputo.

Namibia

Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Botswanan right bank of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU) and the Commonwealth of Nations.

League of Nations mandate

League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the Permanent Court of International Justice.

German colonial empire

German colonial empire

The German colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of the German Empire. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. Short-lived attempts at colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but Bismarck resisted pressure to construct a colonial empire until the Scramble for Africa in 1884. Claiming much of the left-over uncolonized areas of Africa, Germany built the third-largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and French. The German Colonial Empire encompassed parts of several African countries, including parts of present-day Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Namibia, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, as well as northeastern New Guinea, Samoa and numerous Micronesian islands. Including mainland Germany, the empire had a total land area of 3,503,352 square kilometers and population of 80,125,993 people.

Independence

Independence

Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory. The commemoration of the independence day of a country or nation celebrates when a country is free from all forms of foreign colonialism; free to build a country or nation without any interference from other nations.

Resolutions adopted

1946

  • UNGA Resolution 64(I) regarding the Establishment of the Trusteeship Council.[7]
  • UNGA Resolution 66(I) regarding Transmission of information under Article 73 e of the Charter.[8]

1947

  • UNGA Resolution 142(II) regarding Standard form for the guidance of Members in the preparation of information to be transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 143(II) regarding Supplemental documents relating to information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 144(II) regarding Voluntary transmission of information regarding the development of self-governing institutions in the Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  • UNGA Resolution 145(II) regarding Collaboration of the specialized agencies in regard to Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • UNGA Resolution 146(II) regarding Creation of a special committee on information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.

1960

1961

1966

1990–2000

2001–2010

2011–Present

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United Nations Trusteeship Council

United Nations Trusteeship Council

The United Nations Trusteeship Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security. The trust territories—most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from nations defeated at the end of World War II—have all now attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The last was Palau, formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which became a member state of the United Nations in December 1994.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV)

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV)

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 of 15 December 1960, titled "Principles which should guide members in determining whether or not an obligation exists to transmit the information called for under Article 73e of the Charter" was a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly during its fifteenth session with annexes of 12 principles, that affirmed that to ensure decolonisation, complete compliance with the principle of self-determination is required.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 of 27 November 1961, titled "The situation with regard to the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples" was a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly during its sixteenth session. It reaffirmed the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (GA) on 16 December 1966 through GA. Resolution 2200A (XXI), and came in force from 3 January 1976. It commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories and individuals, including labour rights and the right to health, the right to education, and the right to an adequate standard of living. As of July 2020, the Covenant has 171 parties. A further four countries, including the United States, have signed but not ratified the Covenant.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty that commits nations to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. It was adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966 and entered into force 23 March 1976 after its thirty-fifth ratification or accession. As of June 2022, the Covenant has 173 parties and six more signatories without ratification, most notably the People's Republic of China and Cuba; North Korea is the only state that has tried to withdraw.

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, also known as the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514, was a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly during its fifteenth session, that affirmed independence for countries and peoples under colonial rule.

Criticism

The list remains controversial in some countries for various reasons:

Referendums

One reason for controversy is that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their current status, or have had a referendum in which local government requirements were not met regarding the number of votes required to support a change of status or the number of voters participating (e.g., in the United States Virgin Islands).

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands is a British Overseas Territory with a population of 2,500 people and an autonomous government, that is also claimed by Argentina. In March 2013, the Falkland Islands government organised a referendum on the status of the territory. With a 92% turnout, 99.7% of Falkland Islands voters voted to maintain the status quo, with only three islanders (0.2%) favouring a change.[11]

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is largely a self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula with a population of about 30,000 people, whose territory is claimed by Spain. It continues to be listed as an NSGT though its residents expressed a preference in two referendums to retain the status quo. In 1967, they were asked whether to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In 2002, a proposal for a joint British–Spanish administration of the territory was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187. (The "no" vote accounted for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire electorate).[12] The United Nations did not recognise either referendum, with the 1967 referendum being declared in contravention of previous UN resolutions.[13] The Spanish government does not recognize any right of the current Gibraltar inhabitants to self-determination, on the grounds that they are not the original population of the territory, but residents transferred by the colonial power, the United Kingdom.[14]

Tokelau

The territory of Tokelau divides political opinion in New Zealand.[15] In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "The UN ... is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree."[16] Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976.

In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60.07% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. A second referendum was held in 2007, in which 64.40% of Tokelauans supported self-government, falling short of the two-thirds majority by 16 votes. This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government".[17] In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories".[18] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand".[19]

Viability

A lack of population and landmass is an issue for at least one territory included on the list: the British overseas territory Pitcairn Islands, which has a population of less than 50 descended primarily from indigenous Polynesians and mutineers from the HMS Bounty. Regardless, the territory's colonial status was disputed during the 2004 sexual assault trial where the seven defendants – comprising a third of the adult male population – unsuccessfully argued that the islanders had rejected British control ever since the 1789 mutiny and, as a result, British criminal law did not apply to them. Four other territories – Tokelau, Montserrat, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena – are also less populous than any current UN member state.

In addition, some territories are financially dependent on their administering state.

Completely autonomous dependencies

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Currently listed territories   Formerly listed territories
  Currently listed territories
  Formerly listed territories

Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda (see Politics of Bermuda), the Falkland Islands[20] and Gibraltar,[21][22][23][24] consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy. In past years, there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing", particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became moot as those territories eventually received full independence.

Removed under other circumstances

Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing – such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Cook Islands – have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly, often under pressure of the administering countries.

Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas regions of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state. However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the "overseas provinces" of Portugal such as Angola and Mozambique, which were active focus of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s.

Territories have also been removed for other reasons. In 1972, for example, Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations due to the PRC's belief that their status should be resolved by bilateral negotiations.[25]

Change of status

On 2 December 1986, New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France, was reinstated on the list of non-self-governing territories, an action to which France objected. Within France it has had the status of a collectivité sui generis, or a one-of-a-kind community, since 1999. Under the 1998 Nouméa Accord, its Territorial Congress had the right to call for three referendums on independence between 2014 and 2018. The first referendum was held on 4 November 2018 (56.4% against independence), the second referendum on 4 October 2020 (53.26% against independence), and the third referundum on 12 December 2021 (96.50% against independence). While in all three the independence was rejected, the result of the third referendum stems from the boycott by the pro-independence Kanak community in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in New Caledonia.

French Polynesia was also reinstated on the list on 17 May 2013, in somewhat contentious circumstances. Having been re-elected President of French Polynesia in 2011 (leader of local government), Oscar Temaru asked for it to be re-inscribed on the list; it had been removed in 1947. (French Polynesia is categorised by France as an overseas country, in recognition of its self-governing status.) During the year 2012, Oscar Temaru engaged in intense lobbying with the micro-states of Oceania, many of which, the Solomon Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu, submitted to the UN General Assembly a draft of a resolution to affirm "the inalienable right of the population of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".

On 5 May 2013, Temaru's Union for Democracy party lost the legislative election to Gaston Flosse's pro-autonomy but anti-independence Tahoera'a Huiraatira party; obtaining only 11 seats against the party of Gaston Flosse, with 38 seats, and the autonomist party A Ti'a Porinetia with 8 seats.

At this stage, the United Nations General Assembly was due to discuss French Polynesia's re-inscription on the list twelve days later, in accordance with a motion tabled by Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Nauru. On 16 May, the Assembly of French Polynesia, with its new anti-independence majority, adopted a motion asking the United Nations not to restore the country to the list. On 17 May, despite French Polynesia's and France's opposition, the country was restored to the list of non-self-governing territories. Temaru was present for the vote, on the final day of his mandate as President. The United Nations affirmed "the inalienable right of the people of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".

A few hours before the UN review of the resolution, during its first meeting, the new Territorial Assembly adopted by 46 votes to 10 a "resolution" expressing the desire of Polynesians to maintain their autonomy within the French Republic. In spite of this resolution adopted by the parties representing 70% of the Polynesian voters, the UN General Assembly inscribed French Polynesia on the list of the territories to be decolonized during its plenary assembly of 17 May 2013. France did not take part in this session while the United States, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom disassociated themselves from this resolution.[26][27]

List not complete

Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV),[28] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex,[29] and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)[30] which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards.[31]

Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Twenty new UN countries resulted from breakup of Second World states and of Yugoslavia: six were part of Yugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, and 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR, whose seat was reused by the Russian Federation without acceding anew). Out of the other nine, seven (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, and one each was a non-self-governing part of Ethiopia (later independent Eritrea) and Pakistan (East Pakistan, later independent Bangladesh). Territories like Tibet (administered by China) and Siberia (or parts thereof; administered by the Soviet Union, later by Russia) have never been on the list. Western New Guinea (also known as West Papua), which was ceded to Indonesia, is also not on the list as well as Sarawak and Sabah, which were handed to Malaya during its territorial expansion through the formation of Malaysia in 1963. In 2018, the government of Vanuatu started seeking international support to have West Papua added to the list in 2019.[32][33]

After the revocation of Norfolk Island's self-governing status by the Australian government in 2015, an island community group requested the UN add the island to the list of non-self-governing territories.[34]

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1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum

1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum

A status referendum was held in the United States Virgin Islands on 11 October 1993. After the United States Congress modified the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands to allow a vote on the status of the islands, a vote was scheduled for 1989. It was delayed several times until 1993, when voters were offered the options of integration into the United States, remaining a United States territory or independence.

Falkland Islands

Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 mi (480 km) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast and about 752 mi (1,210 km) from Cape Dubouzet at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 sq mi (12,000 km2), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland, and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, but the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The capital and largest settlement is Stanley on East Falkland.

British Overseas Territories

British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom. They are the last remnants of the former British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. The permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the United Kingdom retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three of the territories are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. All but one of the rest are listed by the UN Special Committee on Decolonization as non-self-governing territories. All fourteen have the British monarch as head of state.

2013 Falkland Islands sovereignty referendum

2013 Falkland Islands sovereignty referendum

A referendum on political status was held in the Falkland Islands on 10–11 March 2013. The Falkland Islanders were asked whether or not they supported the continuation of their status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in view of Argentina's call for negotiations on the islands' sovereignty.

Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Gibraltar, is a British Overseas Territory and city located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar, at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 32,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.

Iberian Peninsula

Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is a peninsula in southwestern Europe, defining the westernmost edge of Eurasia. It is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory, as well as a small area of Southern France, Andorra, and Gibraltar. With an area of approximately 583,254 square kilometres (225,196 sq mi), and a population of roughly 53 million, it is the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula.

2006 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

2006 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

The Tokelau self-determination referendum of 2006, supervised by the United Nations, was held from February 11 to February 15, 2006. The defeated proposal would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue.

2007 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

2007 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

A referendum on self-determination was held in Tokelau on 20 October and on 22–24 October 2007, with the result being that self-governance was rejected. Had it been successful, the referendum would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue. However, the referendum required a two-thirds positive vote to pass, and the "yes" side fell short of the required total by 16 votes.

John Hayes (New Zealand politician)

John Hayes (New Zealand politician)

John Bernard Hayes is a New Zealand politician and diplomat. He represented the electorate of Wairarapa for the National Party from 2005 to 2014.

New Zealand National Party

New Zealand National Party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the Labour Party.

Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon is a South Korean politician and diplomat who served as the eighth secretary-general of the United Nations between 2007 and 2016. Prior to his appointment as secretary-general, Ban was his country's Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade between 2004 and 2006.

Mutiny on the Bounty

Mutiny on the Bounty

The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty occurred in the South Pacific Ocean on 28 April 1789. Disaffected crewmen, led by acting-Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, seized control of the ship from their captain, Lieutenant William Bligh, and set him and eighteen loyalists adrift in the ship's open launch. The mutineers variously settled on Tahiti or on Pitcairn Island. Bligh navigated more than 3,500 nautical miles in the launch to reach safety, and began the process of bringing the mutineers to justice.

Current entries

The following 17 territories are currently included on the list.[35]

Territory Administering state Domestic legal status Other claimant(s) Population Area Referendum(s) See also
 American Samoa  United States Unincorporated unorganized territory None 55,519 200 km2 (77 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of American Samoa
 Anguilla United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 14,108 96 km2 (37 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Anguilla
 Bermuda United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 62,000 57 km2 (22 mi2) A 1995 Bermudian independence referendum was held. 74% of votes cast were against independence.[36] Politics of Bermuda
 British Virgin Islands United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 28,103 153 km2 (59 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the British Virgin Islands
 Cayman Islands United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 55,500 264 km2 (102 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
 Falkland Islands (Malvinas) United Kingdom Overseas Territory  Argentina 2,500 12,173 km2 (4,700 mi2) Two referendums have been held in 1986 and 2013 on whether the Falklands should join Argentina. On both occasions, voters chose overwhelmingly for continued British control.[37][38] Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
 French Polynesia[A]  France Overseas country None 271,000 4,000 km2 (1,544 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of French Polynesia
 Gibraltar United Kingdom Overseas Territory  Spain 29,752 6 km2 (2 mi2) There were referendums in 1967 and in 2002, both returning an overwhelming victory for the pro-British side.[40][41] Status of Gibraltar
 Guam  United States Unincorporated organized territory None 159,358 540 km2 (208 mi2) Three status referendums have been held, one in 1976[42] and two in 1982 (one in January[43] and the other in September[44]), with all three of them supporting an improved Commonwealth status under U.S. control. Politics of Guam
 Montserrat United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 5,000 103 km2 (40 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Government of Montserrat
 New Caledonia  France Sui generis collectivity None 252,000 18,575 km2 (7,172 mi2) There were referendums in 1987,[45] 2018,[46] 2020,[47] and 2021,[48] all deciding against independence. Politics of New Caledonia
 Pitcairn[B] United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 50 36 km2 (14 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the Pitcairn Islands
 Saint Helena[C] United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 5,396 310 km2 (120 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Saint Helena
 Tokelau New Zealand Territory None 1,411 12 km2 (5 mi2) There were two referendums on self-determination in Tokelau in 2006 and 2007, with both coming just shy of the required two-thirds "yes" margin.[49][50] Politics of Tokelau
 Turks and Caicos Islands United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 31,458 948 km2 (366 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands
 United States Virgin Islands  United States Unincorporated organized territory None 106,405 352 km2 (136 mi2) A 1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum was held. The status quo was widely preferred among voters, but the result was invalidated because of the low turnout.[51] Politics of the United States Virgin Islands
Western Sahara[D]  Spain
(formerly)
Disputed  Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
619,060 266,000 km2 (102,703 mi2) The UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara has attempted to organize a referendum since 1991, but none has been held so far.[53] Political status of Western Sahara

Notes

  1. ^ On 18 May 2013, the United Nations General Assembly voted to place French Polynesia back on the list.[39]
  2. ^ Officially the Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands.
  3. ^ Officially Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
  4. ^ Formerly the Spanish Sahara up to 1976, disputed[52] between Morocco, which controls 80% of the territory and administers it as an integral part of its national territory, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, which controls and administers the remaining 20% as the "Liberated territories". The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara is the United Nations peacekeeping mission to the territory.

Discover more about Current entries related topics

American Samoa

American Samoa

American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of the island country of Samoa. Its location is centered on 14.3°S 170.7°W. It is east of the International Date Line, while Samoa is west of the Line. The total land area is 199 square kilometers (76.8 sq mi), slightly more than Washington, D.C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States and one of two U.S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the main exports, and the main trading partner is the rest of the United States.

Politics of American Samoa

Politics of American Samoa

Politics of American Samoa takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic dependency, whereby the governor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Its constitution was ratified in 1966 and came into effect in 1967. Executive power is discharged by the governor and the lieutenant governor. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the legislature. The party system is based on the United States party system. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Anguilla

Anguilla

Anguilla is a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean. It is one of the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, lying east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and directly north of Saint Martin. The territory consists of the main island of Anguilla, approximately 16 miles long by 3 miles (5 km) wide at its widest point, together with a number of much smaller islands and cays with no permanent population. The territory's capital is The Valley. The total land area of the territory is 35 square miles (91 km2), with a population of approximately 15,753 (2021).

The Crown

The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of their realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service. Thus, in the United Kingdom, the government of the United Kingdom can be distinguished from the Crown and the state, in precise usage, although the distinction is not always relevant in broad or casual usage.

British Overseas Territories

British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as the United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom. They are the last remnants of the former British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. The permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the United Kingdom retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three of the territories are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. All but one of the rest are listed by the UN Special Committee on Decolonization as non-self-governing territories. All fourteen have the British monarch as head of state.

Politics of Anguilla

Politics of Anguilla

Politics of Anguilla takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Anguilla, the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Anguilla on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories. The territory's constitution is Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982. Executive power is exercised by the Premier and the Executive Council. Legislative power is vested in both the Executive Council and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Bermuda

Bermuda

Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Bermuda archipelago consists of 181 islands with a total land area of 54 km2 (21 sq mi). The closest land outside the territory is in the US state of North Carolina, approximately 1,035 km (643 mi) to the west-northwest.

1995 Bermudian independence referendum

1995 Bermudian independence referendum

An independence referendum was held in Bermuda on 16 August 1995 for voters to decide whether Bermuda should become an independent sovereign state or remain a British Dependent Territory. On a voter turnout of 59%, 74% voted against independence. Following the decisive result, Premier John Swan, who had been in favour of independence, resigned.

Politics of Bermuda

Politics of Bermuda

Bermuda is the oldest British Overseas Territory, and the oldest self-governing British Overseas Territory, and has a great degree of internal autonomy through authority and roles of governance delegated to it by the national Government. Its parliament held its first session in 1620, making it the third-oldest continuous parliament in the world. As part of the British realm, King Charles III is head of state and is represented in Bermuda by a Governor, whom he appoints on the advice of the British Government. The Governor has special responsibilities in four areas: external affairs, defence, internal security, and policing.

British Virgin Islands

British Virgin Islands

The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially the Virgin Islands, are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and north-west of Anguilla. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles and part of the West Indies.

Politics of the British Virgin Islands

Politics of the British Virgin Islands

Politics of the British Virgin Islands takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The British Virgin Islands are an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the islands on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories. The Constitution of the Islands was introduced in 1971 and amended in 1979, 1982, 1991, 1994, 2000 and 2007. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands is a self-governing British Overseas Territory—the largest by population in the western Caribbean Sea. The 264-square-kilometre (102-square-mile) territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, which are located to the south of Cuba and northeast of Honduras, between Jamaica and Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. The capital city is George Town on Grand Cayman, which is the most populous of the three islands.

Former entries

The following territories were originally listed by UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946 as Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territory. The dates show the year of independence or other change in a territory's status which led to their removal from the list,[54] after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations.[55]

Change in status by administering state

Trust / Territory[55] Change in status[55] Current status Administering state[55] Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[55] See also
 Alaska Granted statehood (full integration with the United States) U.S. state  United States 683,478 1,700,130 656,424 1959 Legal status of Alaska
 British Hong Kong Removed from the list on request of China[25] Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 1 July 1997):
 Hong Kong
United Kingdom 7,018,636 1,092 422 1972 Politics of Hong Kong
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands Voted to integrate into Australia External territory of Australia  Australia 596 14 5 1984 Shire of Cocos
 Cook Islands Gained self-rule State in free association with New Zealand New Zealand 12,271 237 92 1965 Politics of the Cook Islands
 Dutch Guiana Granted more autonomy  Suriname  Netherlands 475,996 163,270 63,039 1955 Politics of Suriname
 French Guiana Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France  France 209,000 83,534 32,253 1947 Politics of French Guiana
 French Polynesia[a] Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic) Overseas country of France:
 French Polynesia

Overseas state private property of France:
Clipperton Island
 France 298,256 4,441 1,715 1947 Politics of French Polynesia
 Greenland Incorporated into Denmark as Greenland County (1953). Gained home rule as a Country within the Kingdom of Denmark (1979). Increased autonomy (2009) Autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark[56][57] Denmark 57,564 2,166,086 836,330 1954 Politics of Greenland
 Guadeloupe Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France:
 Guadeloupe

Overseas collectivities of France:
 Saint Barthélemy
Saint Martin
 France 408,000 1,628 629 1947 Politics of Guadeloupe, Saint Barthélemy, and Saint Martin
 Hawaii Granted statehood (full integration with the United States) U.S. state  United States 1,283,388 28,311 10,931 1959 Legal status of Hawaii
 Martinique Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France  France 401,000 1,128 436 1947 Politics of Martinique
 Netherlands Antilles Granted more autonomy Constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands:
 Aruba
 Curaçao
 Sint Maarten

Special municipalities of the Netherlands:
 Bonaire
 Sint Eustatius
 Saba
 Netherlands 225,369 960 371 1955 Politics of Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Netherlands Antilles
 New Caledonia[b] Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic) Sui generis collectivity of France

Overseas collectivity of France:
 Wallis and Futuna
 France 224,824 19,060 7,359 1947 Politics of New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna
 Niue Gained self-rule State in free association with New Zealand New Zealand 1,444 260 100 1974 Politics of Niue
 Northern Mariana Islands Became a Commonwealth Unincorporated territory of the United States with Commonwealth status  United States 53,883 168 65 1990 Politics of the Northern Mariana Islands
 Panama Canal Zone Removed from the list on request of Panama Part of Colón, Panamá, and Panamá Oeste provinces of Panama  United States 1947 Politics of Panama
Flag of the Government of Portuguese Macau (1976–1999).svg Portuguese Macau Removed from the list on request of China[25] Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (since 20 December 1999):
 Macau
 Portugal 545,674 28 11 1972 Politics of Macau
 Puerto Rico Became a Commonwealth (semi-autonomous unincorporated territory of the United States) Unincorporated territory of the United States with Commonwealth status  United States 3,958,128 8,870 3,420 1952 Political status of Puerto Rico
 Réunion Became an overseas department (full integration with the French Republic) Overseas department and region of France  France 868,000 2,512 970 1947 Politics of Réunion
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Became an overseas department and then an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French Republic) Overseas collectivity of France  France 7,044 242 93 1947 Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Joined another state

Non-self-governing territory[55] State joined[55] Current status Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[55] See also
British Cameroons Northern Cameroons joined Nigeria
Southern Cameroons joined Cameroon
Adamawa and Taraba states of Nigeria, Northwest and Southwest provinces of Cameroon  United Kingdom 1961 Politics of Nigeria
Politics of Cameroon
Spain Ifni Integrated into Morocco Sidi Ifni, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Morocco  Spain 51,517 1,502 580 1969 Politics of Morocco
 Portuguese India Annexed by India The Indian state of Goa and the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu  Portugal 1961 Annexation of Goa
France French India Integrated into India Puducherry union territory and Chandannagar of West Bengal state of India  France 973,829 492 190 1947 Coup d'état of Yanaon
 Netherlands New Guinea Integrated into Indonesia as Irian Jaya Papua and West Papua provinces of Indonesia  Netherlands 420,540 162,371 1963 Act of Free Choice
North Borneo Integrated into Malaya to form Malaysia[58] Malaysian state of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan  United Kingdom 285,000 76,115 29,388 1963 Malaysia Agreement[58]
Portugal São João Batista de Ajuda Integrated into the Republic of Dahomey (now Benin) Ouidah commune, Atlantique department, Benin  Portugal 1961 Politics of Benin
Colony of Sarawak Integrated into Malaya to form Malaysia[58] Malaysian state of Sarawak  United Kingdom 546,385 124,450 48,050 1963 Malaysia Agreement[58]
United Kingdom British Togoland Joined British Gold Coast colony Volta, Northern and Upper East regions of Ghana  United Kingdom 1957 Foreign relations of Ghana

Independence

Non-self-governing territory[55] Sub-unit
(Independent as)[55] Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[55] See also
Aden Colony Aden Protectorate  South Yemen  United Kingdom 285,192 111,013 1967 Yemeni unification in 1990
France French Algeria  Algeria  France 1962
 Portuguese Angola Angola Angola  Portugal 7,024,000[59] 1,246,700 481,354 1975 Including the enclave of Cabinda
 British Leeward Islands Antigua  Antigua and Barbuda  United Kingdom 1981
 Bahamas  The Bahamas  United Kingdom 13,878 5,358 1973
 Barbados  Barbados  United Kingdom 431 167 1966
Basutoland  Lesotho  United Kingdom 30,355 12,727 1966
 Bechuanaland Protectorate  Botswana  United Kingdom 1966
 Brunei  Brunei Darussalam  United Kingdom 5,765 2,220 1984
France French Cameroun  Cameroon  France 1960 Trust Territory
 Portuguese Cape Verde  Cape Verde  Portugal 4,033 1,557 1975
 Belgian Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo Léopoldville  Belgium 16,610,000[60] 2,344,858 905,355 1960
Cyprus British Cyprus  Cyprus  United Kingdom 9,251 3,572 1960
 Dutch East Indies  Indonesia (excluding Western New Guinea)  Netherlands 1950
Indonesia East Timor  East Timor  Indonesia 688,711 15,007 5,794 2002 Politics of East Timor
Portugal Portuguese Timor  Indonesia  Portugal 15,007 5,794 2002 Indonesian occupation of East Timor
 French Equatorial Africa France French Congo  Republic of the Congo  France 1960
 French Equatorial Africa France French Gabon  Gabon  France 1960
 French Equatorial Africa France Ubangi Shari  Central African Republic  France 1960
 French Equatorial Africa France French Chad  Chad  France 1960
Fiji Fiji Islands  Fiji  United Kingdom 1970
Flag of The Gambia (1889–1965).svg Gambia Colony and Protectorate  The Gambia  United Kingdom 10,380 4,007 1965
 Gilbert and Ellice Islands  Kiribati  United Kingdom 1979
 Gilbert and Ellice Islands  Tuvalu  United Kingdom 1978
 Gold Coast  Ghana  United Kingdom 1957
 British Guiana  Guyana  United Kingdom 1966
 Portuguese Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Portugal 36,125 13,948 1974
 Spanish Guinea  Equatorial Guinea  Spain 28,051 10,828 1968
 British Honduras  Belize  United Kingdom 145,000[61] 22,966 8,867 1981
 French Indochina Cambodia Cambodia  France 1953
 French Indochina  Kingdom of Laos  France 1949
 French Indochina North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam  France 1945 Vietnamese unification in 1976
 French Indochina South Vietnam State of Vietnam  France 1949 Vietnamese unification in 1976
Jamaica Colony of Jamaica  Jamaica  United Kingdom 11,100 4,444 1962
Kenya Colony of Kenya  Kenya  United Kingdom 1963 Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate
 British Leeward Islands  Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla  St. Kitts and Nevis  United Kingdom 1983 Separated from Anguilla, which is still a non-self-governing territory
France French Madagascar  Comoros  France 1975
France French Madagascar  Madagascar  France 1960
 Malayan Union  Federation of Malaya  United Kingdom 132,364 51,106 1957 Later became Malaysia
Malta Colony of Malta  Malta  United Kingdom 316 121 1964
Mauritius British Mauritius  Mauritius  United Kingdom 2,040 787 1968
Morocco French protectorate of Morocco  Morocco  France 1956
 Portuguese Mozambique  Mozambique  Portugal 7,300,000[59] 784,955 303,073 1975
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Trust Territory of Nauru  Nauru  Australia 21 8 1968
 New Hebrides  Vanuatu United KingdomFrance Anglo-French Condominium 100,000[62] 12,189 4,706 1980
Nigeria British Nigeria  Nigeria  United Kingdom 1960
 Northern Rhodesia  Zambia  United Kingdom 3,545,200[63] 752,618 290,587 1964
 Nyasaland  Malawi  United Kingdom 752,618 290,587 1964
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands  Marshall Islands  United States 68,000 180 70 1990 Independent states in free association with the United States
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands  Federated States of Micronesia  United States 111,000 702 271 1990 Independent states in free association with the United States
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands  Palau  United States 20,956 459 177 1994 Independent states in free association with the United States
Flag of Papua New Guinea (1970–1971).svg Territory of Papua and New Guinea  Papua New Guinea  Australia 1975
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi  Burundi  Belgium 1962
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi  Rwanda  Belgium 1962
Portugal Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe  São Tomé and Príncipe  Portugal 1,001 372 1975
 Seychelles  Seychelles  United Kingdom 451 174 1976
Flag of Sierra Leone (1916–1961).gif Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate  Sierra Leone  United Kingdom 71,740 27,699 1961
Singapore Singapore  Federation of Malaya  United Kingdom 4,608,167 693 268 1963 Singapore first became a state of Malaysia in 1963, before becoming independent in 1965.
Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands  Solomon Islands  United Kingdom 28,896 11,157 1978
 British Somaliland State of Somaliland  United Kingdom 1960 Joined the Trust Territory of Somalia within a week to form the Somali Republic
 French Somaliland  Djibouti  France 200,000[64] 23,200 8,958 1977
Trust Territory of Somaliland  Somalia  Italy 1960 Joined the State of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic
South Africa South West Africa  Namibia  South Africa 2,088,669 825,418 318,696 1990 Foreign relations of Namibia
 Southern Rhodesia  Zimbabwe  United Kingdom 6,930,000[65] 390,580 150,804 1980
 Swaziland  Swaziland  United Kingdom 17,364 6,704 1968
Flag of Tanganyika (1923–1961).svg Tanganyika  Tanganyika  United Kingdom 1963 Trust Territory. Later joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
Togo French Togoland  Togo  France 1960 Trust Territory
 Trinidad and Tobago  Trinidad and Tobago  United Kingdom 5,128 1,978 1962
French Tunisia  Tunisia  France 163,610 63,170 1956
Uganda Uganda Protectorate  Uganda  United Kingdom 1962
 French West Africa  French Sudan  Ivory Coast  France 1960
 French West Africa  French Sudan  Mali  France 1960
 French West Africa  French Sudan  Mauritania  France 1960
 French West Africa France French Guinea  Guinea  France 1958
 French West Africa France French Dahomey  Dahomey  France 1960
 French West Africa France Colony of Niger  Niger  France 1960
 French West Africa France Colony of Niger  Senegal  France 1960
 French West Africa France Colony of Niger  Upper Volta  France 1960
Flag of the Samoa Trust Territory.svg Western Samoa Trust Territory  Western Samoa  New Zealand 1962
 British Windward Islands  Dominica  United Kingdom 1978
 British Windward Islands  Grenada  United Kingdom 1974
 British Windward Islands  St. Lucia  United Kingdom 1979
 British Windward Islands  St. Vincent and the Grenadines  United Kingdom 1979
 Sultanate of Zanzibar  Kenya  United Kingdom 1963 The Dominion of Kenya was formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya; the protectorate, a ten-mile-wide (16 km) coastal strip (Mwambao), had been under Zanzibari sovereignty and administered by the UK[66]
 Sultanate of Zanzibar  Zanzibar  United Kingdom 2,643 1,020 1963 The British protectorate over the Sultanate of Zanzibar was terminated in 1963 and the state was admitted to the UN; in 1964, the sultan was deposed and the People's Republic of Zanzibar was proclaimed; later that year, it joined with the Republic of Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania

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Dependent territory

Dependent territory

A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state, yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.

Alaska

Alaska

Alaska is a state located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America. A semi-exclave of the U.S., it borders the Canadian province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory to the east; it also shares a maritime border with the Russian Federation's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug to the west, just across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas of the Arctic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest.

Admission to the Union

Admission to the Union

Admission to the Union is provided by the Admissions Clause of the United States Constitution in Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, which authorizes the United States Congress to admit new states into the Union beyond the thirteen states that already existed when the Constitution came into effect. The Constitution went into effect on June 21, 1788 in the nine states that had ratified it, and the U.S. federal government began operations under it on March 4, 1789, when it was in effect in 11 out of the 13 states. Since then, 37 states have been admitted into the Union. Each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with those already in existence.

British Hong Kong

British Hong Kong

Hong Kong was a colony and subsequently a dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a period of occupation under the Japanese Empire from 1941 to 1945 during the Pacific War. The colonial period began with the British occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841, during the First Opium War between the British and the Qing dynasty. The Qing had wanted to enforce its prohibition of opium importation within the dynasty that was being exported mostly from British India, as it was causing widespread addiction among its populace.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Special administrative regions of China

Special administrative regions of China

The special administrative regions (SAR) of the People's Republic of China are one of the provincial-level administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China directly under the control of its Central People's Government, being integral areas of the country. As a region, they possess the highest degree of autonomy from China. However, despite the relative autonomy that the Central People's Government offers the special administrative regions, the National People's Congress remains capable of enforcing laws for the special administrative regions.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China. With 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Hong Kong is also a major global financial centre and one of the most developed cities in the world.

Politics of Hong Kong

Politics of Hong Kong

The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a politically constrained multi-party presidential system. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is led by the Chief Executive, the head of government.

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands, officially the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, are an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and relatively close to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The territory's dual name reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands.

1984 Cocos (Keeling) Islands status referendum

1984 Cocos (Keeling) Islands status referendum

A status referendum was held in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands on 6 April 1984. All registered voters participated in the vote, with 88% voting for integration with Australia. The referendum has been described as the "smallest act of self-determination ever conducted".

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

States and territories of Australia

States and territories of Australia

The states and territories are federated administrative divisions in Australia, ruled by regional governments that constitute the second level of governance between the federal government and local governments. States are self-governing polities with incomplete sovereignty and have their own constitutions, legislatures, departments, and certain civil authorities that administer and deliver most public policies and programs. Territories can be autonomous and administer local policies and programs much like the states in practice, but are still constitutionally and financially subordinate to the federal government and thus have no true sovereignty.

Source: "United Nations list of non-self-governing territories", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_list_of_non-self-governing_territories.

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References
  1. ^ "The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  2. ^ Simon, Sven (5 June 2014), Walter, Christian; von Ungern-Sternberg, Antje; Abushov, Kavus (eds.), "Western Sahara", Self-Determination and Secession in International Law, Oxford University Press, p. 259, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702375.003.0013, ISBN 978-0-19-870237-5, retrieved 5 August 2020
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  6. ^ i.e. extenuating circumstance, historical control, longstanding/stagnated issue, etc.
  7. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64(I)
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66(I)
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  10. ^ UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
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  20. ^ "New Year begins with a new Constitution for the Falklands". MercoPress. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
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  23. ^ "Gibraltar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 August 2009. Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence.
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  27. ^ "L'ONU adopte une résolution sur la décolonisation de la Polynésie française". Le Monde, 17 May 2013
  28. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) Archived 24 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  29. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) adopted by United Nations General Assembly on the reports of the Sixth Committee
  30. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI) Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  31. ^ United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing
  32. ^ "Vanuatu will continue West Papua initiative", One PNG, 6 September 2018
  33. ^ "Pacific Forum backs ‘constructive engagement’ over West Papua", Asia Pacific Report, 7 September 2018
  34. ^ "Norfolk Island Amendment (Supreme Court) Bill 2020".
  35. ^ "Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations.
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  39. ^ General Assembly adds French Polynesia to UN decolonization list
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  51. ^ United States Virgin Islands, 11 October 1993: Status Direct Democracy (in German)
  52. ^ CIA's The World Factbook entry for Western Sahara: "Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast of Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria. After Spain withdrew from its former colony of Spanish Sahara in 1976, Morocco annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara and claimed the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal"
  53. ^ "Background". MINURSO. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
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  56. ^ Infobox image in "History" section of "About Greenland", English version of the official country government website. Accessed online 2008-09-28, Sunday.
  57. ^ "JURIST | School of Law | University of Pittsburgh".
  58. ^ a b c d See: The UK Statute Law Database: the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Malaysia Act 1963
  59. ^ a b 1967 estimate
  60. ^ 1960 estimate
  61. ^ 1980 estimate, see: British Honduras#Demographics
  62. ^ 1976 estimate
  63. ^ 1963 estimate, see: Northern Rhodesia#Demographics
  64. ^ 1963 estimate
  65. ^ 1978 estimate
  66. ^ "Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom, His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, the government of Kenya and the government of Zanzibar", London, 8 October 1963
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