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Umaltolepis

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Umaltolepis
Temporal range: Early Jurassic–Early Cretaceous
Umaltolepis.jpg
Diagram of a ripe Umaltolepis, showing the homologies of the various parts of the structure
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnosperms
Division: Ginkgophyta
Class: Ginkgoopsida
Family: Umaltolepidaceae
Zhou
Genus: Umaltolepis
(Krassilov) Herrera, Shi, Ichinnorov, Takahashi, Bugdaeva, Herendeen, et Crane emend.
Type species
Umaltolepis vachrameevii
Krassilov
Species

See text

Umaltolepis is an extinct genus of seed plant, known from the Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of Asia. Within the form classification system used within paleobotany, it refers to the seed-bearing reproductive structures, which grew on woody plants with strap-shaped Ginkgo-like leaves assigned to the genus Pseudotorellia.

Description

Umaltolepis consisted of a thick, resinous umbrella-like four-lobed cupule borne on a stalk-like column, which was attached to the tip of a short shoot. The cupule is typically up to 2 centimetres (0.79 in) in length, and up to 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in width. The four lobes enclosed the column down to a flange-like flared structure. Near the top of the column near to the attachment of the cupule, the structure became four angled, with each of the four faces bearing a loosely attached winged seed. The Umaltolepis plant was probably wind-pollinated, likely involving a hanging pollination drop. The seeds are thin-walled and were probably wind-dispersed, with the cupule likely serving to protect the fragile seeds during their development. The cupule split open to release the seeds when ripe.[1] The Pseudotorellia leaves are strap-shaped and somewhat resemble to those of Ginkgo, bearing a number (typically 4 to 8) of parallel veins, and are generally a few mm wide at their widest, and several centimetres long. The Pseudotorellia leaves were borne on clusters at the apex of short shoots. These shoots were typically covered in bark bearing bud scales and abscission scars, arranged in a whorl-like pattern.[2]

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Ecology

The Umaltolepis-Pseudotorellia plant is known to have grown in peat swamps,[1] as well as fluvio-lacustrine environments.[3]

Taxonomy

Umaltolepis was first proposed by Krassilov in 1970,[4] but was not properly described until 1972.[5][3] It was assigned to its own family, Umaltolepidaceae by Zhou in 1991[6] (often misspelled Umaltolepidiaceae)

Umaltolepis is probably closely related to the seed-bearing structure Vladimaria from the Middle Jurassic of Russia, though its relationship to other seed plants is uncertain.[1] The structure of Umaltolepis has been noted to be similar to those of some extinct Peltasperms and Umkomasiales,[1] while leaves and the attachment of the leaves to the stem is strongly similar to that of living Ginkgo.[2] It has either been assigned to the order Vladimariales alongside Vladimaria as possible members of Ginkgoopsida,[1] or to Ginkgoales sensu lato.[2]

Species

  • Umaltolepis vachrameevii Krassilov (type)[5] Bureya River Basin, Russia, Late Jurassic (associated with the leaves of Pseudotorellia angustifolia[1] or Pseudotorellia doludenkoae[7])
  • Umaltolepis mongoliensis Herrera, Shi, Ichinnorov, Takahashi, Bugdaeva, Herendeen, et Crane[1] Tevshiin Govi Formation, Mongolia, Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) (associated with the leaves of Pseudotorellia resinosa) Also known from the Huhteeg Formation of Mongolia of equivalent age, where it is associated with Pseudotorellia baganuriana.[7]
  • Umaltolepis coleoptera Schweitzer et Kirchner[8] Iran, Early Jurassic
  • Umaltolepis hebeiensis[9][10] China, Early Cretaceous
  • Umaltolepis rarinervis Krassilov[5] Bureya River Basin, Russia, Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)
  • Umaltolepis zhoui Dong, Shi, Zhang, Wang, et Wang[2] Daohugou Bed, China, Middle Jurassic (associated with the leaves of Pseudotorellia zhoui)
  • Umaltolepis sogdianica Nosova[11] Uzbekistan, Middle Jurassic
  • Umaltolepis involuta Nosova[11] Uzbekistan, Middle Jurassic
  • Umaltolepis irkutensis Nosova[12] South Siberia, Russia, Middle Jurassic (Aalenian-Bajocian) (associated with the leaves of Pseudotorellia irkutensis)
  • Umaltolepis yimaensis Dong, Zhou, Zhang, Wang et Shi[3] Yima Formation, China, Middle Jurassic (associated with the leaves of Pseudotorellia yimaensis)

Discover more about Taxonomy related topics

Peltaspermales

Peltaspermales

The Peltaspermales are an extinct order of plants belonging to Pteridospermatophyta, or seed ferns. It is unclear whether they form a natural group of organisms as they are poorly known. They span from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Jurassic. It includes at least one family, Peltaspermaceae, which spans from the Permian to Early Jurassic. Along with these, two informal groups of uncertain taxonomic affinities exist, each centered around a specific genus ; Supaia and Comia. In 2009, a new genus from the Lower Permian/Leonardian Clear Fork Group was erected and named Auritifolia waggoneri. It was assigned to the "comioids" based on its venation pattern, similar to that of Comia, as well as its simple pinnate fronds

Ginkgoopsida

Ginkgoopsida

Ginkgoopsida is a proposed class of gymnosperms defined by Sergei V. Meyen in 1984 to encompass Ginkgoales alongside a number of extinct seed plant groups, which he considered to be closely related based on similarities of morphology of pollen, seeds, cuticles, short shoots and leaves. The monophyly of this group as a whole has been considered questionable by other authors. Other authors have used the class as a monotypic grouping, including only Ginkgoales.

Ginkgoales

Ginkgoales

Ginkgoales are a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree. It is monotypic, within the class Ginkgoopsida, which itself is monotypic within the division Ginkgophyta. The order includes five families, of which only Ginkgoaceae remains extant.

Bureya (river)

Bureya (river)

The Bureya is a south-flowing, left tributary of the Amur river in Russia. It is 623 kilometres (387 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 70,700 square kilometres (27,300 sq mi). Its name comes from the Evenk word birija, meaning river.

Aptian

Aptian

The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous Epoch or Series and encompasses the time from 121.4 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma, approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian and precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.

Albian

Albian

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous Epoch/Series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma. The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.

Valanginian

Valanginian

In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma. The Valanginian Stage succeeds the Berriasian Stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian Stage of the Lower Cretaceous.

Aalenian

Aalenian

The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic Epoch/Series of the geologic timescale that extends from about 174.1 Ma to about 170.3 Ma. It was preceded by the Toarcian and succeeded by the Bajocian.

Bajocian

Bajocian

In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 170.3 Ma to around 168.3 Ma. The Bajocian Age succeeds the Aalenian Age and precedes the Bathonian Age.

Source: "Umaltolepis", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umaltolepis.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Herrera, Fabiany; Shi, Gongle; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Takahashi, Masamichi; Bugdaeva, Eugenia V.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Crane, Peter R. (2017-03-21). "The presumed ginkgophyte Umaltolepis has seed-bearing structures resembling those of Peltaspermales and Umkomasiales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (12). doi:10.1073/pnas.1621409114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5373332. PMID 28265050.
  2. ^ a b c d Dong, Chong; Shi, Gongle; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zixi; Wang, Yongdong (November 2022). "Middle-Late Jurassic fossils from Northeast China confirm the affiliation of Umaltolepis seed-bearing structures and Pseudotorellia leaves". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 306: 104763. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104763.
  3. ^ a b c Dong, Chong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Zhang, Bole; Wang, Yongdong; Shi, Gongle (December 2019). "Umaltolepis and associated Pseudotorellia leaves from the Middle Jurassic of Yima in Henan Province, Central China". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 271: 104111. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2019.104111.
  4. ^ V.A. Krassilov Approach to the classification of Mesozoic “Ginkgoalean” plants from Siberia Palaeobotanist, 18 (1970), pp. 12-19
  5. ^ a b c VA Krassilov, Mesozoic Flora from the Bureja River (Ginkgoales and Czekanowskiales) (Nauka, Moscow), p 115 (in Russian). (1972).
  6. ^ Zhiyan, Zhou (July 1991). "Phylogeny and evolutionary trends of Mesozoic ginkgoaleans — a preliminary assessment". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 68 (3–4): 203–216. doi:10.1016/0034-6667(91)90024-W.
  7. ^ a b Nosova, Natalya; Kostina, Elena (September 2022). "New findings of the female reproductive structures of Umaltolepis Krassilov and associated leaves of Pseudotorellia Florin in the Lower Cretaceous of Mongolia". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 304: 104696. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2022.104696.
  8. ^ HJ Schweitzer, M Kirchner, Die Rhäto-Jurassischen Floren des Iran und Afghanistans. 8. Ginkgophyta. Palaeontographica B 237, 1–58 (1995).
  9. ^ ZQ Wang, Plant kingdom. Palaeontological Atlas of North China II Mesozoic, eds Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (Geological Publishing House, Beijing), pp 223–296, 367–384 (in Chinese). (1984).
  10. ^ F Chen, XY Meng, SQ Ren, CL Wu, The Early Cretaceous Flora of Fuxin Basin and Tiefa Basin, Liaoning Province (Geological Publishing House, Beijing), p 180 (in Chinese). (1988).
  11. ^ a b Nosova, Natalya (October 2020). "Female reproductive structures of Umaltolepis Krassilov and associated short shoots, buds and leaves of Pseudotorellia Florin from the Middle Jurassic of Angren, Uzbekistan". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 281: 104266. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104266.
  12. ^ Nosova, Natalya (June 2021). "Female reproductive structures of Umaltolepis Krassilov and associated leaves of Pseudotorellia Florin from the Middle Jurassic of East Siberia, Russia". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 289: 104412. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2021.104412.

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