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Typhoon Ofelia

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Typhoon Ofelia (Bising)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ofelia Jun 22 1990 2358Z.png
Typhoon Ofelia near peak intensity
FormedJune 16, 1990 (June 16, 1990)
DissipatedJune 25, 1990 (June 25, 1990)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 120 km/h (75 mph)
1-minute sustained: 165 km/h (105 mph)
Lowest pressure970 hPa (mbar); 28.64 inHg
Fatalities96 confirmed, 23 missing
Damage$207 million (1990 USD)
Areas affectedPhilippines, Taiwan, China
Part of the 1990 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Ofelia, known as Typhoon Bising in the Philippines,[1] was the first of two typhoons in 1990 to directly affect the Philippines within a week. Typhoon Ofelia originated from an area of disturbed weather embedded in the monsoon trough situated near the Caroline Islands. Slowly organizing, the disturbance tracked westward, and was designated a tropical depression on June 15. After an increase in convection, the depression was upgraded into a tropical storm on June 17. On June 19, Ofelia turned northwest and after development of a central dense overcast, Ofelia was upgraded into a typhoon late on June 20. After turning north, Ofelia obtained its maximum intensity following the development of an eye. The typhoon skirted past the northeastern tip of Luzon and near the east coast of Taiwan, commencing a rapid weakening trend. On the evening on June 23, Ofelia struck the southern portion of Zhejiang. The storm then began to track north, recurving towards the Korean Peninsula. The storm tracked through the province of Jiangsu, and at 00:00 UTC on June 24, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, only to merge with a frontal zone on June 25.

Although the inner core avoided the Philippines, the storm's large size resulted in inundation across the northern Philippines. The province of La Union was the hardest hit by the typhoon, where 22 people were killed and 90 homes were crushed. Three children perished and six others sustained injuries in Pasig. Overall, 56 people were killed and over 85,000 individuals were forced to flee their homes. Taiwan bore a direct landfall from Ofelia, dropping up to 460 mm (18 in) of rain. Hualien City was the hardest hit by the typhoon, where five people were killed. In all, Ofelia was the worst to hit eastern Taiwan in 30 years. More than 200 houses were destroyed or damaged and roughly 8,500 ha (21,005 acres) of rice paddies and vegetables were flooded. Roads and highways were blocked by landslides and floods. Agricultural losses exceeded NT$2.55 billion (US$94.7 million).[nb 1][nb 2] Seventeen people died and twenty-three were missing due to flooding and mudslides. Although during a weakening phase at the time, the typhoon drenched central China. In Wenzhou, 12 people were killed and monetary damage was estimated at about 205 million RMB (US$42.8 million).[nb 3] In the province of Zhejiang, 15 fatalities were reported and 21 others were injured. In the neighboring province of Fujian, 15 people perished and 9,044 houses were demolished. About 91,000 ha (224,865 acres) of farmland were inundated and damage was estimated at 338 million RMB (US$70.5 million). Nationwide, 40 people were killed by Ofelia.

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Philippines

Philippines

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2021, it had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's thirteenth-most populous country. The Philippines has diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the country's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City; both lie within the urban area of Metro Manila.

1990 Pacific typhoon season

1990 Pacific typhoon season

The 1990 Pacific typhoon season was another active season. It has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1990, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Central dense overcast

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity with the Dvorak technique. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem with strong tropical storms and minimal hurricanes as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

Eye (cyclone)

Eye (cyclone)

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 kilometers in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

Luzon

Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. Located in the northern portion of the Philippines archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 64 million as of 2021,  it contains 52.5% of the country's total population and is the fourth most populous island in the world. It is the 15th largest island in the world by land area.

Korean Peninsula

Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula located in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the east and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. The total area of the peninsula is 220,847 km2 (85,270 sq mi).

Coordinated Universal Time

Coordinated Universal Time

Coordinated Universal Time or UTC is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about one second of mean solar time at 0° longitude and is not adjusted for daylight saving time. It is effectively a successor to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to severe gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

La Union

La Union

La Union, officially the Province of La Union, is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in the Island of Luzon. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, which also serves as the regional center of the Ilocos Region.

Pasig

Pasig

Pasig, officially known as the City of Pasig, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 803,159 people. 

Hualien City

Hualien City

Hualien City is a county-administered city and the county seat of Hualien County, Taiwan. It is located on the east coast of Taiwan on the Pacific Ocean, and has a population of 106,368 inhabitants.

Fujian

Fujian

Fujian is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Quanzhou, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scaleMap key Saffir–Simpson scale .mw-parser-output .div-col{margin-top:0.3em;column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .div-col-small{font-size:90%}.mw-parser-output .div-col-rules{column-rule:1px solid #aaa}.mw-parser-output .div-col dl,.mw-parser-output .div-col ol,.mw-parser-output .div-col ul{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .div-col li,.mw-parser-output .div-col dd{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column} .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)   Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)   Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)   Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)   Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)   Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)   Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)   Unknown    Storm type  Tropical cyclone  Subtropical cyclone  Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression
Map plotting the storm's track and intensity, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale
Map key
  Tropical depression (≤38 mph, ≤62 km/h)
  Tropical storm (39–73 mph, 63–118 km/h)
  Category 1 (74–95 mph, 119–153 km/h)
  Category 2 (96–110 mph, 154–177 km/h)
  Category 3 (111–129 mph, 178–208 km/h)
  Category 4 (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h)
  Category 5 (≥157 mph, ≥252 km/h)
  Unknown
Storm type
▲ Extratropical cyclone / Remnant low / Tropical disturbance / Monsoon depression

Typhoon Ofelia, the third typhoon of the season and first of June, originated from the monsoon trough situated near the Caroline Islands. On the morning of June 15, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) began to track an area of persistent convection with winds of 30 km/h (20 mph).[2] Eighteen hours later the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the system into a tropical depression.[3][nb 4] Initially, the depression tracked westward along the periphery of a subtropical ridge and in an environment of high wind shear that slowed the rate of organization. Following an increase in convection and curved banding features and an improvement in outflow, the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert for the system on the morning of June 17. An increase in organization warranted the JTWC to classify the system as a tropical depression at noon that day.[2] At the time, the depression was located roughly 390 km (240 mi) west of Yap.[5] At 18:00 UTC on June 17, the JMA opted to upgrade the depression into a tropical storm.[6][nb 5] Based on a Dvorak intensity estimate of T2.5/65 km/h (40 mph), the JTWC upgraded the depression into a tropical storm at 00:00 UTC on June 18.[2]

Initially, the JTWC forecast Ofelia to move generally westward because many tropical cyclone forecast models showed a strong ridge to its north. Instead Ofelia slowed down and turned northwest on June 19 due to a surge in the southwesterly monsoon trough.[2] Ofelia gradually deepened,[5] and by 00:00 UTC on June 20, the JMA elected to upgrade Ofelia into a severe tropical storm.[3] Following the development of a central dense overcast, Ofelia was upgraded into a typhoon by the JTWC late on June 20,[2] even though satellite intensity estimates from the JMA suggested that Ofelia was a little weaker, with winds of 115 km/h (70 mph).[3] Intensifying at a slower than climatological pace, Ofelia continued northwest as it rounded a subtropical ridge. On June 22, Ofelia began to turn north.[2] At 18:00 UTC on June 22, the JMA upgraded Ofelia into a typhoon, while also estimating that the storm reached its maximum intensity of 120 km/h (75 mph) and a minimum central barometric pressure of 970 mbar (29 inHg).[6] At this time, the JTWC reported that Ofelia reached its peak intensity of 170 km/h (105 mph); the basis for the estimate was a Dvorak classification of T5.0 and the appearance of an eye on weather satellite imagery.[2]

The typhoon skirted past the northeastern tip of Luzon near peak intensity. It then turned northward, striking the east coast of Taiwan. Rapid weakening commenced due to land interaction,[2] and at noon on June 23, the JMA lowered Ofelia to below typhoon strength,[3] with the JTWC doing the same six hours later.[2] Late on June 23, Ofelia struck the southern portion of Zhejiang.[5] The storm then began to turn north and eventually recurve towards the Korean Peninsula.[2] The storm tracked through the province of Jiangsu,[5] and at 00:00 UTC on June 24 the JMA declared Ofelia an extratropical cyclone.[3] According to the JTWC, however, this did not take place until 00:00 UTC on June 25 when the system moved offshore and merged with a frontal zone.[2]

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Saffir–Simpson scale

Saffir–Simpson scale

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) classifies hurricanes—which in the Western Hemisphere are tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms—into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. This measuring system was formerly known as the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, or SSHS.

Tropical cyclone

Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and squalls. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply cyclone. A hurricane is a strong tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In the Indian Ocean, South Pacific, or (rarely) South Atlantic, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones", and such storms in the Indian Ocean can also be called "severe cyclonic storms".

Subtropical cyclone

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of both tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to severe gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

Monsoon trough

Monsoon trough

The monsoon trough is a portion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Western Pacific, as depicted by a line on a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure, and as such, is a convergence zone between the wind patterns of the southern and northern hemispheres.

Caroline Islands

Caroline Islands

The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically, they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in the central and eastern parts of the group, and Palau at the extreme western end. Historically, this area was also called Nuevas Filipinas or New Philippines, because they were part of the Spanish East Indies and were governed from Manila in the Philippines.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

Japan Meteorological Agency

Japan Meteorological Agency

The Japan Meteorological Agency , abbreviated JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Minato, Tokyo.

Rainband

Rainband

A rainband is a cloud and precipitation structure associated with an area of rainfall which is significantly elongated. Rainbands can be stratiform or convective, and are generated by differences in temperature. When noted on weather radar imagery, this precipitation elongation is referred to as banded structure. Rainbands within tropical cyclones are curved in orientation. Rainbands of tropical cyclones contain showers and thunderstorms that, together with the eyewall and the eye, constitute a hurricane or tropical storm. The extent of rainbands around a tropical cyclone can help determine the cyclone's intensity.

Outflow (meteorology)

Outflow (meteorology)

Outflow, in meteorology, is air that flows outwards from a storm system. It is associated with ridging, or anticyclonic flow. In the low levels of the troposphere, outflow radiates from thunderstorms in the form of a wedge of rain-cooled air, which is visible as a thin rope-like cloud on weather satellite imagery or a fine line on weather radar imagery. For observers on the ground, a thunderstorm outflow boundary often approaches in otherwise clear skies as a low, thick cloud that brings with it a gust front.

Dvorak technique

Dvorak technique

The Dvorak technique is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. Within the Dvorak satellite strength estimate for tropical cyclones, there are several visual patterns that a cyclone may take on which define the upper and lower bounds on its intensity. The primary patterns used are curved band pattern (T1.0-T4.5), shear pattern (T1.5–T3.5), central dense overcast (CDO) pattern (T2.5–T5.0), central cold cover (CCC) pattern, banding eye pattern (T4.0–T4.5), and eye pattern (T4.5–T8.0).

Central dense overcast

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity with the Dvorak technique. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem with strong tropical storms and minimal hurricanes as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

Preparations, impact, and aftermath

Philippines

Despite remaining offshore northern Luzon,[2] the storm's broad circulation[5] enhanced the southwest monsoon that inundated much of the northern Philippines.[2] Due to the impeding threat of Ofelia, authorities issued storm warnings for 13 provinces. Offshore, small craft advisories were issued.[8] All storm warnings were discontinued on June 23 as the storm moved away.[9]

The province of La Union was the hardest hit by the typhoon. There, 22 people were killed,[10] including a 60-year-old man and a child that were killed via a landslide[8] in Caba,[11] where 90 homes were destroyed. Throughout the province damage totaled P20 million (US$833,000).[1][nb 6][nb 7] In Pangasinan, west of La Union, two people were electrocuted.[10] Three children died and six others suffered injuries in their homes due to heavy rains in Pasig.[8] A 4-year-old girl died in a landslide in the mountain resort city of Baguio.[12] Philippine Airlines cancelled five domestic flights to and from Manila while schools were closed in the capital and other affected areas.[11] Storm surge toppled a seawall there[13] and much of the city lost power.[14] Offshore Manila, Provider and the Kootenay were stranded and necessitated rescue.[11] Well to the south of Manila, lightning killed two people in Lanao del Sur.[10] In all, 56 people were killed[15] and 14 others were wounded in the country.[16] Moreover, 270 homes were destroyed[17] and over 2,000 were damaged.[15] A total of 85,000 individuals were forced to flee their homes as a result of flooding.[5]

In response to the storm, the Philippine Red Cross ordered its chapters to provide relief to affected areas. Furthermore, the agency provided 200 sacks of goods, 100 cartons of sardines, and 200 cartons of rice.[1] A few days after Ofelia, Typhoon Percy passed through the country.[18]

Taiwan

Taiwan, on the other hand, took a direct hit from Ofelia,[2] with floodwater levels reaching 1 m (3.3 ft) in some places.[5] According to media reports, the storm was the worst to impact eastern Taiwan in 30 years,[2] dropping up to 46 cm (18 in) of rain in a 24-hour time span,[19] although damage was slight elsewhere.[12] Six people were killed, including five in drownings,[20] and thirty were injured in Hualien City, which was hardest hit by the typhoon. There, a dike was destroyed, causing 500 individuals to be stranded.[21] Much of the area lost electricity, water and telephone service and crop damage amounted to US$5 million.[22] In nearby villages, four people were deemed missing[20] and eight others were wounded.[21] In the harbor of Hualien, a 10,900-metric-ton (12,000-short-ton) freighter, Cahaya, broke into three sections,[5] though all 24 crewmen were unharmed.[12] In addition, a 7,000-metric-ton (7,700-short-ton) freighter, Juliana, ran aground.[5] All 28 sailors aboard were rescued,[23] but three of them sustained minor injuries.[20] Overall, more than 30 people required rescue during the course of the typhoon.[24] All domestic flights were cancelled in Taiwan during the passage of the typhoon.[20] Nationwide, over 200 houses were destroyed or damaged and about 8,500 ha (21,005 acres) of rice paddies and vegetables were flooded. Roads and highways were blocked by landslides and floods. Agricultural losses exceeded NT$2.55 billion (US$94.7 million).[5] Seventeen people died and twenty-three were deemed missing in the ensuing flooding and mudslides.[5]

China

After battering the Philippines and Taiwan, the typhoon dropped 100 mm (3.9 in) of precipitation in parts of central China. Across Wenzhou, 12  people were killed.[25] There, about 21,000 ha (51,890 acres) of farmland and over 800 ha (1,975 acres) of shrimp ponds were flooded. A total of 215 homes received damage[5] and 220 boats were swamped.[25] Monetary damage was estimated at about 205 million RMB (US$42.8 million).[5] Elsewhere, an elderly woman was crushed under a collapsing wall in Shanghai.[25] In Zhejiang, 1,696 boats were capsized, 3,700 homes were demolished, and 50 mi (80 km) of levees were destroyed.[26] Throughout the province, 15 people were killed and 21 people were injured. In the neighboring province of Fujian, at least 15 people perished and 9,044 houses were demolished. About 91,000 ha (224,865 acres) of farmland were inundated and damage was estimated at 338 million RMB (US$94.7 million).[5] Overall, 56 people were killed and 148 were injured in the country.[27]

Discover more about Preparations, impact, and aftermath related topics

Small craft advisory

Small craft advisory

A small craft advisory is a type of wind warning issued by the National Weather Service in the United States. In Canada a similar warning is issued by Environment Canada. It is issued when winds have reached, or are expected to reach within 12 hours, a speed marginally less than gale force. A Small Craft Advisory may also be issued when sea or lake ice exists that could be hazardous to small boats.

La Union

La Union

La Union, officially the Province of La Union, is a province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in the Island of Luzon. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, which also serves as the regional center of the Ilocos Region.

Caba, La Union

Caba, La Union

Caba, officially the Municipality of Caba, is a 4th class municipality in the province of La Union, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 23,119 people. 

Pangasinan

Pangasinan

Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan is a coastal province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region of Luzon. Its capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is in the western area of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi). According to the 2020 census it has a population of 3,163,190.  The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814. The western portion of the province is part of the homeland of the Sambal people, while the central and eastern portions are the homeland of the Pangasinan people. Due to ethnic migration, the Ilocano people settled in the province.

Pasig

Pasig

Pasig, officially known as the City of Pasig, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 803,159 people. 

Baguio

Baguio

Baguio, officially known as the City of Baguio, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines. It is known as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines", owing to its cool climate since the city is located approximately 4,810 feet above mean sea level, often cited as 1,540 meters in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion, which also makes it conducive for the growth of mossy plants, orchids and pine trees, to which it attributes its other moniker as the "City of Pines".

Philippine Airlines

Philippine Airlines

Philippine Airlines (PAL), a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc. and also known historically as Philippine Air Lines, is the flag carrier airline of the Philippines. Headquartered at the PNB Financial Center in Pasay, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia.

Lanao del Sur

Lanao del Sur

Lanao del Sur, officially the Province of Lanao del Sur, is a province in the Philippines located in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM). The capital is the city of Marawi, and it borders Lanao del Norte to the north, Bukidnon to the east, and Maguindanao del Norte and Cotabato to the south. To the southwest lies Illana Bay, an arm of the Moro Gulf.

Philippine Red Cross

Philippine Red Cross

The Philippine Red Cross is a non-profit humanitarian organization and a member of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Hualien City

Hualien City

Hualien City is a county-administered city and the county seat of Hualien County, Taiwan. It is located on the east coast of Taiwan on the Pacific Ocean, and has a population of 106,368 inhabitants.

Cargo ship

Cargo ship

A cargo ship or freighter is a merchant ship that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built of welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.

Fujian

Fujian

Fujian is a province on the southeastern coast of China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Quanzhou, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province.

Source: "Typhoon Ofelia", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoon_Ofelia.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ All currencies are converted from Taiwanese Dollars to United States Dollars using this with an exchange rate of the year 1990.
  2. ^ All damage totals are in 1990 values of their respective currencies.
  3. ^ All currencies are converted from Yuans to United States Dollars using this with an exchange rate of the year 1990.
  4. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[4]
  5. ^ Wind estimates from the JMA and most other basins throughout the world are sustained over 10 minutes, while estimates from the United States-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center are sustained over 1 minute. 10-minute winds are about 1.14 times the amount of 1-minute winds.[7]
  6. ^ All currencies are converted from Philippine pesos to United States Dollars using this with an exchange rate of the year 1990.
  7. ^ All damage totals are in 1990 values of their respective currencies.
References
  1. ^ a b c "Death Toll From Bising Climbs to 29". Manila Standard. June 24, 1990. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (1992). Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: 1990 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. pp. 57–61. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e Japan Meteorological Agency (October 10, 1992). RSMC Best Track Data – 1990–1999 (.TXT) (Report). Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  4. ^ "Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center 2000" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. February 2001. p. 3. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hong Kong Observatory (1991). "Part III – Tropical Cyclone Summaries". Meteorological Results: 1990 (PDF). Meteorological Results (Report). Hong Kong Observatory. p. 14. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Kenneth R. Knapp; Michael C. Kruk; David H. Levinson; Howard J. Diamond; Charles J. Neumann (2010). 1990 Ofelia (1990166N06141). The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone best track data (Report). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  7. ^ Christopher W Landsea; Hurricane Research Division (April 26, 2004). "Subject: D4) What does "maximum sustained wind" mean? How does it relate to gusts in tropical cyclones?". Frequently Asked Questions. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Tropical Storm Kills Five in the Philippines". Associated Press. June 21, 1990.
  9. ^ "Typhoon kills more than 30 in Philippines, heads for Taiwan". United Press International. June 23, 1990.
  10. ^ a b c "Typhoon Ofelia Heads for Taiwan; 29 Dead in the Philippines". Associated Press. June 22, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  11. ^ a b c "Philippines-Storm, 2nd Ld Cmplt". Canadian Press. June 22, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  12. ^ a b c "Storm Slams Into Philippines, Taiwan; 35 Dead". Associated Press. June 23, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  13. ^ "Tropical Storm Lashes Philippines; Eight Dead". Associated Press. June 22, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  14. ^ "Philippines-Storm". Canadian Press. June 22, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  15. ^ a b "Strong Typhoon Causes Heavy Losses to Philippines". Xinhua General Overseas News Service. June 27, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  16. ^ "Asian News; Death Toll In Philippine Typhoon Rises To 42". Japan Economic Newswire. June 25, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  17. ^ Philippines Typhoons Jun 1990 UNDRO Information Reports 1 - 2. United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (Report). ReliefWeb. June 27, 1990. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  18. ^ "Typhoon Percy Heads For Philippines, Gains Speed After Striking Palau". Associated Press. June 24, 1990.
  19. ^ "Storm Slams Taiwan, Killing Seven; Heads for China". Associated Press. June 24, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  20. ^ a b c d "Typhoon-Ofelia, Precede". Canadian Press. June 23, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  21. ^ a b "Typhoon Orphelia leaves more than 40 dead". United Press International. June 24, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  22. ^ "Taiwan Typhoon: 15 Die". Newsday. June 25, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  23. ^ "Typhoon Slams into Taiwan; 35 Reported Dead". Associated Press. June 23, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required) – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  24. ^ "Philippines-Typhoon". Canadian Press. June 23, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  25. ^ a b c "Typhoons, 1st Ld". Canadian Press. June 28, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  26. ^ "Typhoon Batters Eastern China, Another Gains Strength in Pacific". Associated Press. June 25, 1990. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  27. ^ China - Floods Jun 1990 UNDRO Situation Reports 1-5. United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (Report). ReliefWeb. July 19, 1990. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
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