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Turkmen cuisine

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
A festive Turkmen luncheon laid out on a sachak (Turkmen tablecloth placed on the floor).
A festive Turkmen luncheon laid out on a sachak (Turkmen tablecloth placed on the floor).

Turkmen cuisine, the cuisine of Turkmenistan, is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia. Turkmen seminomadic culture revolved around animal husbandry, especially sheep herding, and accordingly Turkmen cuisine is noted for its focus on meat, particularly mutton and lamb.[1] One source notes,

The nomadic past has left a very noticeable trace in Turkmen cuisine - the basis of the diet is meat: lamb, meat of gazelles, non-working camels, wild fowl, chicken. Beef is consumed much less frequently because this food appeared on the table much later, Turkmens don't eat horse meat at all.[2]

Turkmen cuisine does not generally use spices or seasonings other than salt and black pepper, and is typically cooked with large amounts of widely available cottonseed oil.[3]

A description of Turkmen foods presented at an annual culinary festival included "...more than 15 kinds of soup, meat and fish delicacies, ruddy ichlekli (meat pies), appetizing gutaps with different fillings (pumpkin, spinach), crumbly pilaf, kelle bash ayak and chekdirme, whole roasted lamb, kakmach, hearty yarma, numerous salads, traditional pishme, as well as sweets..."[4] At a formal ribbon-cutting ceremony for new housing, the offerings included "...all kinds of meat, poultry and fish dishes, cereals, vegetables and gourds, soups, culinary products made of dough, dairy products and drinks prepared according to ancient recipes. These include tamdyrlama, ichlekli, yarma, dograma, different kinds of pilaf, çorba, somsa, pishme, süzme, çal, agaran and much else."[5]

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Cuisine

Cuisine

A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation techniques, customs, and ingredients combine to enable dishes unique to a region.

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city. The population is about 6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics, and Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia.

Central Asia

Central Asia

Central Asia, also known as Middle Asia, is a region of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to western China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, which are colloquially referred to as the "-stans" as the countries all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". The current geographical location of Central Asia was formerly part of the historic region of Turkistan, also known as Turan.

Nomad

Nomad

A nomad is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, tinkers and trader nomads. In the twentieth century, the population of nomadic pastoral tribes slowly decreased, reaching an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world as of 1995.

Cottonseed oil

Cottonseed oil

Cottonseed oil is cooking oil from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.

Meat

Shashlyk {Turkmen: çişlik), skewered chunks of mutton, lamb, chicken, or sometimes fish, grilled over charcoal and garnished with raw sliced onion and a special vinegar-based sauce, is served in restaurants and often sold in the street. Shashlyk from pork and beef was introduced during the Russian Imperial period, and is easily found in major cities. Kebabs of ground meat are commonly prepared from beef and occasionally camel. Kakmach (Turkmen: kakmaç) is preserved, dried meat prepared in individual portions or strips. Kakmach may be fried in fat or baked in a tandoor, but it is traditionally dried like jerky in the hot desert sun.[1][3]

Gowurma is deep fat fried meat in bite-sized chunks, typically cooked in a cauldron (Turkmen: gazan, a large hemispherical iron pot placed over an open fire). Gowurma is used in various soups and can be eaten hot or cold, or put up for later use.[2]

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Turkmen language

Turkmen language

Turkmen, sometimes referred to as "Turkmen Turkic" or "Turkmen Turkish", is a Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia, mainly of Turkmenistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. It has an estimated 5 million native speakers in Turkmenistan, a further 719,000 speakers in northeastern Iran, and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan. Turkmen has official status in Turkmenistan, but it does not have official status in Iran and Afghanistan, where big communities of ethnic Turkmens live. Turkmen is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Turkmen communities of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and by diaspora communities, primarily in Turkey and Russia.

Lamb and mutton

Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton, generically sheep meat, are the meat of domestic sheep, Ovis aries. A sheep in its first year is a lamb and its meat is also lamb. The meat from sheep in their second year is hogget. Older sheep meat is mutton. Generally, "hogget" and "sheep meat" are not used by consumers outside Norway, New Zealand, South Africa, Scotland, and Australia. Hogget has become more common in England, particularly in the North often in association with rare breed and organic farming.

Charcoal

Charcoal

Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon residue produced by strongly heating wood in minimal oxygen to remove all water and volatile constituents. In the traditional version of this pyrolysis process, called charcoal burning, often by forming a charcoal kiln, the heat is supplied by burning part of the starting material itself, with a limited supply of oxygen. The material can also be heated in a closed retort. Modern "charcoal" briquettes used for outdoor cooking may contain many other additives, e.g. coal.

Onion

Onion

An onion, also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The shallot is a botanical variety of the onion which was classified as a separate species until 2011. Its close relatives include garlic, scallion, leek, and chive.

Vinegar

Vinegar

Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–8% acetic acid by volume. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation, converting simple sugars to ethanol using yeast, and ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. Many types of vinegar are available, depending on source materials. It is now mainly used in the culinary arts as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling. Various types are used as condiments or garnishes, including balsamic vinegar and malt vinegar.

Kebab

Kebab

Kebab or kabob is a type of cooked meat dish that originates from cuisines of the Middle East. Many variants of the category are popular around the world, including the skewered shish kebab and the doner kebab with bread.

Tandoor

Tandoor

A tandoor is a large urn-shaped oven, usually made of clay, originating from the Indian Subcontinent. Since antiquity, tandoors have been used to bake unleavened flatbreads, such as roti and naan, as well as to roast meat. The tandoor is predominantly used in Western Asian, Central Asian, South Asian, and Horn of African cuisines.

Jerky

Jerky

Jerky is lean trimmed meat cut into strips and dried (dehydrated) to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt to prevent bacteria growth before the meat has finished the dehydrating process. The word "jerky" derives from the Quechua word ch'arki which means "dried, salted meat". All that is needed to produce basic "jerky" is a low-temperature drying method, and salt to inhibit bacterial growth.

Dumplings

A wide variety of filled pies and dumplings are available in restaurants and bazaars. Manty are steamed dumplings filled with ground meat, onions or pumpkin. Typical fried dishes include somsa, gutap (often filled with spinach), fitchi (fitçi), börek, and ichlekli (içlekli). These are popular with travelers and taxi drivers, as they can be eaten quickly on the run, and are often sold at roadside stands.

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Ground meat

Ground meat

Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside North America, is meat finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife. A common type of ground meat is ground beef, but many other types of meats are prepared in a similar fashion, including pork, veal, lamb, goat meat, and poultry.

Pumpkin

Pumpkin

A pumpkin is a vernacular term for mature winter squash of species and varieties in the genus Cucurbita that has culinary and cultural significance but no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning. The term pumpkin is sometimes used interchangeably with "squash" or "winter squash", and is commonly used for cultivars of Cucurbita argyrosperma, Cucurbita ficifolia, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, and Cucurbita pepo.

Samsa (food)

Samsa (food)

Samsa is a savoury pastry in Central Asian cuisines. It represents a bun stuffed with meat and sometimes with vegetables.

Spinach

Spinach

Spinach is a leafy green flowering plant native to central and western Asia. It is of the order Caryophyllales, family Amaranthaceae, subfamily Chenopodioideae. Its leaves are a common edible vegetable consumed either fresh, or after storage using preservation techniques by canning, freezing, or dehydration. It may be eaten cooked or raw, and the taste differs considerably; the high oxalate content may be reduced by steaming.

Börek

Börek

Börek or burek are a family of pastries or pies found in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia. The pastry is made of a thin flaky dough such as filo with a variety of fillings, such as meat, cheese, spinach or potatoes. Boreks are mainly associated with Anatolia, the Middle East, Armenia, and also with the former Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans and the South Caucasus, Eastern European and Central European countries, Northern Africa and Central Asia. A borek may be prepared in a large pan and cut into portions after baking, or as individual pastries. They are usually baked but some varieties can be fried. Borek is sometimes sprinkled with sesame or nigella seeds, and it can be served hot or cold.

Ishlykly

Ishlykly

Ishlykly is a traditional dish similar to pizza but covered with dough. It consists of a two-layer dough stuffed with a mixture of meat and vegetables, and is often prepared for special guests especially in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and other places where Turkmens live.

Fruit

Melons

Melon vendor from Samarkand, Russian Turkestan (picture taken around 1905 to 1915)
Melon vendor from Samarkand, Russian Turkestan (picture taken around 1905 to 1915)

In the culinary arena, Turkmenistan is perhaps most famous for its melons (Turkmen: gawun), especially in the former Soviet Union, where it was once the major supplier. Turkmen state-controlled media have referred to the melon as the "tsarina of the garden" (Russian: царица бахчи).[6] Though very few melons are exported today,[7] they are a great source of national pride in Turkmenistan and subject of their own Melon Day holiday.[8] Turkmen sources claim the country is home to up to 400 distinct varieties.

Pomegranate

Residents of oases use pomegranate (Turkmen: nar) as a flavoring, often crushing for juice to be added to or mixed into dishes.[9]

Pumpkin

Pumpkins (Turkmen: kädi) are mainly used as a soup flavoring but, hollowed out, may be used as a vessel for baking casseroles or meats. Pumpkin seeds are crushed for cooking oil.[10]

Tomato

Although a foreign import from the New World, tomatoes have become a major influence on Turkmen cuisine in the last two centuries. Tomatoes are pickled, dried, pureed, and chopped for adding to dishes, and made into tomato soup and juice.[11]

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Samarkand

Samarkand

Samarkand, also known as Samarqand, is a city in southeastern Uzbekistan and among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic Era. Though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded, several theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China, Persia and Europe, at times Samarkand was one of the largest cities of Central Asia. Most of the inhabitants of this city are native speakers of Tajik dialect of Persian language. This city is one of the historical centers of the Tajik people in Central Asia, which in the past was one of the important cities of the great empires of Greater Iran.

Russian Turkestan

Russian Turkestan

Russian Turkestan was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories, and was administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship. It comprised the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.

Turkmen language

Turkmen language

Turkmen, sometimes referred to as "Turkmen Turkic" or "Turkmen Turkish", is a Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia, mainly of Turkmenistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. It has an estimated 5 million native speakers in Turkmenistan, a further 719,000 speakers in northeastern Iran, and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan. Turkmen has official status in Turkmenistan, but it does not have official status in Iran and Afghanistan, where big communities of ethnic Turkmens live. Turkmen is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Turkmen communities of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and by diaspora communities, primarily in Turkey and Russia.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Tsarina

Tsarina

Tsarina or tsaritsa is the title of a female autocratic ruler (monarch) of Bulgaria, Serbia or Russia, or the title of a tsar's wife. The English spelling is derived from the German czarin or zarin, in the same way as the French tsarine/czarine, and the Spanish and Italian czarina/zarina. (A tsar's daughter is a tsarevna.)

Russian language

Russian language

Russian is an East Slavic language mainly spoken in Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Melon Day

Melon Day

Melon Day is an annual national holiday in Turkmenistan devoted to festivities to celebrate the country's muskmelon, in particular a recent crossbreed product named "Turkmenbashy melon", which is praised for its aroma, taste and massive size. It takes place on the second Sunday in August.

Oasis

Oasis

In ecology, an oasis is a fertile area of a desert or semi-desert environment that sustains plant life and provides habitat for animals. Surface water may be present, or water may only be accessible from wells or underground channels created by humans. In geography, an oasis may be a current or past rest stop on a transportation route, or less-than-verdant location that nonetheless provides access to underground water through deep wells created and maintained by humans.

Pomegranate

Pomegranate

The pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m tall.

New World

New World

The term New World is often used to mean the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term gained prominence in the early 16th century, during Europe's Age of Discovery, shortly after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci concluded that America represented a new continent, and subsequently published his findings in a pamphlet he titled Latin: Mundus Novus. This realization expanded the geographical horizon of classical European geographers, who had thought the world consisted of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia. The Americas were thus also referred to as "the fourth part of the world".

Cereal-based dishes

Breads

Turkmen bread baking in tandyr
Turkmen bread baking in tandyr
Pishme
Pishme

Meals are almost always served with naan, Central Asian flat bread, known locally as çörek. Turkmen bread is prepared differently from other breads in the region in thick, round disc-shaped loaves baked in a traditional tamdyr clay oven. Bread baked with meat inside (etli çörek, or "meat bread") can be consumed as a meal in itself. Ýagly çörek (literally "oily bread, buttery bread") is a flaky, layered type of flat bread made with butter. Pishme (Turkmen: pişme) are soft, bite-sized, sweetened, fried breads traditionally presented to arriving guests as a welcoming gesture.

Bread bears highly symbolic importance in Turkmen culture.[12] It is considered highly impolite to turn a loaf of bread upside down or to mistreat bread in any way. There are many superstitions surrounding bread and its preparation. In the words of Turkmen state-controlled media,

...the main role in the hospitality of the peoples of Central Asia is played by bread - çörek, which also serves as a symbol of hospitality, brotherhood, honor, hard work, prosperity, gratitude and the kindest wishes. Bread is baked in many kinds...ancient recipes have many modern variations, but the matter is not even in the ingredients themselves, which determine the softness, puffiness and taste of dough, but in the special ritual of its preparation, especially for festive meals...[4]

The student of Turkmen culture Sergey Demidov wrote,

And yet, despite the high authority of the horse, there was something even higher and more sacred in the Turkmen household, bearing the stamp of taboo from ancient times. This was the tamdyr, the oven for baking çörek - a symbol of life, well-being and family hearth, supported by the sanctity of bread and, perhaps, by echoes of Zoroastrian-Mazdean beliefs associated with fire. Therefore, in the scale of ethical values there might have been a judgment such as: "It is better to slit a horse's throat or rob someone than to destroy a tamdyr".[13]

Pilaf

Pilaf (Turkmen: palaw, Russian: плов plov) is served at celebrations and to honored guests; one source calls it "king in Turkmen cuisine."[14] It consists of rice typically cooked with chunks of mutton and carrots, onions, and garlic, prepared in a large cast-iron cauldron. Different pilaf recipes may call for addition of raisins (Turkmen: kişmiş), fruits, fish, and ground meat.[3] Pilaf is traditionally eaten with the hands.

Porridges

Yarma (Turkmen: ýarma, from the Turkmen word ýarym "half, split") is cracked wheat cooked in sheep fat with very small pieces of mutton mixed in for flavor. The dish is claimed to have existed for at least one thousand years.[15] Shule (Turkmen: şüle) is a watery rice porridge with meat, sometimes served with shredded carrots.[16] Sorghum porridge (Turkmen: etli köje) is a traditional dish for the Novruz festival; the dish is ancient, for sorghum was introduced to the Turkmen by trade on the Silk Road.[17]

Casseroles

Chegdermeh (Turkmen: çegderme) is a mixture of boiled rice, fried meat, tomato, and chopped, sautéed onions, typically cooked in a cauldron.

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Naan

Naan

Naan is a leavened, oven-baked or tawa-fried flatbread which is found in the cuisines mainly of Western Asia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and the Caribbean.

Tandoor

Tandoor

A tandoor is a large urn-shaped oven, usually made of clay, originating from the Indian Subcontinent. Since antiquity, tandoors have been used to bake unleavened flatbreads, such as roti and naan, as well as to roast meat. The tandoor is predominantly used in Western Asian, Central Asian, South Asian, and Horn of African cuisines.

Butter

Butter

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of approximately 80% butterfat. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as a fat in baking, sauce-making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures.

Turkmen language

Turkmen language

Turkmen, sometimes referred to as "Turkmen Turkic" or "Turkmen Turkish", is a Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia, mainly of Turkmenistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. It has an estimated 5 million native speakers in Turkmenistan, a further 719,000 speakers in northeastern Iran, and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan. Turkmen has official status in Turkmenistan, but it does not have official status in Iran and Afghanistan, where big communities of ethnic Turkmens live. Turkmen is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Turkmen communities of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and by diaspora communities, primarily in Turkey and Russia.

Culture of Turkmenistan

Culture of Turkmenistan

The Turkmen people have traditionally been nomads and equestrians, and even today after the fall of the USSR attempts to urbanize the Turkmens have not been very successful. They never really formed a coherent nation or ethnic group until they were forged into one by Joseph Stalin in the 1930s. Rather they are divided into clans, and each clan has its own dialect and style of dress. Turkmens are famous for making knotted Turkmen carpets, often mistakenly called "Bukhara rugs" in the West. These are elaborate and colorful hand-knotted carpets, and these too help indicate the distinctions among the various Turkmen clans.

Pilaf

Pilaf

Pilaf or pilau is a rice dish, or in some regions, a wheat dish, whose recipe usually involves cooking in stock or broth, adding spices, and other ingredients such as vegetables or meat, and employing some technique for achieving cooked grains that do not adhere to each other.

Russian language

Russian language

Russian is an East Slavic language mainly spoken in Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Rice

Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly O. glaberrima. The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.

Garlic

Garlic

Garlic is a species of bulbous flowering plant in the genus Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, Welsh onion and Chinese onion. It is native to South Asia, Central Asia and northeastern Iran and has long been used as a seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use. It was known to ancient Egyptians and has been used as both a food flavoring and a traditional medicine. China produces 76% of the world's supply of garlic.

Soups

Shurpa (Turkmen: şurpa), meat boullion, is the base of most soups. The most traditional Turkmen soups are various types of unash (Turkmen: unaş), made with milk and noodles or with beans and noodles. Other common soups include dograma (also dogramaly şurpa), made with diced organ meats and bread, onion, and tomato;[18] dumpling soup (Turkmen: etli börek şurpasy); and mung bean soup (Turkmen: şurpa maş).[2] Suytlash (Turkmen: süýtlaş, also süýtli unaş and süýtli aş) is a vermicelli pudding traditionally served as the second course at wedding feasts. Some variants use rice in lieu of vermicelli.[19] Though considered by some Turkmen to be a type of porridge, Turkmen cookbooks categorize it as a soup.[20][21] Drawing from culinary traditions of neighbors, lagman, a soupy Uyghur noodle dish, is also common.

Bottle of Turkmen brandy (cognac) bearing a portrait of Saparmurat Niyazov in a military uniform.
Bottle of Turkmen brandy (cognac) bearing a portrait of Saparmurat Niyazov in a military uniform.

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Chorba

Chorba

Chorba or shorba is a broad class of stews or rich soups found in national cuisines across the Iran, Middle East, Maghreb, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is often prepared with added ingredients but served alone as a broth or with bread.

Turkmen language

Turkmen language

Turkmen, sometimes referred to as "Turkmen Turkic" or "Turkmen Turkish", is a Turkic language spoken by the Turkmens of Central Asia, mainly of Turkmenistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. It has an estimated 5 million native speakers in Turkmenistan, a further 719,000 speakers in northeastern Iran, and 1.5 million people in northwestern Afghanistan. Turkmen has official status in Turkmenistan, but it does not have official status in Iran and Afghanistan, where big communities of ethnic Turkmens live. Turkmen is also spoken to lesser varying degrees in Turkmen communities of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and by diaspora communities, primarily in Turkey and Russia.

Mung bean

Mung bean

The mung bean, alternatively known as the green gram, maash ٫ mūng, monggo, or munggo (Philippines), is a plant species in the legume family. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East, Southeast and South Asia. It is used as an ingredient in both savoury and sweet dishes.

Laghman (food)

Laghman (food)

Laghman is a dish of meat, vegetables and pulled noodles from Uyghur cuisine and Central Asian cuisine. In Chinese, the noodle is known as latiaozi or bànmiàn.

Saparmurat Niyazov

Saparmurat Niyazov

Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov, also known as Turkmen: Türkmenbaşy, Russian: Туркменбаши, meaning "head of the Turkmen", was a Turkmen politician who ruled Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006 as a dictator. He was first secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and supported the 1991 Soviet coup attempt. He continued to rule Turkmenistan for 15 years after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Beverages

As in the rest of Central Asia, green tea (Turkmen: çaý) is the primary drink, consumed at all hours. In the Turkmen language, çaý (pronounced "chai") can refer either to a meal (typically breakfast) or to sitting down for a visit over tea.[14][22] In the Dashoguz region, it is sometimes drunk "Kazakh-style" with milk, often to disguise the salty taste of the drinking water in that area.

Gatyk, a thick drinking yogurt similar to kefir, is often served with breakfast and sometimes used as a condiment on börek or manty, replacing the traditional sour cream. The drink the nation is known for, however, is çal ("chal"), fermented camel's milk, which is a white sparkling beverage with a sour flavour, popular in Central Asia, particularly in Turkmenistan.[23] Because of specific preparation requirements and its being extremely perishable, çal presents a great challenge for exporters to ship outside Turkmenistan or the region for foreign consumption.[24] It is similar to the Kyrgyz drink shoro. One source notes that Turkmens like to skim agaran (a type of butter) from the surface of chal.[25]

Alcoholic beverages

Vodka (Turkmen: arak) is the most popular alcoholic beverage, due to its relatively low cost, followed by beer, wine, brandy, and sparkling wine (Russian: шампанское shampanskoye).Spirits and beer were introduced during the Russian imperial period. Beer was introduced in the 19th century by German brewers and though not a traditional beverage is popular in urban areas. Two domestic beer brands, Berk and Zip, are produced in Turkmenistan.[26][27][28]

Archeological exploration indicates viticulture in the oasis area north of the Kopet Dag Mountains dates to the 3rd-2nd centuries BCE. Wheat was cultivated in the lowlands and vineyards were planted in the foothills. Wine grapes were also grown in the upper Murghab Valley near the present-day Turkmenistan-Afghanistan border. Introduction of Islam to Central Asia did not impede continuation of wine production, in part because wine is central to Sufism.[29] In the 21st century, Turkmenistan produces over 200 different grape wines and brandies from 100 grape varieties.[30]

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Central Asia

Central Asia

Central Asia, also known as Middle Asia, is a region of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to western China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, which are colloquially referred to as the "-stans" as the countries all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". The current geographical location of Central Asia was formerly part of the historic region of Turkistan, also known as Turan.

Green tea

Green tea

Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves and buds that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process which is used to make oolong teas and black teas. Green tea originated in China, and since then its production and manufacture has spread to other countries in East Asia.

Daşoguz Region

Daşoguz Region

Daşoguz Region is one of the regions of Turkmenistan. It is in the north of the country, bordering Uzbekistan. The area of the province is 73,430 square kilometers, and the total population is 1,370,400. The capital is Daşoguz.

Kazakh cuisine

Kazakh cuisine

Traditional Kazakh cuisine is the traditional food of the Kazakh people. It is focused on mutton and horse meat, as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years, Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation's nomadic way of life. For example, most cooking techniques are aimed at long-term preservation of food. There is a large practice of salting and drying meat so that it will last, and there is a preference for sour milk, as it is easier to save in a nomadic lifestyle.

Kefir

Kefir

Kefir is a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt or ayran that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture. The drink originated in the North Caucasus, from where it came to Russia, and from there it spread to Europe and the United States, where it is prepared by inoculating the milk of cows, goats, or sheep with kefir grains.

Breakfast

Breakfast

Breakfast is the first meal of the day usually eaten in the morning. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the previous night. Various "typical" or "traditional" breakfast menus exist, with food choices varying by regions and traditions worldwide.

Manti (food)

Manti (food)

Manti is a type of dumpling popular in most cuisines of the South Caucasus, Balkans, Central Asia, and Afghanistan. Manti is also popular among Chinese Muslims, and it is consumed throughout post-Soviet countries, where the dish spread from the Central Asian republics. The dumplings typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef, wrapped in a thin dough sheet which is then boiled or steamed. The size and shape of manti vary significantly depending on geographic location.

Chal

Chal

Chal, or shubat, is a Turkic beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. In Kazakhstan the drink is known as shubat, and is a staple summer food. Due to preparation requirements and perishable nature, chal has proved difficult to export. Agaran is collected from the surface of chal.

Camel

Camel

A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food and textiles. Camels are working animals especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel. The one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, and the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up 6%. The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is now critically endangered.

Milk

Milk

Milk is a white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest solid food. Immune factors and immune-modulating components in milk contribute to milk immunity. Early-lactation milk, which is called colostrum, contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system, and thus reduces the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many nutrients, including protein and lactose.

Butter

Butter

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of approximately 80% butterfat. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as a fat in baking, sauce-making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures.

Beer

Beer

Beer is the oldest and most widely consumed type of alcoholic drink in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after potable water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.

Fish

Fish forms part of the traditional diet of Turkmen tribes residing near the Caspian Sea and along the Amu Darya. The Caspian Turkmen recipes call for both grilling and frying fish, but serving with "sesame, rice, apricots, raisins, pomegranate juice."[31]

Foreign influences

Restaurants in Turkmenistan often also serve Russian fare such as pelmeni, buckwheat (grechka), golubtsy, and a wide variety of mayonnaise-based salads. The potato and tomato, both introduced from the New World, are widely used in meal preparation.[32] Urban steakhouses have appeared in Ashgabat, the capital city.[33][34][35]

Discover more about Foreign influences related topics

Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different dishes and cooking traditions of the Russian people as well as a list of culinary products popular in Russia, with most names being known since pre-Soviet times, coming from all kinds of social circles.

Pelmeni

Pelmeni

Pelmeni are dumplings of Russian cuisine that consist of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.

Buckwheat

Buckwheat

Buckwheat, or common buckwheat, is a flowering plant in the knotweed family Polygonaceae cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. The name "buckwheat" is used for several other species, such as Fagopyrum tataricum, a domesticated food plant raised in Asia.

Cabbage roll

Cabbage roll

A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings. It is common to the cuisines of Central, Northern, Eastern and Southeastern Europe and much of Western Asia, Northern China, as well as parts of North Africa. Meat fillings are traditional in Europe, and include beef, lamb, or pork seasoned with garlic, onion, and spices. Grains such as rice and barley, mushrooms, and vegetables are often included as well. Fermented cabbage leaves are used for wrapping, particularly in southeastern Europe. In Asia, seafoods, tofu, and shiitake mushrooms may also be used. Chinese cabbage is often used as a wrapping.

New World

New World

The term New World is often used to mean the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term gained prominence in the early 16th century, during Europe's Age of Discovery, shortly after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci concluded that America represented a new continent, and subsequently published his findings in a pamphlet he titled Latin: Mundus Novus. This realization expanded the geographical horizon of classical European geographers, who had thought the world consisted of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia. The Americas were thus also referred to as "the fourth part of the world".

Ashgabat

Ashgabat

Ashgabat or Asgabat, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It lies between the Karakum Desert and the Kopetdag mountain range in Central Asia, near the Iran-Turkmenistan border.

Source: "Turkmen cuisine", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkmen_cuisine.

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See also
Bibliography
  • Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan"
  • Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly (2014), Turkmen dastarkhan, Dishes of the national cuisine, Ashgabat: Turkmen State Publishing Service Volume 1, Volume 2
  • Eden, Caroline (2020), Red Sands, London: Quadrille, ISBN 978-1-787-134829
  • Esenova, Gyulshat (2019), Sachak, Traditional Turkmen Recipes in a Modern Kitchen, ISBN 978-0-578-81405-6
  • One Turkmen Kitchen, One Turkmen Kitchen, retrieved 25 January 2023, website with recipes
  • Туркменская национальная кухня и ее особенности [Turkmen national cuisine and its particulars] (in Russian), Infoabad, 20 November 2021, retrieved 26 January 2023
References
  1. ^ a b "Туркменская кухня. Особенности" [Turkmen cuisine. Particulars] (in Russian). Мастер & повар / Кулинарная школа. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b c Туркменская кухня (in Russian), Виртуальный музей "Сокровища Туркменистана", retrieved 25 January 2023
  3. ^ a b c Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan"
  4. ^ a b Международный фестиваль национальных блюд народов стран Центральной Азии (in Russian), Туркменистан сегодня, 6 August 2021
  5. ^ Президент Сердар Бердымухамедов принял участие в открытии нового коттеджного комплекса в приморье (in Russian), Туркменистан сегодня, 1 August 2022
  6. ^ Фестиваль национальных блюд народов стран Центральной Азии обогатил традиции добрососедских угощений (in Russian), Туркменистан сегодня, 13 August 2021
  7. ^ Turkmenistan: Country Report to the FAO International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resource, Leipzig, 1996, p. 6. Retrieved April 15, 2008
  8. ^ Растения и Животные в Легендах и Верованиях Туркмен [Plants and Animals in Legends and Beliefs of Turkmen] (PDF), Этнография туркмен (in Russian), Moscow: Старый сад, 2020, pp. 97–98
  9. ^ Туркменская кухня (in Russian), Anur Tour, retrieved 26 January 2023
  10. ^ Туркменская национальная кухня и ее особенности [Turkmen national cuisine and its particulars] (in Russian), Infoabad, 20 November 2021, retrieved 26 January 2023
  11. ^ Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), "Chapter XII, Jams and other preparations", Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan"
  12. ^ Sacred Words "Tamdyr" and "Chorek" Paseviev, Ikar. Retrieved April 15, 2008
  13. ^ Растения и Животные в Легендах и Верованиях Туркмен [Plants and Animals in Legends and Beliefs of Turkmen] (PDF), Этнография туркмен (in Russian), Moscow: Старый сад, 2020, p. 349
  14. ^ a b Awde, Nicholas; Dirks, William; Amandurdyev, Amandurdy (2005), Turkmen Dictionary and Phrasebook, New York: Hippocrene Books, ISBN 0-7818-1072-8, page 133
  15. ^ Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly (2014), Turkmen dastarkhan, Dishes of the national cuisine, Ashgabat: Turkmen State Publishing Service Volume 1, page 154
  16. ^ Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly (2014), Turkmen dastarkhan, Dishes of the national cuisine, Ashgabat: Turkmen State Publishing Service Volume 1, page 60
  17. ^ Esenova, Gyulshat (2019), Sachak, Traditional Turkmen Recipes in a Modern Kitchen, ISBN 978-0-578-81405-6, page 151
  18. ^ Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan", p. 84
  19. ^ Vermicelli Pudding (Süýtlaş), One Turkmen Kitchen, retrieved 26 January 2023
  20. ^ Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan", p. 90
  21. ^ Esenova, Gyulshat (2019), Sachak, Traditional Turkmen Recipes in a Modern Kitchen, p. 134, ISBN 978-0-578-81405-6
  22. ^ Heron, Joan (2014), Chai Budesh? Anyone for Tea?: A Peace Corps Memoir of Turkmenistan, America Star Books, ISBN 978-1633821538
  23. ^ Anatoly Khazanov, Nomads and the outside world, Second edition, University of Wisconsin Press, 1994, p. 49
  24. ^ Great Culinary Dictionary. "Chal" Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine in Russian, retrieved April 11, 2007
  25. ^ I.Barkhanov. Neutral Turkmenistan newspaper Archived 2005-11-10 at the Wayback Machine, in Russian, August 9, 2001.
  26. ^ ZIP company website
  27. ^ Туркменское пиво (in Russian), Turkmen.News, 8 August 2012
  28. ^ Информационный бюллетень (PDF), Финансирование и консультации для малого бизнеса в Туркменистане (in Russian), EBRD, January 2017
  29. ^ Muradov, Ruslan G. (2019), Семь тысяч лет виноградарства [Seven Thousand Years of Viticulture] (in Russian), Форум плюс
  30. ^ В Туркменистане производятся вина и коньяки 200 наименований [In Turkmenistan 200 types of wine and brandy are produced] (in Russian), SNG Today, 22 November 2017
  31. ^ Berdimuhamedow, Gurbanguly (2014), Turkmen dastarkhan, Dishes of the national cuisine, Ashgabat: Turkmen State Publishing Service Volume 1, page 148
  32. ^ Bagdasarov, A.; Vanukevich, A.; Hudaýşukurow, T. (1981), Tуркменская кулинария [Turkmen Cuisine] (in Russian), Ashgabat: Izdatel'stvo "Turkmenistan"
  33. ^ Argentina Steak House
  34. ^ Nevada Steak House
  35. ^ Alp Et Steakhouse
External links

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