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Tulsa, Oklahoma

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Tulsa, Oklahoma
Downtown Tulsa skyline
Downtown Tulsa skyline
Official seal of Tulsa, Oklahoma
Nickname(s): 
"Oil Capital of the World", "Tulsey Town", "T-Town", "Buckle of the Bible Belt", "The 918"
Motto: 
"A New Kind Of Energy"
Interactive map of Tulsa
Coordinates: 36°07′53″N 95°56′14″W / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722Coordinates: 36°07′53″N 95°56′14″W / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722
CountryUnited States
StateOklahoma
CountiesOsage, Rogers, Tulsa, Wagoner
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorG. T. Bynum (R)
Area
 • City201.85 sq mi (522.79 km2)
 • Land197.76 sq mi (512.21 km2)
 • Water4.09 sq mi (10.58 km2)
Elevation
722 ft (194 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City413,066
 • Rank47th in the United States
2nd in Oklahoma
 • Density2,088.67/sq mi (806.44/km2)
 • Metro1,023,988 (54th)
DemonymTulsan
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
ZIP Codes[3]
Area code(s)539/918
FIPS code40-75000
GNIS feature ID1100962[4]
Websitewww.cityoftulsa.org

Tulsa (/ˈtʌlsə/) is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 47th-most populous city in the United States. The population was 413,066 as of the 2020 census.[5] It is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 1,023,988 residents. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma,[6] with urban development extending into Osage, Rogers, and Wagoner counties.[7]

Tulsa was settled between 1828 and 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe and most of Tulsa is still part of the territory of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation.[8][a]

Historically, a robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy; however, today the city has diversified and leading sectors include finance, aviation, telecommunications and technology.[9] Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level: Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa. As well, the University of Oklahoma has a secondary campus at the Tulsa Schusterman Center, and Oklahoma State University has a secondary campus located in downtown Tulsa. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry.[10]

It is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country". Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma,[11][12] Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, and one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture.[13]

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Oklahoma

Oklahoma

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

List of United States cities by population

List of United States cities by population

This is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an "incorporated place" includes a variety of designations, including city, town, village, borough, and municipality. A few exceptional census-designated places (CDPs) are also included in the Census Bureau's listing of incorporated places. Consolidated city-counties represent a distinct type of government that includes the entire population of a county, or county equivalent. Some consolidated city-counties, however, include multiple incorporated places. This list presents only that portion of such consolidated city-counties that are not a part of another incorporated place.

2020 United States census

2020 United States census

The United States census of 2020 was the twenty-fourth decennial United States census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 census, this was the first U.S. census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the paper response form used for previous censuses. The census was taken during the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected its administration. The census recorded a resident population of 331,449,281 in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, an increase of 7.4 percent, or 22,703,743, over the preceding decade. The growth rate was the second-lowest ever recorded, and the net increase was the sixth highest in history. This was the first census where the ten most populous states each surpassed 10 million residents as well as the first census where the ten most populous cities each surpassed 1 million residents.

County seat

County seat

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is in use in Canada, China, Hungary, Romania, Taiwan, and the United States. The equivalent term shire town is used in the US state of Vermont and in some other English-speaking jurisdictions. County towns have a similar function in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as historically in Jamaica.

Osage County, Oklahoma

Osage County, Oklahoma

Osage County is the largest county by area in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Created in 1907 when Oklahoma was admitted as a state, the county is named for and is home to the federally recognized Osage Nation. The county is coextensive with the Osage Nation Reservation, established by treaty in the 19th century when the Osage relocated there from Kansas. The county seat is in Pawhuska, one of the first three towns established in the county. The total population of the county is 47,987.

NCAA Division I

NCAA Division I

NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States, which accepts players globally. D-I schools include the major collegiate athletic powers, with large budgets, more elaborate facilities and more athletic scholarships than Divisions II and III as well as many smaller schools committed to the highest level of intercollegiate competition.

Oral Roberts University

Oral Roberts University

Oral Roberts University (ORU) is a private evangelical university in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Founded in 1963, the university is named after its founder, evangelist Oral Roberts.

Oil Capital of the World

Oil Capital of the World

The title of "Oil Capital of the World" is often used to refer to Tulsa, Oklahoma. Houston, Texas, the current center of the oil industry, more frequently uses the sobriquet “The Energy Capital of the World.”

Petroleum in the United States

Petroleum in the United States

Petroleum has been a major industry in the United States since shortly after the oil discovery in the Oil Creek area of Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859. The industry includes exploration, production, processing (refining), transportation, and marketing of natural gas and petroleum products. In 2018, the U.S. became the worlds largest crude oil producer, producing 15% of global crude oil, surpassing Russia and Saudi Arabia. The leading oil-producing area in the United States in 2019 was Texas, followed by the offshore federal zone of the Gulf of Mexico, North Dakota and New Mexico. In 2020, the top five U.S. oil producing states were Texas (43%), North Dakota (10.4%), New Mexico (9.2%), Oklahoma (4.1%), and Colorado (4.0%).

Arkansas River

Arkansas River

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley. The headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Osage Hills

Osage Hills

The Osage Hills is a hilly area in Oklahoma, commonly known as The Osage. The name refers to the broad rolling hills and rolling tallgrass prairie and Cross Timbers encompassing Osage County and surrounding areas, including portions of Mayes, Tulsa, Washington and Kay Counties. The Osage is the southern extension of the Flint Hills of Kansas.

Green Country

Green Country

Green Country, sometimes referred to as Northeast Oklahoma, is the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, which lies west of the northern half of Arkansas, the southwestern corner the way of Missouri, and south of Kansas.

History

The Meadow Gold sign has greeted Route 66 travelers in Tulsa for decades.
The Meadow Gold sign has greeted Route 66 travelers in Tulsa for decades.

The area where Tulsa now exists is considered Indian Territory, on the land of the Kiikaapoi (Kickapoo), Wahzhazhe Ma zha (Osage), Muscogee (Creek), and Caddo tribes, among others,[14] before it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836.[15] They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present-day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street. This area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Tallassee, Alabama area. They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which later became "Tulsa".[15] The area around Tulsa was also settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" who had been relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations.

Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting. The Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and several battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River that is now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, and Little Britches.

In 2020, the Supreme Court ruled that much of eastern Oklahoma, including much of Tulsa, falls in the category of Indian Country, reshaping much of the legal jurisdiction in the region. The Muscogee (Creek), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole tribal communities welcomed the decision as a long-fought for victory.[16]

Incorporation and "Oil Capital" prosperity

Around August 1, 1882, the town was almost centered at a location just north of the current Whittier Square, when a construction crew laying out the line of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad chose that spot for a sidetrack.[17] However, an area merchant persuaded them to move the site further west into the Muscogee Nation, which had friendlier laws for white business owners.[17] On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was officially incorporated and elected Edward Calkins as the city's first mayor.[18]

Tulsa was still a micro town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1,[18] was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the grand Glenn Pool Oil Reserve (located approximately 15 miles south of downtown Tulsa and site of the present-day town of Glenpool) prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields; Tulsa's population swelled to over 140,000 between 1901 and 1930.[19] Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most frequently migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest. This migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities (Tulsa has larger and more prominent Catholic and Jewish populations than most Oklahoma cities) and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods.

A map of Tulsa in 1920
A map of Tulsa in 1920

Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time.[10] Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.[20]

In 1923, Harwelden was built by oil baron E. P. Harwell and his wife Mary and is an example of prosperity in Tulsa, Oklahoma in the 1920s.

1921 race massacre

In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous Black communities in the United States at the time.[21] Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Massacre, said to be "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history",[22] in which mobs of White Tulsans killed Black Tulsans, looted and robbed the Black community, and burned down homes and businesses.[21] Sixteen hours of massacring on May 31 and June 1, 1921, ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the governor. An official report later claimed that 23 Black and 16 White citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them Black.[21] Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, and an estimated 1,000 Black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million.[21] Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.[23]

20th century

Cain's Ballroom came to be known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing"[24] in the early 20th century.
Cain's Ballroom came to be known as the "Carnegie Hall of Western Swing"[24] in the early 20th century.

In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66,"[25] began his campaign to create a road linking Chicago to Los Angeles by establishing the U.S. Highway 66 Association in Tulsa, earning the city the nickname the "Birthplace of Route 66".[26] Once completed, U.S. Route 66 took an important role in Tulsa's development as the city served as a popular rest stop for travelers, who were greeted by Route 66 icons such as the Meadow Gold Sign and the Blue Whale of Catoosa. During this period, Bob Wills and his group, The Texas Playboys, began their long performing stint at a small ballroom in downtown Tulsa. In 1935, Cain's Ballroom became the base for the group,[24] which is largely credited for creating Western Swing music. The venue continued to attract famous musicians through its history, and is still in operation today.[24]

For the rest of the mid-20th century, the city had a master plan to construct parks, churches, museums, rose gardens, improved infrastructure, and increased national advertising.[10] The Spavinaw Dam, built during this era to accommodate the city's water needs, was considered one of the largest public works projects of the era.[27]

A national recession greatly affected the city's economy in 1982, as areas of Texas and Oklahoma heavily dependent on oil suffered the freefall in gas prices due to a glut, and a mass exodus of oil industries.[28] Tulsa, heavily dependent on the oil industry, was one of the hardest-hit cities by the fall of oil prices.[28] By 1992, the state's economy had fully recovered,[28] but leaders worked to expand into sectors unrelated to oil and energy.

21st century

In 2003, the "Vision 2025" program was approved by voters, to enhance and revitalize Tulsa's infrastructure and tourism industry. The keystone project of the initiative, the BOK Center, was designed to be a home for the city's minor league hockey and arena football teams, as well as a venue for major concerts and conventions. The multi-purpose arena, designed by famed architect Cesar Pelli, broke ground in 2005[29] and was opened on August 30, 2008.[30]

In July 2020 the Supreme Court ruled in McGirt v. Oklahoma that as it pertains to criminal law much of eastern Oklahoma, including Tulsa, remains as Native American lands.[31] Specifically, prosecution of crimes by Native Americans on these lands falls into the jurisdiction of the tribal courts and federal judiciary under the Major Crimes Act, rather than Oklahoma's courts.[32]

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History of Tulsa, Oklahoma

History of Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States.

Indian Territory

Indian Territory

The Indian Territory and the Indian Territories are terms that generally described an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land as a sovereign independent state. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the US federal government's 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the US government was one of assimilation.

Creek Council Oak Tree

Creek Council Oak Tree

The Creek Council Oak Tree is a historic landmark which represents the founding of the modern city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States by the Lochapoka Tribal Town of the Creek Nation.

Five Civilized Tribes

Five Civilized Tribes

The term Five Civilized Tribes was applied by European Americans in the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States to the five major Native American nations in the Southeast—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole. Americans of European descent classified them as "civilized" because they had adopted attributes of the Anglo-American culture. Examples of such colonial attributes adopted by these five tribes included Christianity, centralized governments, literacy, market participation, written constitutions, intermarriage with white Americans, and chattel slavery practices, including purchase of enslaved African Americans. For a period, the Five Civilized Tribes tended to maintain stable political relations with the European Americans, before the United States promoted Indian Removal of these tribes from the Southeast.

Cherokee Nation

Cherokee Nation

The Cherokee Nation, also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated, due to increasing pressure, from the Southeast to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. The tribe also includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen, Absentee Shawnee, and Natchez Nation. As of 2021, over 400,000 people were enrolled in the Cherokee Nation.

American Civil War

American Civil War

The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States. It was fought between the Union and the Confederacy, the latter formed by states that had seceded. The central cause of the war was the dispute over whether slavery would be permitted to expand into the western territories, leading to more slave states, or be prevented from doing so, which was widely believed would place slavery on a course of ultimate extinction.

Battle of Chusto-Talasah

Battle of Chusto-Talasah

The Battle of Chusto-Talasah, also known as Bird Creek, Caving Banks, and High Shoal, was fought December 9, 1861, in what is now Tulsa County, Oklahoma during the American Civil War. It was the second of three battles in the Trail of Blood on Ice campaign for the control of Indian Territory during the American Civil War.

Dalton Gang

Dalton Gang

The Dalton Gang was a group of outlaws in the American Old West during 1890–1892. It was also known as The Dalton Brothers because four of its members were brothers. The gang specialized in bank and train robberies. During an attempted double bank robbery in Coffeyville, Kansas, in 1892, two of the brothers and two other gang members were killed; Emmett Dalton survived, was captured, and later pleaded guilty to second-degree murder, although he later asserted that he never fired a shot during the robbery. He was paroled after serving 14 years in prison.

Little Britches (outlaw)

Little Britches (outlaw)

Little Britches was an outlaw in the American Old West associated with Cattle Annie. Their exploits are fictionalized in the 1981 film Cattle Annie and Little Britches, directed by Lamont Johnson and starring Diane Lane as Little Britches.

Cherokee

Cherokee

The Cherokee are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in their homelands, in towns along river valleys of what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, edges of western South Carolina, northern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama.

Chickasaw Nation

Chickasaw Nation

The Chickasaw Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe, with its headquarters located in Ada, Oklahoma in the United States. They are an Indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, originally from northern Mississippi, northernwestern Alabama, southwestern Kentucky, and western Tennessee. Today, the Chickasaw Nation is the 13th largest tribe in the United States.

Choctaw

Choctaw

The Choctaw are a Native American people originally based in the Southeastern Woodlands, in what is now Alabama and Mississippi. Their Choctaw language is a Western Muskogean language. Today, Choctaw people are enrolled in three federally recognized tribes: the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and Jena Band of Choctaw Indians in Louisiana.

Geography

Regional map
Regional map

Tulsa is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma between the edge of the Great Plains and the foot of the Ozarks in a generally forested region of rolling hills. The city touches the eastern extent of the Cross Timbers, an ecoregion of forest and prairie transitioning from the drier plains of the west to the wetter forests of the east.[33] With a wetter climate than points westward, Tulsa serves as a gateway to "Green Country", a popular and official designation for northeast Oklahoma that stems from the region's green vegetation and relatively large number of hills and lakes compared to central and western areas of Oklahoma,[34] which lie largely in the drier Great Plains region of the Central United States. Located near the western edge of the U.S. Interior Highlands, northeastern Oklahoma is the most topographically diverse part of the state, containing seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions[35] and more than half of its state parks.[36] The region encompasses 30 lakes or reservoirs[37] and borders the neighboring states of Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas. The geographic coordinates of the city of Tulsa are 36°7′53″N 95°56′14″W / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722 (36.131294, −95.937332),[38] with an elevation of 700 feet (210 m) above sea level.

Topography

The city developed on both sides of the prominent Arkansas River, which flows in a wide, sandy-bottomed channel. Its flow through the Tulsa area is controlled by upstream flood control reservoirs, but its width and depth can vary widely throughout the year, such as during periods of high rainfall or severe drought. A low-water dam was built to maintain a full channel at all times in the area adjacent to downtown Tulsa. This portion of the river was known as Zink Lake. However, the City of Tulsa allowed the dam to deteriorate and it no longer functions to retain the lake for which it was designed.[39][40]

Heavily wooded and with abundant parks and water areas, the city has several prominent hills, such as "Shadow Mountain" and "Turkey Mountain", which create varied terrain, especially in its southern portions. While its central and northern sections are generally flat to gently undulating, the Osage Hills extension into the northwestern part of the city further varies the landscape. Holmes Peak, north of the city, is the tallest point in the Tulsa Metro area at 1,360 ft (415 m)[41] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 186.8 square miles (484 km2), of which 182.6 square miles (473 km2) is land and 4.2 square miles (11 km2) (2.24%) is water.

Cityscape

Panoramic view of Centennial Park and Downtown, looking west
Panoramic view of Centennial Park and Downtown, looking west

Architecture

The Philtower, built in the late Gothic Revival style, is surrounded by contemporary office buildings.
The Philtower, built in the late Gothic Revival style, is surrounded by contemporary office buildings.
Manhole cover from Tulsa
Manhole cover from Tulsa

A building boom in Tulsa in the early 20th century coincided with the rise of art deco architecture in the United States.[20] Most commonly in the zigzag and streamline styles,[20] the city's art deco is dotted throughout its older neighborhoods, primarily in downtown and midtown. A collection of large art deco structures such as the Mid-Continent Tower, the Boston Avenue Methodist Church, Will Rogers High School, and the Philtower, have attracted events promoting the preservation and architectural interest.

In addition, the city's early prosperity funded the construction of many elegant Craftsmen, Georgian, storybook, Tudor, Greek Revival, Italianate, Spanish revival, and colonial revival homes (many of which can be found in Tulsa's uptown and Midtown neighborhoods). Noted architects and firms working in Tulsa during this period include Charles Dilbeck,[42] John Duncan Forsyth, and Nelle Peters.

Growth in the twentieth century gave the city a larger base of contemporary architectural styles, including several buildings by famed Tulsa architects Bruce Goff and Adah Robinson. The Prairie School was very influential in Tulsa: Barry Byrne designed Tulsa's Christ the King Church and, in 1927, Frank Lloyd Wright's midtown Tulsa residential project Westhope was completed. In particular, the middle of the 20th century brought a wealth of modern architecture to Tulsa. Tulsa's Mies-trained modernist Robert Lawton Jones designed many buildings in the region, including the Tulsa International Airport.[43] Other noted modernists working in Tulsa include the pioneering Texas architect O'Neil Ford[44] and Joseph R. Koberling Jr., who had also been active during the art deco period. South, East, and Midtown Tulsa are home to a number of the ranch and Mid-Century Modern homes that reflect Tulsa's prosperous post-war period.

The BOK Tower, built during this period, is the second tallest building in Oklahoma and the surrounding states of Missouri, New Mexico, Arkansas, and Kansas.[45] Tulsa also has the third-, and fourth-tallest buildings in the state, including the Cityplex Tower, which is located in South Tulsa across from Oral Roberts University, far from downtown.[46] One of the area's unique architectural complexes, Oral Roberts University, is built in a Post-Modern Futuristic style, incorporating bright gold structures with sharp, jetting edges and clear geometric shapes. The BOK Center, Tulsa's new arena, incorporates many of the city's most prominent themes, including Native American, art deco, and contemporary architectural styles.[47] Intended to be an architectural icon,[48] the building was designed by César Pelli, the architect of the Petronas Towers in Malaysia.

Neighborhoods

Downtown Tulsa is an area of approximately 1.4 square miles (3.6 km2) surrounded by an inner-dispersal loop created by Interstate 244, Highway 64, and Highway 75.[49] The area serves as Tulsa's financial and business district, and is the focus of a large initiative to draw tourism, which includes plans to capitalize on the area's historic architecture.[50] Much of Tulsa's convention space is located in downtown, such as the Tulsa Performing Arts Center, the Tulsa Convention Center, and the BOK Center. Prominent downtown sub-districts include the Blue Dome District, the Brady Arts district, the "Oil Capital Historic District", the Greenwood Historical District, Owen Park Historical Neighborhood, and the site of ONEOK Field, a baseball stadium for the Tulsa Drillers opened in 2010.[51][52][53]

The Arkansas River marks the division between West Tulsa and other regions of the city.
The Arkansas River marks the division between West Tulsa and other regions of the city.

The city's historical residential core lies in an area known as Midtown, containing upscale neighborhoods built in the early 20th century with architecture ranging from art deco to Greek Revival. The University of Tulsa, the Swan Lake neighborhood, Philbrook Museum, and the upscale shopping districts of Utica Square, Cherry Street, and Brookside are located in this region. A large portion of the city's southern half has developed since the 1970s, containing low-density housing and retail developments. This region, marked by secluded homes and suburban neighborhoods, contains one of the state's largest shopping malls, Woodland Hills Mall, as well as Southern Hills Country Club, and Oral Roberts University. East of Highway 169 and north of 61st street, a diverse racial makeup marks the eastern portions of the city, with large Asian and Mexican communities and much of the city's manufacturing industry.

Areas of Tulsa west of the Arkansas River are called West Tulsa and are marked by large parks, wilderness reserves, and large oil refineries. The northern tier of the city is home to OSU-Tulsa, Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa International Airport, the Tulsa Zoo, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum, and the nation's third-largest municipal park, Mohawk Park.[54]

Walkability

In 2016, Walk Score ranked Tulsa the 34th "most walkable" out of 141 U.S. cities with a population greater than 200,000.[55]

Bicycling

Tulsa has a number of cycling trails,[56] and has installed protected bike lanes in parts of the downtown area.[57] Additional efforts to expand this infrastructure have been included as part of the city's "GoPlan".[58][59]

Climate

Tulsa has a temperate climate of the humid subtropical variety (Köppen Cfa) with a yearly average temperature of 61.3 °F (16.3 °C) and average precipitation of just under 41 inches (1,000 mm) per year. Average monthly precipitation is lowest from December to February, and peaks dramatically in May, which averages 5.9 inches (150 mm) of rainfall. Early June can still be wet, but late June through the end of August is frequently dry. On average, Tulsa experiences a secondary rainfall peak in September and early October. As is typical of temperate zones, weather patterns vary by season with occasional extremes in temperature and rainfall.[60]

Lightning over downtown Tulsa is common in the spring months.
Lightning over downtown Tulsa is common in the spring months.

Primarily in the spring and early summer months, the city is subjected to severe thunderstorms containing large hail, damaging winds, and, occasionally, tornadoes,[60] providing the area with a disproportionate share of its annual rainfall.[61] Severe weather is not limited to this season, however. For instance, on December 5, 1975, and on December 24, 1982, Tulsa experienced tornadoes.[60] Due to its potential for major flooding events, the city has developed one of the most extensive flood control systems in the nation.[62] A comprehensive flood management plan was developed in 1984 following a severe flood caused by a stalled weather front that dropped 15 in (380 mm) of rain overnight, killing 14, injuring 288, and destroying 7,000 buildings totaling $180 million in damage.[62] In the early 1990s[62] and again in 2000,[63] the Federal Emergency Management Agency honored Tulsa as leading the nation in flood plain management. Triple-digit temperatures (≥38 °C) are observed on average 11 days per year, sometimes exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) from July to early September,[64] usually accompanied by high humidity brought in by southerly winds;[60] The highest recorded temperature was 115 °F (46 °C) on August 10, 1936.[65] Lack of air circulation due to heat and humidity during the summer months leads to higher concentrations of ozone, prompting the city to release "Ozone Alerts", encouraging all parties to do their part in complying with the Clean Air Act and United States Environmental Protection Agency standards.[66] The autumn season is usually short, consisting of pleasant, sunny days followed by cool nights.[64] Winter temperatures, while generally mild, dip below 10 °F (−12 °C) on 3 nights,[67] and occasionally below 0 °F (−18 °C), the most recent such occurrence being a −13 °F (−25 °C) reading on February 16, 2021.[68] The 1981–2010 seasonal snowfall average is 9.6 inches (24.4 cm).[67] The record for the highest seasonal snowfall is 26.1 inches (66.3 cm) set in the winter of 2010–2011. Only three winters on record have officially recorded trace amounts or no snowfall, the most recent being 1910–11.[68] The lowest recorded temperature was −16 °F (−27 °C) on January 22, 1930.

Climate data for Tulsa, Oklahoma (Tulsa Int'l), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1893–present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 82
(28)
90
(32)
99
(37)
102
(39)
100
(38)
108
(42)
113
(45)
115
(46)
109
(43)
98
(37)
89
(32)
80
(27)
115
(46)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 70.1
(21.2)
74.9
(23.8)
83.4
(28.6)
86.8
(30.4)
91.3
(32.9)
95.4
(35.2)
101.9
(38.8)
102.2
(39.0)
96.2
(35.7)
88.2
(31.2)
79.0
(26.1)
70.1
(21.2)
103.9
(39.9)
Average high °F (°C) 48.9
(9.4)
54.0
(12.2)
63.3
(17.4)
72.1
(22.3)
79.7
(26.5)
88.4
(31.3)
93.6
(34.2)
93.0
(33.9)
84.8
(29.3)
73.6
(23.1)
61.4
(16.3)
50.9
(10.5)
72.0
(22.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 38.5
(3.6)
42.8
(6.0)
52.0
(11.1)
60.8
(16.0)
69.6
(20.9)
78.6
(25.9)
83.4
(28.6)
82.2
(27.9)
73.8
(23.2)
62.3
(16.8)
50.4
(10.2)
41.0
(5.0)
61.3
(16.3)
Average low °F (°C) 28.0
(−2.2)
31.7
(−0.2)
40.7
(4.8)
49.5
(9.7)
59.5
(15.3)
68.7
(20.4)
73.1
(22.8)
71.5
(21.9)
62.8
(17.1)
50.9
(10.5)
39.4
(4.1)
31.1
(−0.5)
50.6
(10.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 10.4
(−12.0)
13.5
(−10.3)
22.9
(−5.1)
33.5
(0.8)
44.8
(7.1)
56.4
(13.6)
63.4
(17.4)
60.5
(15.8)
46.0
(7.8)
34.5
(1.4)
23.4
(−4.8)
12.6
(−10.8)
4.6
(−15.2)
Record low °F (°C) −16
(−27)
−15
(−26)
−3
(−19)
22
(−6)
32
(0)
49
(9)
51
(11)
48
(9)
35
(2)
15
(−9)
10
(−12)
−8
(−22)
−16
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.63
(41)
1.62
(41)
3.10
(79)
4.37
(111)
5.73
(146)
4.65
(118)
3.76
(96)
3.38
(86)
3.85
(98)
3.78
(96)
2.66
(68)
2.43
(62)
40.96
(1,042)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 2.7
(6.9)
1.8
(4.6)
2.1
(5.3)
trace 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
trace 0.7
(1.8)
2.3
(5.8)
9.6
(24)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 6.1 6.6 8.7 8.5 10.5 9.8 6.4 6.6 8.0 7.9 6.8 7.0 92.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.3 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.6 5.6
Average relative humidity (%) 66.7 65.2 61.6 61.2 69.1 69.3 63.6 64.5 70.1 66.4 67.4 68.5 66.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 175.8 171.7 219.6 244.4 266.7 294.8 334.7 305.3 232.5 218.6 161.1 160.8 2,786
Percent possible sunshine 57 56 59 62 61 67 75 73 63 63 52 53 63
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[67][68][69]

August 6, 2017 tornado

An EF2 tornado struck Tulsa early on the morning of Sunday, August 6, 2017.[70][71] The funnel touched down just after 1 A.M. near 36th Street and Harvard Avenue, then travelled in an easterly direction for about six minutes. The heaviest property damage occurred along 41st Street between Yale Avenue and Sheridan Road. Two restaurants, TGI Friday's and Whataburger, were particularly hard hit, with several people being sent to hospitals for treatment.[72] The Whataburger was later bulldozed; it was rebuilt in 2019.[73]

Discover more about Geography related topics

Oklahoma

Oklahoma

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Great Plains

Great Plains

The Great Plains, sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of flatland in North America. It is located west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland. It is the southern and main part of the Interior Plains, which also include the tallgrass prairie between the Great Lakes and Appalachian Plateau, and the Taiga Plains and Boreal Plains ecozones in Northern Canada. The term Western Plains is used to describe the ecoregion of the Great Plains, or alternatively the western portion of the Great Plains.

Cross Timbers

Cross Timbers

The term Cross Timbers, also known as Ecoregion 29, Central Oklahoma/Texas Plains, is used to describe a strip of land in the United States that runs from southeastern Kansas across Central Oklahoma to Central Texas. Made up of a mix of prairie, savanna, and woodland, it forms part of the boundary between the more heavily forested eastern country and the almost treeless Great Plains, and also marks the western habitat limit of many mammals and insects.

Ecoregion

Ecoregion

An ecoregion or ecozone is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than a biogeographic realm. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation.

Forest

Forest

A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing, and ecological function. The United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines a forest as, "Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban use." Using this definition, Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 found that forests covered 4.06 billion hectares, or approximately 31 percent of the world's land area in 2020.

Green Country

Green Country

Green Country, sometimes referred to as Northeast Oklahoma, is the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, which lies west of the northern half of Arkansas, the southwestern corner the way of Missouri, and south of Kansas.

Kansas

Kansas

Kansas is a state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka, and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas is a landlocked state bordered by Nebraska to the north; Missouri to the east; Oklahoma to the south; and Colorado to the west. Kansas is named after the Kansas River, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native Americans who lived along its banks. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison.

Missouri

Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States. Ranking 21st in land area, it is bordered by eight states : Iowa to the north, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee to the east, Arkansas to the south and Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska to the west. In the south are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center into the Mississippi River, which makes up the eastern border. With more than six million residents, it is the 19th-most populous state of the country. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City.

Arkansas

Arkansas

Arkansas is a landlocked state in the South Central United States. It is bordered by Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east, Louisiana to the south, and Texas and Oklahoma to the west. Its name is from the Osage language, a Dhegiha Siouan language, and referred to their relatives, the Quapaw people. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Geographic coordinate system

Geographic coordinate system

The geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a spherical or ellipsoidal coordinate system for measuring and communicating positions directly on the Earth as latitude and longitude. It is the simplest, oldest and most widely used of the various spatial reference systems that are in use, and forms the basis for most others. Although latitude and longitude form a coordinate tuple like a cartesian coordinate system, the geographic coordinate system is not cartesian because the measurements are angles and are not on a planar surface.

Arkansas River

Arkansas River

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley. The headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Keystone Lake

Keystone Lake

Keystone Lake is a reservoir in northeastern Oklahoma on the Arkansas and Cimarron rivers. It is located upstream about 23 miles (37 km) from Tulsa. It was created in 1968 when the Keystone Dam was completed. The primary purposes are: flood control, hydroelectric power generation, wildlife management and recreation.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19001,390
191018,1821,208.1%
192072,075296.4%
1930141,25896.0%
1940142,1570.6%
1950182,74028.5%
1960261,68543.2%
1970331,63826.7%
1980360,9198.8%
1990367,3021.8%
2000393,0497.0%
2010391,906−0.3%
2020413,0665.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[74][5]
Map of racial distribution in Tulsa, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}⬤ White ⬤ Black ⬤ Asian ⬤ Hispanic ⬤ Other
Map of racial distribution in Tulsa, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:  White  Black  Asian  Hispanic  Other

According to the 2010 Census, Tulsa had a population of 391,906 and the racial and ethnic composition was as follows:[75]

Tulsa is sometimes considered the "buckle of the Bible Belt";[77] it is the home of Oral Roberts University and the university's Prayer Tower.
Tulsa is sometimes considered the "buckle of the Bible Belt";[77] it is the home of Oral Roberts University and the university's Prayer Tower.

As of the 2010 census, there were 391,906 people, 163,975 households, and 95,246 families residing in the city, with a population density of 2,033.4 inhabitants per square mile (785.1/km2) There were 185,127 housing units at an average density of 982.3 per square mile (379.2/km2). Of 163,975 households, 27% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. Of all households, 34.5% are made up of only one person, and 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 people and the average family size was 3.04.[75]

In the city proper, the age distribution was 24.8% of the population under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older, while the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males, while for every 100 females over the age of 17 there were 90.4 males. In 2011, the median income for a household in the city was $40,268 and the median income for a family was $51,977. The per capita income for the city was $26,727. About 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line.[75] Of the city's population over the age of 25, 29.8% holds a bachelor's degree or higher, and 86.5% have a high school diploma or equivalent.[75][78]

Metropolitan area

The Tulsa MSA's location (red) in the state of Oklahoma with the Tulsa-Bartlesville CSA (pink)
The Tulsa MSA's location (red) in the state of Oklahoma with the Tulsa-Bartlesville CSA (pink)

The Tulsa Metropolitan Area, or the region immediately surrounding Tulsa with strong social and economic ties to the city,[79] occupies a large portion of the state's northeastern quadrant. It is informally known as "Green Country", a longstanding name adopted by the state's official tourism designation for all of northeastern Oklahoma (its usage concerning the Tulsa Metropolitan Area can be traced to the early part of the 20th century).[80]

The Census Bureau defines the sphere of the city's influence as the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), spanning seven counties: Tulsa, Rogers, Osage, Wagoner, Okmulgee, Pawnee, and Creek. The 2020 U.S. Census shows the Tulsa MSA to have 1,015,331 residents[81] The 2020 U.S. Census shows the Tulsa-Muscogee-Bartlesville CSA to have 1,134,125 residents.[82][83]

Religion

Tulsa has a large conservative following, with the majority of Tulsans being Christians. The second-largest religion in Tulsa is Islam, followed by Buddhism and Judaism.

Tulsa is part of the Southern region demographers and commentators refer to as the "Bible Belt," where Protestant and, in particular, Southern Baptist and other evangelical Christian traditions are very prominent. In fact, Tulsa, home to Oral Roberts University, Phillips Theological Seminary, and RHEMA Bible Training College (in the suburb of Broken Arrow), is sometimes called the "buckle of the Bible Belt".[84][85] Beyond Oral Roberts and Kenneth E. Hagin, a number of prominent Protestant Christians have lived or studied in Tulsa, including Joel Osteen, Carlton Pearson, Kenneth Copeland, Billy Joe Daugherty, Smokie Norful and Billy James Hargis. Mother Grace Tucker was an Evangelical pastor who ministered to Tulsa's poor and homeless for over fifty years. Tulsa is also home to a number of vibrant Mainline Protestant congregations. Some of these congregations were founded during the oil boom of the early twentieth century and are noted for striking architecture, such as the art deco Boston Avenue Methodist Church and First Presbyterian Church of Tulsa. The metropolitan area has at least four religious radio stations (KCFO, KNYD, KXOJ, & KPIM), and at least two religious TV stations (KWHB & KGEB).

While the state of Oklahoma has fewer Roman Catholics than the national average,[86] Tulsa has a higher percentage owing in large part to the influx of Eastern and Midwestern settlers during the oil boom. Tulsa's Catholic community is atypically prominent for a Southern city and includes Governor and U.S. Senator Dewey F. Bartlett, Congressmen James R. Jones and John A. Sullivan, Governor Frank Keating, U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See Francis Rooney, and Mayors Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr., Robert J. LaFortune, Bill LaFortune and G. T. Bynum. Holy Family Cathedral serves as the Cathedral for the Diocese of Tulsa.

Tulsa is also home to the largest Jewish community in Oklahoma, with active Reform, Conservative and Orthodox congregations.[87] Tulsa's Jewish community includes George Kaiser and Lynn Schusterman. Tulsa's Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art offers the largest collection of Judaica in the South-Central and Southwestern United States.

Tulsa is also home to the progressive All Souls Unitarian Church, reportedly the largest Unitarian Universalist congregation in the United States.[88][89][90]

Chùa Tam Bào (Vietnamese: "Three Jewels Temple"), Oklahoma's only Buddhist temple, was established in east Tulsa in 1993 by Vietnamese refugees. A 57-foot-tall (17 m) granite statue of Quan Âm (commonly known by her Chinese name, Guanyin) is located in the grounds.[91]

Discover more about Demographics related topics

1900 United States census

1900 United States census

The United States census of 1900, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.01% from the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 census.

1910 United States census

1910 United States census

The United States census of 1910, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 census. The 1910 census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

1920 United States census

1920 United States census

The United States census of 1920, conducted by the Census Bureau during one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 census.

1930 United States census

1930 United States census

The United States census of 1930, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 census.

1940 United States census

1940 United States census

The United States census of 1940, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 122,775,046 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were five years before, highest educational grade achieved, and information about wages. This census introduced sampling techniques; one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939. This was the first census in which every state (48) had a population greater than 100,000.

1950 United States census

1950 United States census

The United States census of 1950, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,697,361, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 census. This was the first census in which:More than one state recorded a population of over 10 million Every state and territory recorded a population of over 100,000 All 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 100,000

1960 United States census

1960 United States census

The United States census of 1960, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 18.5 percent over the 151,325,798 persons enumerated during the 1950 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 200,000. This census's data determined the electoral votes for the 1964 and 1968 presidential elections. This is also the most recent census in which New York was the most populous state.

1970 United States census

1970 United States census

The United States census of 1970, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,392,031, an increase of 13.4 percent over the 179,323,175 persons enumerated during the 1960 census. This was the first census since 1800 in which New York was not the most populous state – California overtook it in population in January 1963. This was also the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 300,000, and the first in which a city in the geographic South recorded a population of over 1 million (Houston).

1980 United States census

1980 United States census

The United States census of 1980, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4 percent over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 census. It was the first census in which a state – California – recorded a population of 20 million people, as well as the first in which all states recorded populations of over 400,000.

1990 United States census

1990 United States census

The United States census of 1990, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.

2000 United States census

2000 United States census

The United States census of 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2 percent over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 census. This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States.

2010 United States census

2010 United States census

The United States census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

Economy

The BOK Tower serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.
The BOK Tower serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.

Energy industry's legacy and resurgence

Traditionally, Tulsa's economy has been led by the energy industry. The United States Oil and Gas Association, formerly the Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association, was founded in Tulsa on October 13, 1917, six months after the entry of the United States into World War I. At the time Tulsa called itself "The Oil Capital of the World". At its creation, the association worked to provide petroleum to the Allied forces. In the decades since its establishment, the association is recognized as a leading advocate for producers of domestic oil and gas.[92]

Over the city's history many large oil companies have been headquartered in the city, including Warren Petroleum (which merged with Gulf Oil in what was then the largest merger in the energy industry), Skelly Oil, Getty Oil and CITGO. In addition, ConocoPhillips was headquartered in nearby Bartlesville. Industry consolidation and increased offshore drilling threatened Tulsa's status as an oil capital, but new drilling techniques and the rise of natural gas have buoyed the growth of the city's energy sector.

Today, Tulsa is again home to the headquarters of many international oil- and gas-related companies, including Williams Companies, ONE Gas, Syntroleum, ONEOK, Laredo Petroleum, Samson Resources, Helmerich & Payne, Magellan Midstream Partners, and Excel Energy.

Diversification and emerging industries

Tulsa has diversified to capitalize on its status as a regional hub with substantial innovation assets. Products from Tulsa manufacturers account for about sixty percent of Oklahoma's exports,[93] and in 2001, the city's total gross product was in the top one-third of metropolitan areas, states, and countries, with more than $29 billion in total goods, growing at a rate of $250 million each year.[94] In 2006, Forbes magazine rated Tulsa as second in the nation in income growth, and one of the best cities in the country to do business with.[95] Usually among the lowest in the nation in terms of cost of doing business, the Tulsa Metropolitan Area in 2005 was rated among the five lowest metropolitan areas in the United States for that category.[96]

Tulsa's primary employers are small and medium-sized businesses: there are 30 companies in Tulsa that employ more than 1,000 people locally,[97] and small businesses make up more than 80% of the city's companies.[98]

During a national recession from 2001 to 2003, the city lost 28,000 jobs.[93] In response, a development initiative, Vision 2025, promised to incite economic growth and recreate lost jobs. Projects spurred by the initiative promised urban revitalization, infrastructure improvement, tourism development, riverfront retail development, and further diversification of the economy. By 2007, employment levels had surpassed pre-recession heights[93][99] and the city was in a significant economic development and investment surge.[100] This economic improvement is also seen in Tulsa's housing trends which show an average of a 6% increase in rent in 2010.[101] Since 2006, more than 28,000 jobs have been added to the city. The unemployment rate of Tulsa in August 2014 was 4.5%.[102][103]

Though the oil industry has historically dominated Tulsa's economy, efforts in economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of aerospace, finance, technology, telecommunications, high tech, and manufacturing.[9] A number of substantial financial corporations are headquartered in Tulsa, the largest being the BOK Financial Corporation. Among these financial services firms are energy trading operations, asset management firms, investment funds, and a range of commercial banks. The national convenience store chain QuikTrip, fast-casual restaurant chain Camille's Sidewalk Cafe, and pizza chain Mazzio's are all headquartered in Tulsa, as is Southern regional BBQ restaurant Rib Crib. Tulsa is also home to the Marshall Brewing Company.

Tulsa is also home to a burgeoning media industry, including PennWell, consumer review website ConsumerAffairs, Stephens Media Group, This Land Press, Educational Development Corporation (the parent publisher of Kane/Miller), GEB America, Blooming Twig Books, and a full range of local media outlets, including Tulsa World and local magazines, radio and television. Tulsa is also a hub for national construction and engineering companies including Manhattan Construction Company and Flintco. A number of the Cherokee Nation Businesses are also headquartered or have substantial operations in Tulsa.

Tulsa's aerospace industry is substantial and growing. An American Airlines maintenance base at Tulsa International Airport is the city's largest employer and the largest maintenance facility in the world, serving as the airline's global maintenance and engineering headquarters.[104] American Airlines announced in February, 2020 that it will pour $550 million over seven years into its maintenance base, this being the largest single economic development investment in city history.[105] The Tulsa Port of Catoosa and the Tulsa International Airport house extensive transit-focused industrial parks.[106][107] Tulsa is also home to a division of Lufthansa, the headquarters of Omni Air International, and the Spartan College of Aeronautics and Technology.

Tulsa is also part of the Oklahoma-South Kansas Unmanned Aerial Systems (drone) industry cluster, a region which awarded funding by the U.S. Small Business Administration to build on its progress as a hub this emerging industry.[108]

As the second largest metropolitan area in Oklahoma and a hub for the growing Northeastern Oklahoma-Northwest Arkansas-Southwestern Missouri corridor, the city is also home to a number of the region's most sophisticated law, accounting, and medical practices. Its location in the center of the nation also makes it a hub for logistics businesses; the Tulsa International Airport (TUL) and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa, connect the region with international trade and transportation.

Amazon recently announced plans to build a more than 600,000-square-foot fulfillment center near Tulsa International Airport. The company will invest an estimated $130 million for this state-of-the-art facility, which will employ around 1,500 people with an annual payroll of roughly $50 million.[109]

Discover more about Economy related topics

List of companies based in Tulsa, Oklahoma

List of companies based in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Companies headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma include, but are not limited to, companies in the city's anchoring economic sectors of energy, aerospace, finance, technology, telecommunications, high tech, and manufacturing.

Petroleum

Petroleum

Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that consist of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure.

Allies of World War I

Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, Entente Powers, or Allied Powers were a coalition of countries led by France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, and their colonies during the First World War (1914–1918).

Gulf Oil

Gulf Oil

Gulf Oil was a major global oil company in operation from 1901 to 1985. The eighth-largest American manufacturing company in 1941 and the ninth-largest in 1979, Gulf Oil was one of the so-called Seven Sisters oil companies. Prior to its merger with Standard Oil of California, Gulf was one of the chief instruments of the Mellon family fortune; both Gulf and Mellon Financial had their headquarters in Pittsburgh, with Gulf's headquarters, the Gulf Tower, being Pittsburgh's tallest building until the completion of the U.S. Steel Tower.

Skelly Oil

Skelly Oil

Skelly Oil Company was a medium-sized oil company founded in 1919 by William Grove (Bill) Skelly, Chesley Coleman Herndon and Frederick A. Pielsticker in Tulsa, Oklahoma. J. Paul Getty acquired control of the company during the 1930s. It became defunct when fully absorbed by Getty Oil Company in 1974, and the disused Skelly brand logo was revived by Nimmons-Joliet Development Corp. in 2012.

Getty Oil

Getty Oil

Getty Oil was an American oil marketing company with its origins as part of the large integrated oil company founded by J. Paul Getty.

ConocoPhillips

ConocoPhillips

ConocoPhillips is an American multinational corporation engaged in hydrocarbon exploration and production. It is based in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas.

ONE Gas

ONE Gas

ONE Gas, Inc. is a stand-alone, 100 percent regulated, publicly traded natural gas utility and is one of the largest natural gas utilities in the United States.

Laredo Petroleum

Laredo Petroleum

Laredo Petroleum, Inc. is an American company engaged in hydrocarbon exploration incorporated in Delaware with its principal operational headquarters located in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Helmerich & Payne

Helmerich & Payne

Helmerich & Payne, Inc. is an American petroleum contract drilling company engaged in oil and gas well drilling and related services for exploration and production companies headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, with operations throughout the world. Their FlexRigs, introduced in 1998, have been used extensively in drilling unconventional shale formations, such as the Bakken formation in North Dakota and the Permian Basin and Eagle Ford formation in Texas. H&P is the largest on-shore driller in the United States of America with over 20% of the American land drilling market share and over 40% of the super-spec American land drilling market share.

Magellan Midstream Partners

Magellan Midstream Partners

Magellan Midstream Partners is a publicly traded partnership based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It owns ammonia and petroleum pipelines in the Mid-Continent oil province. According to the United States Department of State, it owns "83 petroleum products terminals, more than 9,000 miles of refined products pipeline, 800 miles of crude oil pipeline and a 1,100-mile ammonia pipeline system." It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Company executives, including its CEO Michael Mears, rang the NYSE closing bell on February 8, 2016.

Aerospace

Aerospace

Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronautics. Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain both aircraft and spacecraft.

Culture

Tulsa culture is influenced by the nearby Southwest, Midwest, and Southern cultural regions, as well as a historical Native American presence. These influences are expressed in the city's museums, cultural centers, performing arts venues, ethnic festivals, park systems, zoos, wildlife preserves, and large and growing collections of public sculptures, monuments, and artwork.[110]

Museums, archives and visual culture

Tulsa is home to several museums. Located in the former villa of oil pioneer Waite Phillips in Midtown Tulsa, the Philbrook Museum of Art is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States and is one of only five to offer a combination of a historic home, formal gardens, and an art collection.[111] The museum's expansive collection includes work by a diverse group of artists including Pablo Picasso, Andrew Wyeth, Giovanni Bellini, Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Willem de Kooning, William Merritt Chase, Auguste Rodin and Georgia O'Keeffe. Philbrook also maintains a satellite campus in downtown Tulsa.

In the Osage Hills of Northwest Tulsa, the Gilcrease Museum holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.[112] The museum includes the extensive collection of Native American oilman and famed art collector Thomas Gilcrease with numerous works by Frederic Remington, Thomas Moran, Albert Bierstadt and John James Audubon among the many displayed.

On the west bank of the Arkansas River in the suburb of Jenks, the Oklahoma Aquarium is the state's only freestanding aquarium, containing over 200 exhibits, including a shark tank.[113]

In addition, the city hosts a number of galleries, experimental art-spaces, smaller museums, and display spaces located throughout the city (clustered mostly in downtown, Brookside, and the Pearl District). Living Arts of Tulsa, in downtown Tulsa, is among the organizations dedicated to promoting and sustaining an active arts scene in the city.

Cultural and historical archives

Opened in April 2013, the Woody Guthrie Center in the Tulsa Arts District is Tulsa's newest museum and archive. In addition to interactive state-of-the-art museum displays, the Woody Guthrie Center also houses the Woody Guthrie Archives, containing thousands of Guthrie's personal items, sheet music, manuscripts, books, photos, periodicals, and other items associated with the iconic Oklahoma native.[114] The archives of Guthrie protégé, singer-songwriter Bob Dylan will also be displayed in Tulsa when a new facility designed to showcase The Bob Dylan Archive is completed.

The Church Studio is a recording studio and tourist attraction with an archive of more than 5,000 pieces. Constructed in 1915, the church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places due to the late musician Leon Russell, who turned the old church into a recording studio and office to Shelter Records in 1972.

With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism in Oklahoma, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art preserves the largest collection of Judaica in the Southwestern and South-Central United States.[115] Other museums, such as the Tulsa Historical Society, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium, the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, and the Tulsa Geosciences Center, document histories of the region, while the Greenwood Cultural Center preserves the culture of the city's African American heritage, housing a collection of artifacts and photography that document the history of the Black Wall Street before the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.

Public art

Since 1969, public displays of artwork in Tulsa have been funded by one percent of its annual city budget.[110] Each year, a sculpture from a local artist is installed along the Arkansas River trail system, while other sculptures stand at local parks, such as an enlarged version of Cyrus Dallin's Appeal to the Great Spirit sculpture at Woodward Park.[110] At the entrance to Oral Roberts University stands a large statue of praying hands, which, at 60 feet (18 m) high, is the largest bronze sculpture in the world.[116] As a testament to the city's oil heritage, the 76-foot (23 m) Golden Driller guards the front entrance to the Tulsa County Fairgrounds. Tulsa has a number of exhibits related to U.S. Route 66, including The Cyrus Avery Centennial Plaza, located next to the east entrance of the historic 11th Street Bridge. The Plaza contains a giant sculpture weighing 20,000 pounds (9,100 kg) and costing $1.178 million[117] called "East Meets West" of the Avery family riding west in a Model T Ford meeting an eastbound horse-drawn carriage.[118] In 2020, Avery Plaza Southwest is scheduled to open, at the west end of the bridge, and should include replicas of three neon signs from Tulsa-area Route 66 motels from the era, being the Will Rogers Motor Court. Tulsa Auto Court, and the Oil Capital Motel.[119] Tulsa has also installed "Route 66 Rising," a 70 by 30 ft (21 by 9 m) sculpture on the road's eastern approach to town at East Admiral Place and Mingo Road.[120] In addition, Tulsa has constructed twenty-nine historical markers scattered along the 26-mile (42 km) route of the highway through Tulsa, containing tourist-oriented stories, historical photos, and a map showing the location of historical sites and the other markers.[121] The markers are mostly along the highway's post-1932 alignment down 11th Street, with some along the road's 1926 path down Admiral Place.[121]

The iconic Golden Driller, built in 1953 for the 1953 International Petroleum Exposition,[122] now stands at the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.
The iconic Golden Driller, built in 1953 for the 1953 International Petroleum Exposition,[122] now stands at the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.

The largest augmented reality mural in the world, "The Majestic", a 15,000-square-foot (1,400 m2) work which adorns two sides of the Main Park Plaza at 410 S. Main downtown, was completed in October 2021.[123] The $230,000 project was created by Los Angeles-based artists Ryan "Yanoe" Sarfati and Eric "Zoueh" Skotnes.[123] The mural becomes animated when viewed through a smartphone camera.[123]

Performing arts, film and cultural venues

Tulsa contains several permanent dance, theater, and concert groups, including the Tulsa Ballet, the Tulsa Opera, the Tulsa Symphony Orchestra, Light Opera Oklahoma, Signature Symphony at TCC, the Tulsa Youth Symphony, the Heller Theatre, American Theatre Company, which is a member of the Theatre Communications Group and Oklahoma's oldest resident professional theatre, and Theatre Tulsa, the oldest continuously operating community theatre company west of the Mississippi River.[124] Tulsa also houses the Tulsa Spotlight Theater at Riverside Studio, which shows the longest-running play in America (The Drunkard) every Saturday night. Many of the world's best choreographers have worked with Tulsa Ballet including: Leonide Massine, Antony Tudor, Jerome Robbins, George Balanchine, Paul Taylor, Kurt Jooss, Nacho Duato (ten works), Val Caniparoli who is its resident choreographer (with seven works and four world premieres), Stanton Welch, Young Soon Hue, Ma Cong, Twyla Tharp and many others. In April 2008, Tulsa Ballet completed an ambitious $17.3 million integrated campaign, which was celebrated at the opening of the brand new Studio K; an on-site, three hundred-seat performance space dedicated to the creation of new works.

Tulsa's music scene is also famous for the eponymous "Tulsa Sound" which blends rockabilly, country, rock 'n' roll, and blues and has inspired local artists like J.J. Cale and Leon Russell as well as international superstars like Eric Clapton.

A number of concert venues, dance halls, and bars gave rise to the Tulsa Sound but Cain's Ballroom might be the best known. Cain's is considered the birthplace of Western Swing,[125] housed the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s. The centerpiece of the downtown Brady Arts District, the Brady Theater, is the largest of the city's five operating performing arts venues that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[126] Its design features extensive contributions by American architect Bruce Goff. The Pearl District features The Church Studio.

Large performing arts complexes include the Tulsa Performing Arts Center, which was designed by World Trade Center architect Minoru Yamasaki, the Cox Business Center, the art deco Expo Square Pavilion, the Mabee Center, the Tulsa Performing Arts Center for Education, and the River Parks Amphitheater and Tulsa's largest venue, the BOK Center. Ten miles west of the city, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" holds the official title of the world performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma!.[127]

The city's film community hosts annual festivals such as the Tulsa United Film Festival and Tulsa Overground Film and Music Festival.

Outdoor attractions

The river parks trail system traverses the banks of the Arkansas River.
The river parks trail system traverses the banks of the Arkansas River.

The city's zoo, the Tulsa Zoo, was voted "America's Favorite Zoo" in 2005 by Microsoft Game Studios in connection with a national promotion of its Zoo Tycoon 2 computer game.[128] The zoo encompasses a total of 84 acres (34 ha) with over 2,600 animals representing 400 species.[129] The zoo is located in 2,820-acre (1,140 ha) Mohawk Park (the third largest municipal park in the United States) which also contains the 745-acre (301 ha) Oxley Nature Center.[54][130]

Tulsa's River Parks contain many monuments and attractions, such as these fountains.
Tulsa's River Parks contain many monuments and attractions, such as these fountains.

The Tulsa State Fair, operating in late September and early October, attracts over one million people during its 10-day run.[131] A number of other cultural heritage festivals are held in the city throughout the year, including the Intertribal Indian Club Powwow of Champions in August; Scotfest, India Fest, Greek Festival, and Festival Viva Mexico in September; ShalomFest in October; Dia de Los Muertos Art Festival in November; and the Asian-American Festival in May. The annual Mayfest arts and crafts festival held downtown was estimated to have drawn more than 365,000 people in its four-day run in 2012.[132] On a smaller scale, the city hosts block parties during a citywide "Block Party Day" each year, with festivals varying in size throughout city neighborhoods.[133] Tulsa has one major amusement park attraction, Safari Joe's H2O Water Park (formerly Big Splash Water Park), featuring multi-story water slides, large wave pools, and a reptile exhibit. Until 2006, the city also hosted Bell's Amusement Park, which closed after Tulsa County officials declined to renew its lease agreement.[134]

Music

Western Swing, a musical genre with roots in country music, was made popular at Tulsa's Cain's Ballroom. The Tulsa Sound, a variation of country, blues, rockabilly, blues rock, swamp rock and rock 'n' roll, was started and largely developed by local musicians J. J. Cale and Leon Russell[135] in the 1960s and 1970s.[136] Musicians from Tulsa or who started their musical careers in Tulsa include Elvin Bishop,[137] Jim Keltner, David Gates, Dwight Twilley, Jesse Ed Davis, Garth Brooks, The Gap Band, St. Vincent, Clyde Stacy, Flash Terry, Hanson, Gus Hardin, Jeff Carson, Billy Reynolds Eustis and the Tri-Lads, Marvin&Johnny, Ronnie Dunn, Jamie Oldaker, Bob Wills(Texas),[138] David Cook,[139] Broncho, Jacob Sartorius, Tyson Meade, John Moreland, John Calvin Abney, The Damn Quails(folk group), Kristin Chenoweth(actress), JD McPherson,[140] and Wilderado.[141] The heart of the Tulsa Sound can be found at The Church Studio. AleXa a representative from Tulsa won American Song Contest

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Midwestern United States

Midwestern United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to the north and the Southern United States to the south.

Petroleum

Petroleum

Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that consist of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure.

Philbrook Museum of Art

Philbrook Museum of Art

Philbrook Museum of Art is an art museum with expansive formal gardens located in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The museum, which opened in 1939, is located in a former 1920s villa, "Villa Philbrook", the home of Oklahoma oil pioneer Waite Phillips and his wife Genevieve. Showcasing nine collections of art from all over the world, and spanning various artistic media and styles, the cornerstone collection focuses on Native American art featuring basketry, pottery, paintings and jewelry.

Fine art

Fine art

In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics or creative expression, distinguishing it from decorative art or applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork. In the aesthetic theories developed in the Italian Renaissance, the highest art was that which allowed the full expression and display of the artist's imagination, unrestricted by any of the practical considerations involved in, say, making and decorating a teapot. It was also considered important that making the artwork did not involve dividing the work between different individuals with specialized skills, as might be necessary with a piece of furniture, for example. Even within the fine arts, there was a hierarchy of genres based on the amount of creative imagination required, with history painting placed higher than still life.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Andrew Wyeth

Andrew Wyeth

Andrew Newell Wyeth was an American visual artist, primarily a realist painter, working predominantly in a regionalist style. He was one of the best-known U.S. artists of the middle 20th century.

Giovanni Bellini

Giovanni Bellini

Giovanni Bellini was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. He was raised in the household of Jacopo Bellini, formerly thought to have been his father, but now that familial generational relationship is questioned. An older brother, Gentile Bellini was more highly regarded than Giovanni during his lifetime, but the reverse is true today. His brother-in-law was Andrea Mantegna.

Auguste Rodin

Auguste Rodin

François Auguste René Rodin was a French sculptor, generally considered the founder of modern sculpture. He was schooled traditionally and took a craftsman-like approach to his work. Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, and deeply pocketed surface in clay. He is known for such sculptures as The Thinker, Monument to Balzac, The Kiss, The Burghers of Calais, and The Gates of Hell.

Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia O'Keeffe

Georgia Totto O'Keeffe was an American modernist artist. She was known for her paintings of enlarged flowers, New York skyscrapers, and New Mexico landscapes. O'Keeffe has been called the "Mother of American modernism".

Osage Hills

Osage Hills

The Osage Hills is a hilly area in Oklahoma, commonly known as The Osage. The name refers to the broad rolling hills and rolling tallgrass prairie and Cross Timbers encompassing Osage County and surrounding areas, including portions of Mayes, Tulsa, Washington and Kay Counties. The Osage is the southern extension of the Flint Hills of Kansas.

Gilcrease Museum

Gilcrease Museum

Gilcrease Museum, also known as the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, is a museum northwest of downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma housing the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art of the American West, as well as a growing collection of art and artifacts from Central and South America. The museum is named for Thomas Gilcrease, an oil man and avid art collector, who began the collection. He deeded the collection, as well as the building and property, to the City of Tulsa in 1958. Since July 1, 2008, Gilcrease Museum has been managed by a public-private partnership of the City of Tulsa and the University of Tulsa. The Helmerich Center for American Research at Gilcrease Museum was added in 2014 at a cost of $14 million to provide a secure archival area where researchers can access any of the more than 100,000 books, documents, maps and unpublished materials that have been acquired by the museum.

Frederic Remington

Frederic Remington

Frederic Sackrider Remington was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in the genre of Western American Art. His works are known for depicting the Western United States in the last quarter of the 19th century and featuring such images as cowboys, American Indians, and the US Cavalry.

Cuisine

Tulsa restaurants and food trucks offer a number of cuisines, but several cuisines are particularly prominent in its culinary landscape because of its distinctive history.

BBQ

Tulsa is known nationally for its barbecue offerings; its barbecue reflects its midpoint location "between pig country and cow country," that is, in the transition zone between the South and the West.[142] The city's barbecue is also helped by its geography; the wood used in barbecuing is abundant in Northeastern Oklahoma (including pecan, oak, hickory, mesquite and maple). The region's ethnic diversity is felt, too: its BBQ traditions bear the influences of white, African-American and American Indian foodways.[143] Tulsa is also home to the nationally acclaimed premium smoker manufacturer Hasty-Bake Company. Some Tulsa based barbecue joints have expanded even beyond the state's borders, including Leon's Smoke Shack, Rib Crib and Billy Sims Barbecue. The prize-winning Oklahoma Joe's was founded by Oklahoman Joe Davidson, who mastered his craft at Tulsa's T-Town BBQ Cook-Off.[144]

Oklahoma barbecue is also unique in its emphasis on hickory-smoked baloney, nicknamed "Oklahoma tenderloin," and its fried okra.[145]

Lebanese steakhouses

Lebanese steakhouses were once numerous in the region stretching from Bristow, Oklahoma to Tulsa, but now mostly exist in the Tulsa region.[146] These restaurants were founded by Syrian and Lebanese families who immigrated to Oklahoma before statehood.[147] Traditionally, many of these restaurants had live entertainment (including performers like Ella Fitzgerald and the Ink Spots) and featured Mediterranean dishes like tabbouleh, rice pilaf and hummus alongside local favorites like smoked BBQ bologna.

Chili and Coney Island hot dogs

Oklahomans have been consuming chili since well before statehood, owing to the influence of Mexican-American culture on the state.[148] In 1910, iconic Tulsa restaurant Ike's Chili Parlor opened and Ivan "Ike" Johnson is purported to have acquired his recipe from a Hispanic-Texan named Alex Garcia.

Greek immigrants to Tulsa who came by way of Brooklyn, Pennsylvania and Michigan brought with them the tradition of Coney Island-style hot dogs with chili on a bun.[149] Today, a related group of Greek-American families operate Coney restaurants around the city, including Coney I-Lander which opened in 1926 and was described by food writers Jane and Michael Stern as perfectly delivering "the cheap-eats ecstasy that is the Coney's soul".[150] Many of these restaurants sell Greek food, either year round or at Tulsa's annual Greek Holiday, sponsored by Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church (which dates to 1925).[151]

Southern "homestyle" food

By and large, Tulsa's traditional cuisine reflects the influence of Southern foodways, particularly "upland South and... Texas where many of Oklahoma's nineteenth-century population originated."[152] The prominence of certain foods reflects the agricultural heritage of the surrounding regions. For instance, at the suggestion of experts at what is now Oklahoma State University, peanuts became a major crop in now eastern Oklahoma as a means for lessening the reliance on cotton cultivation.[153] Chicken-fried steak is part of the state meal of Oklahoma and is the signature dish at a number of Tulsa restaurants.[154][155]

Wild onion dinner

The wild onion dinner is a festive gathering that originated with the Southeastern tribes which call Eastern Oklahoma home. The meals often feature wild onion, pork, frybread, corn bread, Poke salad and a unique dish known as grape biscuits.[156] The Tulsa Indian Women's Club has been holding annual Wild Onion Dinners since at least 1932.[157]

Baking and confectionery

Tulsa is home to the Oklahoma Sugar Arts Show, a premier sugar craft competition hosted by Tulsa-based Food Network personality Kerry Vincent.[158] Tulsa is also home to the nationally renowned Pancho Anaya Mexican bakery, recognized by Food & Wine as one of America's 100 best bakeries.[159] Tulsa is home to several national dessert companies: Daylight Donuts was founded in Tulsa and remains headquartered there, as is the Bama Pie Company.

Breweries

Brewing in Tulsa dates back to at least the late 1930s with the Ahrens Brewing Company and their Ranger Beer line. The Ahrens Brewing Company opened in May 1938.[160] Tulsa's craft beer scene has boomed since legislation passed allowing for microbreweries to serve the public directly (Tulsa's first microbrewery in the post-World War II era was Marshall Brewing Company in 2008).[161]

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Oak

Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 500 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae (she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America has the largest number of oak species, with approximately 160 species in Mexico of which 109 are endemic and about 90 in the United States. The second greatest area of oak diversity is China, with approximately 100 species.

Hickory

Hickory

Hickory is a common name for trees composing the genus Carya, which includes around 18 species. Five or six species are native to China, Indochina, and India (Assam), as many as twelve are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, and two to four are native to Canada. A number of hickory species are used for products like edible nuts or wood.

Mesquite

Mesquite

Mesquite is a common name for several plants in the genus Prosopis, which contains over 40 species of small leguminous trees. They are native to dry areas in the Americas. They have extremely long roots to seek water from very far under ground. As a legume, mesquites are one of the few sources of fixed nitrogen in the desert habitat. These trees bloom from spring to summer. They often produce fruits known as "pods". Prosopis spp. are able to grow up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall, depending on site and climate. They are deciduous and depending on location and rainfall have either deep or shallow roots. Prosopis is considered long-lived because of the low mortality rate after the dicotyledonous stage and juveniles are also able to survive in conditions with low light and drought. The Cahuilla indigenous people of western North America were known to eat the seeds of mesquite.

Maple

Maple

Acer is a genus of trees and shrubs commonly known as maples. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae. There are approximately 132 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere. The type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. Maples usually have easily recognizable palmate leaves and distinctive winged fruits. The closest relatives of the maples are the horse chestnuts. Maple syrup is made from the sap of some maple species. It is one of the most common genera of trees in Asia.

Billy Sims Barbecue

Billy Sims Barbecue

Billy Sims BBQ is an American restaurant chain founded by former professional football player, Billy Sims and his business partner, Jeff Jackson. In 2004, Sims and Jackson opened the first Billy Sims BBQ location in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The brand is supported by 54 locations operating across nine states. Billy Sims BBQ is a fast casual dining restaurant.

Oklahoma Joe's

Oklahoma Joe's

Oklahoma Joe's is a barbecue restaurant owned and operated by Joe Davidson, with all locations in and around Tulsa, Oklahoma and Omaha, Nebraska.

Bristow, Oklahoma

Bristow, Oklahoma

Bristow is a city in Creek County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 4,222 at the 2010 census, down 2.4 percent from the figure of 4,325 recorded in 2000.

Lebanese Americans

Lebanese Americans

Lebanese Americans are Americans of Lebanese descent. This includes both those who are native to the United States of America, as well as immigrants from Lebanon.

Ella Fitzgerald

Ella Fitzgerald

Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer, sometimes referred to as the "First Lady of Song", "Queen of Jazz", and "Lady Ella". She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing, timing, intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing.

Hummus

Hummus

Hummus, also spelled hommus or houmous, is a Middle Eastern dip, spread, or savory dish made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, lemon juice, and garlic. The standard garnish in the Middle East includes olive oil, a few whole chickpeas, parsley, and paprika.

Bologna sausage

Bologna sausage

Bologna sausage, also spelled baloney, is a sausage derived from the Italian mortadella, a similar-looking, finely ground pork sausage, originally from the city of Bologna. Typical seasonings for bologna include black pepper, nutmeg, allspice, celery seed and coriander, and, like mortadella, myrtle berries give it its distinctive flavor.

Brooklyn

Brooklyn

Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. Kings County is the most populous county in the State of New York, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, behind New York County (Manhattan). Brooklyn is also New York City's most populous borough, with 2,736,074 residents in 2020.

Sports

The centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects, the BOK Center, opened in August 2008.
The centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects, the BOK Center, opened in August 2008.

Tulsa supports a wide array of sports at the professional and collegiate levels. The city hosts two NCAA Division I colleges and multiple professional minor league sports teams in baseball, football, hockey, and soccer.[162] In addition, Tulsa once had a WNBA team, the Tulsa Shock women's professional basketball team.

Professional sports

Club Sport League Venue
FC Tulsa Men's Soccer USL Championship ONEOK Field
Tulsa Oilers Ice hockey ECHL BOK Center
Tulsa Drillers Baseball Double-A Central ONEOK Field
Tulsa Athletic Men's soccer National Premier Soccer League Veteran’s Park
FC Tulsa Spirit Women's soccer Women's Premier Soccer League Case Soccer Complex
Tulsa Rugby Football Club Rugby Union Division II Rugby 37th Riverside Field

Tulsa's Class AA Texas League baseball team is called the Tulsa Drillers; famous former Drillers include Sammy Sosa, Matt Holliday, and Iván Rodríguez.

In 2008, Tulsa funded $39.2 million to build a new ballpark in the Greenwood District near downtown for the Drillers. The ground breaking was held on December 19, 2008. ONEOK bought the naming rights for $10 million for the next 25 years. The first game at ONEOK Field was held on April 8, 2010. Country music star Tim McGraw threw out the first pitch.[163]

The 19,199-seat BOK Center is the centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects and was completed in August 2008; the BOK Center was in the top ten among indoor arenas worldwide in ticket sales for the first quarter of 2009 when it was the home for the city's Tulsa Shock WNBA, Tulsa Talons arena football, and Tulsa Oilers ice hockey teams; as of 2022, the Oilers are the sole remaining tenant.[164]

College sports

School Nickname Colors Association Conference
University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane Old Gold, Royal Blue and Crimson NCAA Division I American
Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles Vegas Gold and Navy Blue NCAA Division I Summit
Rogers State University Hillcats Blue and Red NCAA Division II Mid-America

Two Tulsa universities compete at the NCAA Division I level: the University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane, and the Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles. The University of Tulsa's men's basketball program has reached the Sweet Sixteen three times, made an appearance in the Elite Eight in 2000, won the NIT championship in 1981 and 2001, and won the inaugural College Basketball Invitational in 2008.[165][166] The Tulsa football team has played in 16 bowl games, including the Sugar Bowl (twice) and the Orange Bowl.[167] Oral Roberts University's men's basketball team reached the Elite Eight in 1974, the Sweet Sixteen in 2021, and won the Mid-Continent Conference title three straight years, from 2005 to 2007.[168]

The University of Tulsa also boasts one of the nation's top tennis facilities, the Michael D. Case Tennis Center, which hosted the 2004 and 2008 NCAA tennis championships. The Golden Hurricane Tennis program has a string of success, including men's Missouri Valley championships in 1995 and 1996, men's Conference USA championships in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 and women's Conference USA championships in 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011. In 2007, Tulsa's top-ranked player Arnau Brugués-Davi ranked as high as #1 in the nation and a four time All-American, advanced to the quarterfinals of the singles competition at the NCAA Men's Tennis Championship, improving on his 2006 round of sixteen appearances.

Golf

Tulsa is home to the famous Southern Hills Country Club, which is one of only two courses that have hosted seven men's major championships: three U.S. Opens and four PGA Championships, the most recent in 2022.[169] The course has held five amateur championships[169] and from 2001 to 2008 the LPGA had a regular tour stop, latterly known as the SemGroup Championship at Cedar Ridge Country Club.[170]

Tulsa also hosts two golf courses designed by famed golf course architect A.W. Tillinghast: the Oaks Country Club and Tulsa Country Club. The Tom Fazio-designed Golf Club of Oklahoma is located just outside of Tulsa.

Professional soccer

Tulsa is home to FC Tulsa, which competes in the USL Championship.

From 1978 to 1984, the city hosted the Tulsa Roughnecks, who played in the now-defunct North American Soccer League and won that league's championship in 1983.

Professional football

In 1984, the city hosted the Oklahoma Outlaws of the now-defunct United States Football League for a single season.[171]

High school sports

At the secondary level, the Tulsa area is home to several high school athletic programs that are frequently ranked among the best nationally, particularly in football (e.g. Bixby High School, Broken Arrow High School, Owasso High School, Union High School, Booker T. Washington, and Jenks High School).[172]

Running, biking and trails

The city's running and cycling communities support events such as the Tulsa Tough cycling race, the Hurtland cyclocross, the Route 66 Marathon,[173] and the Tulsa Run, which features over 8000 participants annually.[174] Another popular gambling draw, horse racing events are housed by the Fair Meadows Race Track and Will Rogers Downs in nearby Claremore.

Saint Francis Tulsa Tough Ride and Race is a three-day cycling festival in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It features both non-competitive riding through scenic areas around the Tulsa Metropolitan Area and professional level races. It is held each year on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, the second weekend in June. Just as popular as the biking itself is the weekend-long festivities at Crybaby Hill, for it is held in the Riverview District.[175][176] The Blue Dome District hosts its race on the first night and takes riders down East 2nd Street by Arnie's Bar, the Dilly Diner, and El Guapo's Mexican Cantina. The race has participants riding at fast speeds through crowded streets lined with cheering spectators, live music, and several vendors. Events include the Men's Cat 3, Women's Pro 1/2, Men's 1/2 and Men's Pro 1.[177]

The University of Tulsa football team competes at the NCAA Division I level.
The University of Tulsa football team competes at the NCAA Division I level.

Motorsports

In motorsports, Tulsa annually hosts the Chili Bowl indoor race at the Tulsa Expo Center. The race was initially sponsored by the Chili Bowl food company of Bob Berryhill. The race has since accommodated "over two hundred race rigs, bleachers for thousands of people and an ever-growing trade show".[178]

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BOK Center

BOK Center

The BOK Center, or Bank of Oklahoma Center, is a 19,199-seat multi-purpose arena and a primary indoor sports and event venue in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. Designed to accommodate arena football, hockey, basketball, concerts, and similar events, the facility was built at a cost of $178 million in public funds and $18 million in privately funded upgrades. Ground was broken on August 31, 2005, and a ribbon-cutting ceremony took place on August 30, 2008.

Minor league

Minor league

Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. Minor league teams tend to play in smaller, less elaborate venues, often competing in smaller cities/markets. This term is used in North America with regard to several organizations competing in various sports. They generally have lesser fan bases, much smaller revenues and salaries, and are used to develop players for bigger leagues.

Tulsa Shock

Tulsa Shock

The Tulsa Shock were a professional basketball team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, playing in the Western Conference in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). The team was founded in Detroit, Michigan before the 1998 WNBA season began; the team moved to Tulsa before the 2010 season. The team was owned by Tulsa Pro Hoops LLC, which is led by Bill Cameron and David Box. On July 20, 2015, Cameron announced that the franchise would move to Arlington, Texas for the 2016 WNBA season, rebranding as the Dallas Wings.

FC Tulsa

FC Tulsa

FC Tulsa is an American professional soccer team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma which competes in the USL Championship, the second tier of the American soccer pyramid.

Association football

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players who primarily use their feet to propel the ball around a rectangular field called a pitch. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposition by moving the ball beyond the goal line into a rectangular framed goal defended by the opposing side. Traditionally, the game has been played over two 45 minute halves, for a total match time of 90 minutes. With an estimated 250 million players active in over 200 countries, it is considered the world's most popular sport.

Tulsa Oilers

Tulsa Oilers

The Tulsa Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and play in the ECHL. The Oilers played their home games at the Tulsa Convention Center until 2008 when they moved into the new BOK Center. For many years, the Tulsa Oilers name was shared with Tulsa's former minor-league baseball team that pre-dated the Tulsa Drillers. To reduce confusion in local news reporting, the hockey team was often called the "Ice Oilers".

Ice hockey

Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a team sport played on ice skates, usually on an ice skating rink with lines and markings specific to the sport. It belongs to a family of sports called hockey. In ice hockey, two opposing teams use ice hockey sticks to control, advance and shoot a closed, vulcanized, rubber disc called a "puck" into the other team's goal. Each goal is worth one point. The team which scores the most goals is declared the winner. In a formal game, each team has six skaters on the ice at a time, barring any penalties, one of whom is the goaltender. Ice hockey is a full contact sport.

ECHL

ECHL

The ECHL is a mid-level professional ice hockey league based in Shrewsbury, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and Canada. It is a tier below the American Hockey League (AHL).

Tulsa Drillers

Tulsa Drillers

The Tulsa Drillers are a minor league baseball team based in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The team, which plays in the Texas League, is the Double-A affiliate of the Los Angeles Dodgers major-league club.

Baseball

Baseball

Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each, taking turns batting and fielding. The game is live when the umpire signals to the pitcher either verbally or by pointing, indicating that the ball is now in play. A player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball that a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objective of the offensive team is to hit the ball into the field of play, away from the other team's players, allowing its players to run the bases, having them advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate.

Tulsa Athletic

Tulsa Athletic

Tulsa Athletic is an American soccer team and are based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. 2013 was their inaugural season in the National Premier Soccer League (NPSL), which is a national league at the fourth tier of the American soccer pyramid. They compete in the NPSL's Heartland Conference. The team maintains amateur status under NPSL rules, allowing college players to participate without losing their collegiate eligibility. The club currently plays at Athletic Community Field at Hicks Park since the 2022 season, having previously played at Veterans Park (2018–21), LaFortune Stadium (2017) and Drillers Stadium (2013-16), the former home of the Tulsa Drillers baseball team.

National Premier Soccer League

National Premier Soccer League

The National Premier Soccer League (NPSL) is an American men's soccer league. The NPSL is a semi-professional league, comprising some teams that have paid players and some that are entirely amateur. The league is officially affiliated to the United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA) and has automatic qualification for the U.S. Open Cup. It is the successor of the Men's Premier Soccer League, a regional league originally based in the Western United States, which has now expanded nationwide to encompass teams from 29 states. The league's motto is "A National League with a Regional Focus".

Parks

As of 2016, the city of Tulsa manages 134 parks spread over 8,278 acres (3,350 ha).[179][180] Woodward Park, a 45-acre (18 ha) tract located in midtown Tulsa, doubles as a botanical garden, featuring the Tulsa Municipal Rose Garden, with more than 6,000 rose plants in 250 varieties, and the Linnaeus Teaching Gardens, which demonstrate the latest and most successful techniques for growing vegetables, annuals, perennials, woody plants and groundcovers.[181]

Some Tulsa-area parks are run by Tulsa County Parks. These include the 270-acre (110 ha) LaFortune Park in Midtown Tulsa,[182] and the 192-acre (78 ha) Chandler Park.[183]

Some parks are under the Tulsa River Parks Authority. These include a series of linear parks that run adjacent to the Arkansas River for about 10 miles (16 km) from downtown to the Jenks bridge. Since 2007 a significant portion of the River Parks area has been renovated with new trails, landscaping, and playground equipment. The River Parks Turkey Mountain Urban Wilderness Area on the west side of the Arkansas River in south Tulsa is a 300-acre (120 ha) area that contains over 45 miles (72 km) of dirt trails available for hiking, trail running, mountain biking and horseback riding. In addition, after years of planning, generous donations and input from the community, 66 acres (27 ha) of central Tulsa was transformed into Gathering Place, a $465 million park that opened September 8, 2018.[184][185] The project is spearheaded and largely funded by the George Kaiser Family Foundation. With a $100 million endowment for maintenance and family programming from the George Kaiser Family Foundation alone, it one of the largest and most ambitious public parks ever created with private funds.[186] The main attractions are the Chapman Adventure Playground, the Williams Lodge, a boathouse, splash playground, great lawn, outdoor sports courts, a skate park, a wetland pond and garden, and numerous trails among other locations.[187] Tulsa's Gathering Place was named the Best New Attraction in the Nation in 2018 through the USA Today Readers’ Choice awards.[188] Groundbreaking on the anchor project for phase two, Discovery Lab, occurred in February 2020.[189] The $47 million, 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m2) Discovery Lab is a hands-on museum also featuring classrooms, a café, grand plaza, and 300-seat amphitheater;[189] it opened on January 24, 2022.[190]

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Tulsa parks and recreation

Tulsa parks and recreation

The City of Tulsa manages 135 parks spread over 8,278 acres (3,350 ha). This includes 2 nature centers, 6 community centers with fitness facilities, gymnasiums and meeting rooms, 2 skate parks, 2 dog parks, 4 swimming pools, 66 miles of walking trails, 186 sports fields, 93 playgrounds, 111 tennis courts, 13 water playgrounds, 17 splash pads, 61 picnic shelters, 4 golf courses and 8 disc golf courses. Individual parks range in size from Mohawk Park, the largest at 3,100 acres (1,300 ha) to small neighborhood parks, such as the 10-acre Braden Park in the White City area. The smallest is Creek Nation Council Oak Park at 1.86 acres (0.75 ha).

Woodward Park (Tulsa)

Woodward Park (Tulsa)

Woodward Park is a 45-acre (18 ha) public park, botanical garden, and arboretum located between 21st Street and 24th Street east of South Peoria Avenue and west of South Rockford Street in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the Midwestern United States. The park, named for Helen Woodward, the original property owner, was established in 1929, after a lengthy court suit over ownership.

Botanical garden

Botanical garden

A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden with a documented collection of living plants for the purpose of scientific research, conservation, display, and education. Typically plants are labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Most are at least partly open to the public, and may offer guided tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement in 1761 as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin; his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus and, after his 1761 ennoblement, as Carolus a Linné.

George Kaiser

George Kaiser

George Bruce Kaiser is an American billionaire businessman. He is the chairman of BOK Financial Corporation in Tulsa, Oklahoma. As of September 2021, he is the 476th richest person in the world and was, in 2012, one of the top 50 American philanthropists.

Government

The Tulsa City Hall serves as the base for most city government functions.
The Tulsa City Hall serves as the base for most city government functions.

A mayor-council government has been in place in Tulsa since 1989, when the city converted from a city commission government deemed wasteful and less efficient.[191] Since the change, Tulsa mayors have been given more power in accordance with a strong mayoral system and have greater control of a more consolidated array of governmental branches.[191] Plurality voting is used to elect mayors, who serve a term in office of four years. The present mayor of Tulsa is Republican G. T. Bynum, who won the 2016 mayoral election and took office on December 5, 2016.[192] Another Tulsa political figure, Jim Inhofe, who now represents Oklahoma in the United States Senate, served as the mayor of Tulsa early in his political career.[193]

A city councilor from each of the city's nine council districts is elected every two years, each serving a term of two years. Councilors are elected from their own respective districts based on a plurality voting system, and serve on the Tulsa City Council. As a whole, the council acts as the legislative body of the city government, which aims to pass laws, approve the city budget, and manage efficiency in the city government. In accordance with the mayor-council form of government, the Tulsa City Council and the office of the Mayor coordinate in city government operations. A third body of the government, the city auditor, is elected independently of the city council and mayor to ensure that the auditor can act in an objective manner. The auditor is elected for a term of two years.[191] Phil Wood, a Democrat, held the position for 21 years before being defeated by Republican Preston Doerflinger in the 2009 election.[194] The city serves as the seat of county government for Tulsa County, and lies mostly within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district, with its far northwestern areas in southern Osage County in Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district. Municipal and state laws are enforced in Tulsa by the Tulsa Police Department, an organization of 781 officers as of 2012.[195][196]

Crime rate

Tulsa experienced elevated levels of gang violence in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when crack cocaine flooded neighborhoods in North Tulsa. Tulsa gang problems became noticeable after an outbreak of gang-related crime between 1980 and 1983, which was traced to the Crips, a local gang which had been founded by two brothers whose family had recently moved to Oklahoma from Compton.[197] In 1986, gang graffiti started to show up on walls and drive-by shootings started occurring on late nights.[198] In 1990 the city hit a record of 60 homicides, the highest since the 1981 peak.[199] North Tulsa has the highest crime rate in the city, with public housing projects being the most heavily affected areas.[200][201] On June 1, 2022, a mass shooting occurred in a medical center, killing at least 4 people, including the perpetrator.[202]

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Government of Tulsa, Oklahoma

Government of Tulsa, Oklahoma

The City of Tulsa has a mayor-council form of government. This form of government has been in place since 1989, at which time Tulsa converted from a city commission form of government. The mayor is elected by the entire population and each of the 9 Councilors are elected from districts based on population.

List of mayors of Tulsa, Oklahoma

List of mayors of Tulsa, Oklahoma

This is a list of mayors of Tulsa, a city in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Mayors of Tulsa are elected for four year terms.

City commission government

City commission government

City commission government is a form of local government in the United States. In a city commission government, voters elect a small commission, typically of five to seven members, typically on a plurality-at-large voting basis.

G. T. Bynum

G. T. Bynum

George Theron Bynum IV is an American politician and lobbyist from the state of Oklahoma. A member of the Republican Party, Bynum is the 40th mayor of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Prior to becoming mayor, he served as a city councilor for Tulsa's ninth district. He is a political moderate.

Jim Inhofe

Jim Inhofe

James Mountain Inhofe is an American politician serving as the senior United States senator from Oklahoma, a seat he was first elected to in 1994. A member of the Republican Party, he chaired the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) from 2003 to 2007 and again from 2015 to 2017. Inhofe served as the U.S. representative for Oklahoma's 1st congressional district from 1987 to 1994 and as mayor of Tulsa from 1978 to 1984.

United States Senate

United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, with the House of Representatives being the lower chamber. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States.

Oklahoma's 1st congressional district

Oklahoma's 1st congressional district

Oklahoma's 1st congressional district is in the northeastern corner of the state and borders Kansas. Anchored by Tulsa, it is largely coextensive with the Tulsa metropolitan area. It includes all of Tulsa, Washington and Wagoner counties, and parts of Rogers and Creek counties. Although it has long been reckoned as the Tulsa district, a small portion of Tulsa itself is located in the 3rd district.

Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district

Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district

Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district is the largest congressional district in the state, covering an area of 34,088.49 square miles, over 48 percent the state's land mass. The district is bordered by New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, and the Texas panhandle. Altogether, the district includes a total of 32 counties, and covers more territory than the state's other four districts combined. It is one of the largest districts in the nation that does not cover an entire state.

Tulsa Police Department

Tulsa Police Department

The Tulsa Police Department (TPD) is the principal law enforcement agency for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States. It is nationally accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies It is the second largest municipal law enforcement agency in Oklahoma.

Compton, California

Compton, California

Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, California, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and, on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city in Los Angeles County to incorporate. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,456. It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Leland, downtown Compton, and Richland Farms. The city has a high poverty rate and is generally a working-class community. Furthermore, Compton is known for their high crime rate.

Education

The McFarlin Library serves the University of Tulsa campus.
The McFarlin Library serves the University of Tulsa campus.

K–12 education

The Presbyterian Church (PCUSA) established the Presbyterian Mission Day School, a one-story building at what would become the intersection of 4th Street and Boston Avenue in 1884. A second story was soon added to accommodate the number of children who were to attend. This school operated until 1889.[203] When Tulsa incorporated in 1899, it took over the school, which became the first public school. James M. Hall and three other men bought the property with their own funds and held the title until the city could reimburse them.[203][204]

Tulsa built its first two public schools in 1905. The construction of more schools began accelerating in 1906. In December 1907, control of the public schools passed from the city government to the Tulsa Board of Education.[203]

Tulsa High School opened in 1906 on the same block formerly occupied by the Presbyterian mission school, which had been razed. The new school was a three-story cream colored brick building with a dome. The school was accredited by the North Central Association of Schools and Colleges in 1913. It proved too small by 1916, when Tulsa voters approved a bond issue to construct a new high school at Sixth Street and Cincinnati Avenue, which was renamed Central High School. The north half of this facility opened in 1917, while the south half opened in 1922.[205] The building remained in this service until 1976, when it was replaced by a new building on West Edison Street. The old building was taken over by the Public Service Company of Oklahoma.[203]

There are three primary public school districts in the city of Tulsa. Tulsa Public Schools, with nine high schools and over 41,000 students, is the second-largest school district in Oklahoma[206] and includes Booker T. Washington High School, a magnet school judged to be the 65th best high school in the United States by Newsweek magazine in 2008.[207] Each with one upper high school, Jenks Public Schools, Union Public Schools and Broken Arrow Public Schools are the city's three other primary districts, covering the southern and far eastern portions of the city near the towns of Jenks and Broken Arrow. In 2006, there were more than 90,000 students attending Tulsa County's public schools.[208]

A variety of independent and sectarian schools exist in Tulsa, also. Most, but not all, of the private schools have religious affiliations with various Christian, Jewish[209] or Muslim[210] denominations. The Catholic Diocese of Tulsa supports a system of parochial and diocesan schools, including Bishop Kelley High School, administered by the LaSallians (French Christian Brothers). Another Catholic high school, Cascia Hall Preparatory School, is administered by Augustinians.[211] Holland Hall School is independent but historically affiliated with the Episcopal Church. Riverfield Country Day School is non-sectarian.

Public libraries

The largest library system in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, the Tulsa City-County Library, contains over 1.7 million volumes in 25 library facilities.[212] The library is active in the community, holding events and programs at most branches, including free computer classes, children's storytimes, business and job assistance, and scholarly databases with information on a variety of topics.[208] The McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa is a federal depository library holding over three million items.[213] Founded in 1930, the library is known for its collection of Native American works and the original works of Irish author James Joyce.[213] The Tulsa City-County Library and the University of Tulsa's Law Library are also federal depository libraries, making Tulsa the only city in Oklahoma with more than two federal depository libraries.[214] The Tulsa City County Library's Downtown branch was massively renovated and opened to the public on Saturday, October 1, 2016.

Higher education

The first institute of higher education was established in Tulsa when Kendall College, a Presbyterian school, moved from Muskogee to Tulsa in 1907. In 1920, the school merged with a proposed McFarlin College to become the University of Tulsa (abbreviated as TU). The McFarlin Library of TU was named for the principal donor of the proposed college, oilman Robert M. McFarlin.

The Graduate Center houses Oral Roberts University's graduate college.
The Graduate Center houses Oral Roberts University's graduate college.

Tulsa has 15 institutions of higher education, including two private universities: the University of Tulsa, a school founded in 1894, and Oral Roberts University, a school founded by evangelist Oral Roberts in 1963.

The University of Tulsa has an enrollment of 4,192 undergraduate and graduate students[215] and is ranked 83rd among national doctoral universities in U.S. News & World Report's 2009 edition of America's Best Colleges and among the best 123 Western Colleges by the Princeton Review in 2007, which also ranks it in the top ten schools nationally for quality of life, overall happiness of students, and relationship with the community.[216] In addition to doctoral and masters programs, TU is home to the University of Tulsa College of Law and the Collins College of Business. TU also manages the famous Gilcrease Museum in northwest Tulsa and hosts the Alexandre Hogue Gallery on its main campus.

Oral Roberts University, a charismatic Christian institution with an enrollment of 5,109 undergraduate and graduate students,[217] was rated in 2007 by the Princeton Review one of the 123 best in the Western United States and among the West's top 50 Master's Universities by U.S. News & World Report in 2005.[218]

Both of the state's flagship research universities have campuses in Tulsa:

  • Oklahoma State University houses three campuses in the city, the OSU Center for Health Sciences, the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine, and OSU – Tulsa, accommodating upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses. OSU-Tulsa has an advanced materials research facility and is home to the Oklahoma Center for Poets and Writers.
  • The University of Oklahoma operates what is known as the OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center, offering bachelors, master's, and doctoral degree programs in conjunction with the main campus in Norman and the OU Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City. The OU-Tulsa Schusterman Center also houses the OU School of Community Medicine, the first medical school of its kind in the United States.

Rogers State University in Claremore, Oklahoma, is the Tulsa area's original public, undergraduate-focused, four-year university. Tulsa Community College (TCC), the largest community college in Oklahoma, operates four campuses spread across the area as well as a conference center in Midtown,[219] and has a partnership allowing students to complete four-year bachelor's degrees through OU-Tulsa, OSU-Tulsa, LU-Tulsa and NSU-Broken Arrow.[220] Tulsa also has a Tulsa branch of Langston University, the only historically black college or university in the state, founded in 1897. Tulsa previously had a branch campus of St. Gregory's University, a Catholic university with its main campus in Shawnee, Oklahoma; however, that school went into bankruptcy in 2017.

The Spartan School of Aeronautics enrolls 1,500 students at its flight programs near Tulsa International Airport[221] and the city's vocational education is headed by Tulsa Technology Center, the oldest and largest vocational technology institution in the state.[222]

Among trade schools located in Tulsa are Community Care College (including branches Oklahoma Technical College and Clary Sage College),[223] Holberton School Tulsa, and Tulsa Tech.[224]

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List of schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma

List of schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma

List of schools in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States:

Central High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)

Central High School (Tulsa, Oklahoma)

Central High School is the oldest high school in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was founded in 1906 as Tulsa High School, and located in downtown Tulsa until 1976. The school now has a 47-acre (19 ha) campus in northwest Tulsa. Tulsa Central is part of the Tulsa Public Schools, Oklahoma's largest school district, and is a public school for students from grades 9 through 12. Since 1997 it has served as a fine and performing arts magnet school.

Tulsa Public Schools

Tulsa Public Schools

Tulsa Public Schools is an independent school district serving the Tulsa, Oklahoma area in Northeastern Oklahoma. As of 2022, it is the largest school district in Oklahoma, surpassing Oklahoma City Public Schools for the first time since 2013. As of 2022 the district serves approximately 33,211 students. It is governed by an elected school board. As of November 2021, the Tulsa Public Schools district is accredited by the Oklahoma State Department of Education.

Magnet school

Magnet school

In the U.S. education system, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities as school zones that feed into certain schools. Attending them is voluntary.

Newsweek

Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly online news magazine and digital news platform, co-owned 50 percent each by Dev Pragad, its president and CEO, and Johnathan Davis, who has no operational role at Newsweek. Founded as a weekly print magazine in 1933, it was widely distributed during the 20th century, and had many notable editors-in-chief. The magazine was acquired by The Washington Post Company in 1961, and remained under its ownership until 2010.

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County, with a portion in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth-largest city in the state. However, a July 2019 estimate reported that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 1,023,988 residents.

Bishop Kelley High School

Bishop Kelley High School

Bishop Kelley High School is an American Lasallian Catholic high school with 905 students, grades 9 to 12, located at 41st and Hudson Avenue, in the center of the Tulsa metropolitan area, on a campus spanning just over 47 acres (150,000 m2). The school is formerly a function of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tulsa, but is now incorporated separately, and operates in the Lasallian tradition of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.

Cascia Hall Preparatory School

Cascia Hall Preparatory School

Cascia Hall Preparatory School is an Augustinian Roman Catholic coeducational College-preparatory day school in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is a member of the Augustinian Secondary Education Association. It is one of Tulsa's two Catholic high schools, with Bishop Kelley High School.

Augustinians

Augustinians

Augustinians are members of Christian religious orders that follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, written in about 400 AD by Augustine of Hippo. There are two distinct types of Augustinians in Catholic religious orders dating back to the 12th–13th centuries:Various congregations of Canons Regular also follow the Rule of Saint Augustine, embrace the evangelical counsels and lead a semi-monastic life, while remaining committed to pastoral care appropriate to their primary vocation as priests. They generally form one large community which might serve parishes in the vicinity, and are organized into autonomous congregations. Several orders of friars who live a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry. The largest and most familiar is the Order of Saint Augustine (OSA), founded in 1244 and originally known as the Hermits of Saint Augustine (OESA). They are commonly known as the Austin Friars in England. Two other orders, the Order of Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the OSA under a single prior general. The Recollects, founded in 1588 as a reform movement in Spain, became autonomous in 1612. The Discalceds became an independent congregation in 1592, and were raised to the status of a separate mendicant order in 1610.

Riverfield Country Day School

Riverfield Country Day School

Riverfield Country Day School (RCDS) is a private school based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States.

Tulsa City-County Library

Tulsa City-County Library

The Tulsa City-County Library (TCCL) is the major public library system in Tulsa County, Oklahoma.

James Joyce

James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, poet, and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde movement and is regarded as one of the most influential and important writers of the 20th century. Joyce's novel Ulysses (1922) is a landmark in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, particularly stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, letters, and occasional journalism.

Media and communications

The Tulsa World operates primarily from its headquarters in downtown Tulsa.
The Tulsa World operates primarily from its headquarters in downtown Tulsa.

Print

Tulsa's leading newspaper is the daily Tulsa World, the second-most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma with a Sunday circulation of 189,789.[225]

The Tulsa Voice is an Alt-Weekly newspaper covering entertainment and cultural events. Covering primarily economic events and stocks, the Tulsa Business Journal caters to Tulsa's business sector. Other publications include the Oklahoma Indian Times, the Tulsa Daily Commerce and Legal News, the Tulsa Beacon, This Land Press, and the Tulsa Free Press. The first black-owned newspaper was the Tulsa Star, which ceased publication when its office burned during the Tulsa race massacre. It was succeeded by the Oklahoma Eagle, which began publishing using the press salvaged from the Star's office.[226]

Until 1992, the Tulsa Tribune served as a daily afternoon newspaper competing with the Tulsa World. The paper was acquired by the Tulsa World that year. Urban Tulsa Weekly served as the city's alt-weekly paper from 1991 until its closure in 2013.[227]

Television and radio

Tulsa is also served by television and radio broadcasting networks. All major U.S. television networks are represented in Tulsa through local affiliates in the designated market area (a region covering a 22-county area serving the northeastern and east-central portions of Oklahoma, and far southeastern Kansas); these include NBC affiliate KJRH-TV (channel 2), CBS affiliate KOTV-DT (channel 6), ABC affiliate KTUL (channel 8), PBS station KOED-TV (channel 11, a satellite of the state-run OETA member network), CW affiliate KQCW-DT (channel 19), Fox affiliate KOKI-TV (channel 23), MyNetworkTV affiliate KMYT-TV (channel 41), Ion Television owned-and-operated station KTPX-TV (channel 44). The market is also home to several religious stations including TBN owned-and-operated station KDOR-TV (channel 17), religious/secular independent station KWHB (channel 47), and Oral Roberts University-owned KGEB (channel 53, which is distributed nationwide via satellite as GEB America).

Cable television service in the area is provided by Cox Communications, which acquired Tele-Communications Inc. (TCI)'s franchise rights to the area in a $2.85 billion deal (which also included the purchase of AT&T Broadband's Louisiana cable systems, minority ownership of TCA Cable TV systems in Texas, Louisiana and New Mexico, and TCI's Peak Cablevision systems in four other Oklahoma cities, and select markets in Arkansas, Utah and Nevada) in July 1999; Cox assumed control of TCI's Tulsa-area systems on March 15, 2000.[228][229]

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Alternative newspaper

Alternative newspaper

An alternative newspaper is a type of newspaper that eschews comprehensive coverage of general news in favor of stylized reporting, opinionated reviews and columns, investigations into edgy topics and magazine-style feature stories highlighting local people and culture. Its news coverage is more locally focused, and their target audiences are younger than those of daily newspapers. Typically, alternative newspapers are published in tabloid format and printed on newsprint. Other names for such publications include alternative weekly, alternative newsweekly, and alt weekly, as the majority circulate on a weekly schedule.

Tulsa Beacon

Tulsa Beacon

The Tulsa Beacon is a weekly newspaper in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was founded by Charles and Susan Biggs under the corporate name Biggs Communications, Inc. The first paper was published in April 2001.

This Land Press

This Land Press

This Land Press is a media and merchandising company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that produces and sells Oklahoma-themed apparel and gifts, produces a quarterly print magazine, publishes books, and operates a retail store. It was founded by Michael Mason, an Oklahoma-born author, journalist, and editor. In March 2011, Tulsa businessman Vincent LoVoi partnered with Mason and became the publisher of This Land Press.

Network affiliate

Network affiliate

In the broadcasting industry, a network affiliate or affiliated station is a local broadcaster, owned by a company other than the owner of the network, which carries some or all of the lineup of television programs or radio programs of a television or radio network. This distinguishes such a television or radio station from an owned-and-operated station (O&O), which is owned by the parent network.

Media market

Media market

A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media such as newspapers and internet content. They can coincide or overlap with one or more metropolitan areas, though rural regions with few significant population centers can also be designated as markets. Conversely, very large metropolitan areas can sometimes be subdivided into multiple segments. Market regions may overlap, meaning that people residing on the edge of one media market may be able to receive content from other nearby markets. They are widely used in audience measurements, which are compiled in the United States by Nielsen Media Research. Nielsen measures both television and radio audiences since its acquisition of Arbitron, which was completed in September 2013.

NBC

NBC

The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English-language commercial broadcast television and radio network. The flagship property of the NBC Entertainment division of NBCUniversal, a division of Comcast, its headquarters are located at Comcast Building in New York City. The company also has offices in Los Angeles at 10 Universal City Plaza and Chicago at the NBC Tower. NBC is the oldest of the traditional "Big Three" American television networks, having been formed in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network," in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting.

KJRH-TV

KJRH-TV

KJRH-TV is a television station in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, affiliated with NBC. It is owned by the E. W. Scripps Company alongside Okmulgee-licensed Ion Television outlet KTPX-TV. KJRH-TV's studios are located on South Peoria Avenue and East 37th Street in midtown Tulsa, and its transmitter is located near South 273rd Avenue East near Broken Arrow.

CBS

CBS

CBS Broadcasting Inc., an abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System and commonly shortened to CBS, is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network. It is the flagship property of the CBS Entertainment Group division of Paramount Global. The network's headquarters are at the CBS Building in New York City, with major production facilities and operations at the CBS Broadcast Center and Paramount headquarters One Astor Plaza also in that city and Television City and the CBS Studio Center in Los Angeles.

KOTV-DT

KOTV-DT

KOTV-DT is a television station in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, affiliated with CBS. It is owned by Griffin Media alongside Muskogee-licensed CW affiliate KQCW-DT and radio stations KTSB, KBEZ, KVOO-FM (98.5), KXBL and KHTT. All of the outlets share studios at the Griffin Media Center on North Boston Avenue and East Cameron Street in the downtown neighborhood's Tulsa Arts District; KOTV's transmitter is located on South 273rd East Avenue in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma.

American Broadcasting Company

American Broadcasting Company

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network. It is the flagship property of the ABC Entertainment Group division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California, on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building. The network's secondary offices, and headquarters of its news division, are in New York City, at its broadcast center at 77 West 66th Street on the Upper West Side of Manhattan.

KTUL

KTUL

KTUL is a television station in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States, affiliated with ABC and owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group. The station's studios are located at Lookout Mountain in southwestern Tulsa, and its transmitter is located on South 321st Avenue East, adjacent to the Muskogee Turnpike, in unincorporated southeastern Tulsa County.

PBS

PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and non-commercial, free-to-air television network based in Arlington, Virginia. PBS is a publicly funded nonprofit organization and the most prominent provider of educational programming to public television stations in the United States, distributing shows such as Frontline, Nova, PBS NewsHour, Sesame Street, and This Old House.

Infrastructure

Transportation

The Tulsa Transit bus network, operating from its Denver Avenue Station transit center in downtown, helps meet city infrastructure needs.
The Tulsa Transit bus network, operating from its Denver Avenue Station transit center in downtown, helps meet city infrastructure needs.

Transportation in Tulsa is aided by Tulsa Transit's bus network of 97 vehicles[230] and two primary airports, while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa provides transportation of goods and industry through international trade routes. Though internal transportation is largely dependent on automobiles, the city was ranked in 2005 among the five least expensive metropolitan areas for average price of gas at the pump.[231]

Highways

Tulsa has an extensive highway system that connects many cities in the region such as Joplin, Missouri on the Will Rogers Turnpike and Oklahoma City on the Turner Turnpike. Most commuters use the highway system in Tulsa to get to and from work. Highways that run through Tulsa are I-44, I-244, US-412, US-169, OK-66, US-64, US-75, OK-11, OK-51, Creek Turnpike, and Gilcrease Expressway. In 2011, the Oklahoma Department of Transportation reported that Tulsa's busiest freeway was US-169 with about 121,500 vehicles daily between 51st and 61st Streets, and its second busiest freeway was OK-51 with about 104,200 vehicles between Memorial and I-44.[232] Surrounding Downtown is the Inner Dispersal Loop (sometimes called the "I-D-L"), which connects Downtown with almost all the highways in Tulsa.

Buses

Tulsa Transit, the city's transit bus operator, runs 97 buses on 19 different routes across Tulsa and in surrounding suburbs such as Broken Arrow, Sand Springs and Jenks. Tulsa Transit has two stations: the Memorial Midtown Station at 7952 E. 33rd St. in Midtown Tulsa, and the Denver Avenue Station at 319 S. Denver, across from the BOK Center in Downtown. Most routes go through one or both of the stations, facilitating the commute to work and events in Downtown or Midtown. Buses stop at specific stops such as Tulsa Community College, Oklahoma State University-Tulsa, CityPlex Towers, Cox Communications, the various medical facilities in Tulsa, and many shopping destinations, hotels, and schools. The bus schedules are periodically changed; votes are taken by Tulsa Transit to help decide the particulars of certain routes.[233] Tulsa debuted its first bus rapid transit line, Aero on Peoria Avenue, in November 2019.[234] The service has more frequent buses, upgraded stations, and faster travel times.[235]

An American Eagle aircraft in new livery at Tulsa International Airport
An American Eagle aircraft in new livery at Tulsa International Airport

Intercity bus service is provided by both Greyhound Lines and Jefferson Lines. The station for both is at 317 S. Detroit, five blocks from Tulsa Transit's Downtown bus terminal. As to private chartered bus companies, Red Carpet Charters[236] a/k/a Red Carpet Trailways of Tulsa, is an independent member of the Trailways Charter Bus Network.[237]

Airports

Tulsa International Airport, which has service on thirteen commercial airlines (nine passenger and four cargo ones), serves more than three million travelers annually, with almost 80 departures every day.[107] In 2007, the airport completed most of an expansion project, which included larger terminal sizes and the addition of restaurants and shops. In 2011, the airport opened the newly renovated Concourse B, complete with skylights, open gate holds, an average of 76 ways to charge a device per gate, and much more. Concourse A is under renovation.[107] Richard L. Jones Jr. Airport, a/k/a Jones-Riverside Airport, a general aviation airport in West Tulsa, saw 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008, making it the busiest airport in Oklahoma and the fifth-busiest general aviation airport in the nation.[238] Its operations contribute over $3.2 million to the economy annually.[238] The Tulsa Airports Improvement Trust also manages the Okmulgee Regional Airport in Okmulgee, Oklahoma, further to the south of Tulsa.[239][240]

Railways

Freight railways bisect the city in every direction; the state's chief freight rail transporter is BNSF, which operates the Cherokee Rail Yard in Tulsa, which includes a freight terminal, diesel shop and hump yard for railcar sorting.[241] Other Class I transporters are Union Pacific Railroad, and Kansas City Southern Railway (via a short-line switch on the South Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad).[242]

Tulsa Union Depot served Frisco, M-K-T and Santa Fe passenger trains until the 1960s. The Santa Fe continued at another station to 1971.[243] There are no mass transit rail lines in Tulsa, but the prospect of passenger rail lines from Downtown Tulsa to the suburb of Broken Arrow is being studied.[244]

Long-distance passenger rail transportation today serves Tulsa only through Greyhound bus lines, which provide bus connections to nearby cities with Amtrak stations.[245]

The Tulsa Port of Catoosa
The Tulsa Port of Catoosa

Beginning in February 2014, a limited number of test trips of the Eastern Flyer were run, connecting the Tulsa and Oklahoma City metros via train on Sundays.[246] The private passenger operation by the Iowa Pacific was at one point scheduled for regular daily operations from May 2014,[247] but never started; Iowa Pacific later dropped out of the process.[248] Due to contractual provisions of its 2014 purchase from the State of Oklahoma of the “Sooner Sub” trackage running from Sapulpa, Oklahoma near Tulsa to Del City, Oklahoma near Oklahoma City, the Stillwater Central Railroad was obligated to start such a service by August 2019.[248] On August 5, 2019, the Stillwater Central opted to instead default under the agreement and pay the contractual $2.8 million in penalties for not establishing the service.[249]

Tulsa has two static displays of antique steam railroad locomotives for free public viewing: the 1917 wood-burning Dierks Forest 207, a Baldwin 2-6-2 Prairie-type located at the Tulsa State Fairgrounds;[250] and the 1942 oil-burning Frisco Meteor 4500, a Baldwin 4-8-4 Northern-type at the Route 66 Historical Village at 3770 Southwest Blvd.[251]

Port of Catoosa

At the head of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is an inland port in the United States and connects barge traffic from Tulsa to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris River and the Arkansas River. The facility is one of the largest riverports in the United States[252] and contributes to one of the busiest waterways in the world via its course to the Gulf of Mexico.[253]

Medical facilities

In 2010 Saint Francis completed a new Children's Hospital.
In 2010 Saint Francis completed a new Children's Hospital.

The Saint Francis Health System owns several hospitals with a central location at Saint Francis Hospital in the southern part of the city. The facility contains 700 doctors and 918 beds,[254] and with more than 7,000 employees, the network is the second-largest healthcare employer in the state.[255] The health system also operates a heart hospital, which was named by General Electric in 2004 one of the most advanced heart hospitals in the nation.[256] St. John Medical Center, located in an 11-story midtown center, employs nearly 700 doctors.[257] Other networks, such as Hillcrest Health System, operate a number of facilities of various sizes.[258] Beginning in 2007, the city elected to renew a five-year contract with EMSA for ambulance service after a period spent contemplating a switch to the Tulsa Fire Department for the provision of such services.[259]

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Transportation in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Transportation in Tulsa, Oklahoma

Transportation in Tulsa, Oklahoma includes a bus network and a system of raised highways and primary thoroughfares, laid out in mile-by-mile increments. In addition, throughout its entire length in Tulsa, historic Route 66 is a drivable road, with motels and restaurants reminiscent of the route's heyday era.

Interstate 44

Interstate 44

Interstate 44 (I-44) is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. Although it is nominally an east–west road as it is even-numbered, it follows a more southwest–northeast alignment. Its western terminus is in Wichita Falls, Texas, at a concurrency with U.S. Route 277 (US 277), US 281, and US 287; its eastern terminus is at I-70 in St. Louis, Missouri. I-44 is one of five Interstates built to bypass US 66; this highway covers the section between Oklahoma City and St. Louis. Virtually the entire length of I-44 east of Springfield, Missouri, was once US 66, which was upgraded from two to four lanes from 1949 to 1955. The section of I-44 west of Springfield was built farther south than US 66 in order to connect Missouri's section with the already completed Will Rogers Turnpike, which Oklahoma wished to carry their part of I-44.

Interstate 244

Interstate 244

Interstate 244 (I-244), also known as the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Expressway since 1984, the Crosstown Expressway, and the Red Fork Expressway, is a 15.8-mile-long (25.4 km) east–west Interstate Highway bypass route of I-44 in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Oklahoma State Highway 66

Oklahoma State Highway 66

State Highway 66 is a 192.7-mile (310.1 km) state highway in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, beginning at U.S. Highway 81 in El Reno and ending at U.S. Highway 60 near White Oak. The highway was designated in 1985 as a replacement for the decommissioned US 66. Although most of the highway follows Historic Route 66, the highway follows US 66's final alignment, joining Interstate 44 through Tulsa and Oklahoma City, while older versions of the route follow various city streets through both cities.

Oklahoma State Highway 11

Oklahoma State Highway 11

State Highway 11 is a state highway in Oklahoma. It runs in an irregular west-to-east path 204.9 miles (329.8 km) across the northern part of the state, from U.S. Highway 281 (US-281) seven miles (11 km) north of Alva to Interstate 244 (I-244) / US-412 in Tulsa. There is one letter-suffixed spur highway branching from SH-11, SH-11A.

Oklahoma State Highway 51

Oklahoma State Highway 51

State Highway 51, abbreviated to SH-51 or OK-51, is a major state highway in Oklahoma, United States. It runs for 332.8 miles (535.6 km) east–west across the state, running from the Texas state line to Arkansas. It is the third-longest state highway in the system.

Creek Turnpike

Creek Turnpike

The Creek Turnpike, also designated State Highway 364 (SH-364), is a 33.22-mile-long (53.46 km) freeway-standard toll road that lies entirely in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The turnpike forms a partial beltway around the south and east sides of Tulsa, Oklahoma's second largest city. The Creek Turnpike's western terminus is at the Turner Turnpike in Sapulpa, while its northeastern terminus is at the Will Rogers Turnpike in Fair Oaks; both ends of the Creek Turnpike connect with Interstate 44 (I-44). Along the way, the highway passes through the cities of Sapulpa, Jenks, Tulsa, and Broken Arrow, and the counties of Creek, Tulsa, Wagoner and Rogers. The road is maintained by the Oklahoma Turnpike Authority (OTA), except for a brief free section shared with U.S. Route 64 (US-64) and US-169. This free section is maintained by the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT).

Gilcrease Expressway

Gilcrease Expressway

The Gilcrease Expressway is a 10.5-mile-long (16.9 km) highway in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States. It is part of the county's long-term plan to complete an outer highway loop around Tulsa's central business district. The highway will connect Interstate 44 (I-44) in West Tulsa to I-244 near the Tulsa International Airport.

Oklahoma Department of Transportation

Oklahoma Department of Transportation

The Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) is an agency of the government of Oklahoma responsible for the construction and maintenance of the state's transportation infrastructure. Under the leadership of the Oklahoma secretary of transportation and ODOT executive director, the department maintains public infrastructure that includes highways and state-owned railroads and administers programs for county roads, city streets, public transit, passenger rail, waterways and active transportation. Along with the Oklahoma Turnpike Authority, the department is the primary infrastructure construction and maintenance agency of the State.

Metropolitan Tulsa Transit Authority

Metropolitan Tulsa Transit Authority

Metropolitan Tulsa Transit Authority, usually known as MTTA or Tulsa Transit, is the public transit system operating buses and paratransit for Tulsa, Oklahoma. In existence since 1968, the system consists of 21 regular routes and 4 night routes, with two major transit hubs: Memorial Midtown Station at 7952 E. 33rd St. in Midtown Tulsa, and the Denver Avenue Station at 319 S. Denver across from the BOK Center in Downtown.

Transit bus

Transit bus

A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses.

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County, with a portion in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth-largest city in the state. However, a July 2019 estimate reported that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 1,023,988 residents.

In popular culture

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Brat Pack

Brat Pack

The Brat Pack is a nickname given to a group of young actors who frequently appeared together in teen-oriented coming-of-age films in the 1980s. First mentioned in a 1985 New York magazine article, it is now usually defined as the cast members of two specific films released in 1985—The Breakfast Club and St. Elmo's Fire—although other actors are sometimes included. The "core" members are considered to be Emilio Estevez, Anthony Michael Hall, Rob Lowe, Andrew McCarthy, Demi Moore, Judd Nelson, Molly Ringwald, and Ally Sheedy.

Tex (film)

Tex (film)

Tex is a 1982 American drama film directed by Tim Hunter and written by Charles S. Haas. It is based on the novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton. Matt Dillon and Jim Metzler play brothers who struggle after their mother dies and their father walks out on them.

The Outsiders (film)

The Outsiders (film)

The Outsiders is a 1983 American coming-of-age drama film directed by Francis Ford Coppola. The film is an adaptation of the 1967 novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton and was released on March 25, 1983, in the United States. Jo Ellen Misakian, a librarian at Lone Star Elementary School in Fresno, California, and her students were responsible for inspiring Coppola to make the film.

Rumble Fish

Rumble Fish

Rumble Fish is a 1983 American drama film directed by Francis Ford Coppola. It is based on the 1975 novel Rumble Fish by S. E. Hinton, who also co-wrote the screenplay with Coppola. The film stars Matt Dillon, Mickey Rourke, Vincent Spano, Diane Lane, Diana Scarwid, Nicolas Cage, and Dennis Hopper.

Fandango (1985 film)

Fandango (1985 film)

Fandango is a 1985 American comedy film directed by Kevin Reynolds. It was originally a student film titled Proof made by Reynolds while he was attending USC film school. It was a parody of Greek life at his alma mater Baylor University. However, due to his father's presidency at Baylor, he did not wish to portray the Baptist institution in an unfavorable light and gave it the alternative distinction as the University of Texas. The film is now a cult classic.

The Jayhawks

The Jayhawks

The Jayhawks are an American alternative country and country rock band that emerged from the Twin Cities music scene in the mid-1980s. Led by vocalists/guitarists/songwriters Gary Louris and Mark Olson, their country rock sound was influential on many bands who played the Twin Cities circuit during the 1980s and 1990s, such as Uncle Tupelo, the Gear Daddies and the Honeydogs. They have released eleven studio albums, with and without Olson, including five on the American Recordings label. After going on hiatus from 2005 to 2009, the 1995 lineup of the band reunited and released the album Mockingbird Time in September 2011; Olson left the band for the second time after the tour to promote the album. After another hiatus in 2013, the 1997 lineup led by Louris reunited to play shows in 2014 to support the reissue of three albums originally released between 1997 and 2003. Since then, the band has continued to tour and record, releasing the albums Live at The Belly Up in 2015; Paging Mr. Proust, co-produced by Peter Buck, in 2016; Back Roads and Abandoned Motels in 2018; and XOXO in 2020.

HBO

HBO

Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium television network, which is the flagship property of namesake parent subsidiary Home Box Office, Inc., itself a unit owned by Warner Bros. Discovery. The overall Home Box Office business unit is based at Warner Bros. Discovery's corporate headquarters inside 30 Hudson Yards in Manhattan's West Side district. Programming featured on the network consists primarily of theatrically released motion pictures and original television programs as well as made-for-cable movies, documentaries, occasional comedy and concert specials, and periodic interstitial programs.

Gene Pitney

Gene Pitney

Gene Francis Alan Pitney was an American singer-songwriter and musician.

Don Williams

Don Williams

Donald Ray Williams was an American country singer, songwriter, and 2010 inductee into the Country Music Hall of Fame. He began his solo career in 1971, singing popular ballads and amassing seventeen number one country hits. His straightforward yet smooth bass-baritone voice, soft tones, and imposing build earned him the nickname "The Gentle Giant". In 1975, Williams starred in a movie with Burt Reynolds and Jerry Reed called W.W. and the Dixie Dancekings.

Lana Del Rey

Lana Del Rey

Elizabeth Woolridge Grant, known professionally as Lana Del Rey, is an American singer-songwriter. Her music is noted for its cinematic quality and exploration of tragic romance, glamour, and melancholia, with frequent references to contemporary pop culture and 1950s–1960s Americana. She is the recipient of various accolades, including two Brit Awards, two MTV Europe Music Awards, and a Satellite Award, in addition to nominations for six Grammy Awards and a Golden Globe Award. Variety honored her at their Hitmakers Awards for being "one of the most influential singer-songwriters of the 21st century."

Tulsa King

Tulsa King

Tulsa King is an American crime drama television series created by Taylor Sheridan with Terence Winter showrunning for Paramount+. The series stars Sylvester Stallone, marking his first leading role in a scripted television series. Stallone plays a Mafia capo who just got out of prison and is sent to Tulsa, Oklahoma, where he tries to set up a criminal organization. It premiered on November 13, 2022.

Sylvester Stallone

Sylvester Stallone

Sylvester Enzio Stallone is an American actor and filmmaker. After his beginnings as a struggling actor for a number of years upon arriving to New York City in 1969 and later Hollywood in 1974, he won his first critical acclaim as an actor for his co-starring role as Stanley Rosiello in The Lords of Flatbush. Stallone subsequently found gradual work as an extra or side character in films with a sizable budget until he achieved his greatest critical and commercial success as an actor and screenwriter, starting in 1976 with his role as boxer Rocky Balboa, in the first film of the successful Rocky series (1976–present), for which he also wrote the screenplays. In the films, Rocky is portrayed as an underdog boxer who fights numerous brutal opponents, and wins the world heavyweight championship twice.

Notable people

Sister cities

Coat of arms at sister city Celle, granite artwork below signpost
Coat of arms at sister city Celle, granite artwork below signpost

In accordance with the Tulsa Global Alliance, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International, an organization that began under President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Tulsa has been given nine international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:[262]

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Celle

Celle

Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town is situated on the banks of the river Aller, a tributary of the Weser, and has a population of about 71,000. Celle is the southern gateway to the Lüneburg Heath, has a castle built in the Renaissance and Baroque style and a picturesque old town centre with over 400 timber-framed houses, making Celle one of the most remarkable members of the German Timber-Frame Road. From 1378 to 1705, Celle was the official residence of the Lüneburg branch of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg who had been banished from their original ducal seat by its townsfolk.

Sister Cities International

Sister Cities International

Sister Cities International (SCI) is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between communities in the United States and those in other countries, particularly through the establishment of "sister cities"—broad, long-term agreements formally recognized by civic leaders. Its mission is to "build global cooperation at the municipal level, promote cultural understanding and stimulate economic development". A total of 1,800 cities, states, and counties are partnered in 138 countries worldwide.

Ploiești

Ploiești

Ploiești, formerly spelled Ploești, is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania. Part of the historical region of Muntenia, it is located 56 km (35 mi) north of Bucharest.

Amiens

Amiens

Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, located 120 km (75 mi) north of Paris and 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in the region of Hauts-de-France. In 2021, the population of Amiens was 135,429. A central landmark of the city is Amiens Cathedral, the largest Gothic cathedral in France. Amiens also has one of the largest university hospitals in France, with a capacity of 1,200 beds. The author Jules Verne lived in Amiens from 1871 until his death in 1905, and served on the city council for 15 years. Incumbent French president Emmanuel Macron was born in Amiens.

Beihai

Beihai

Beihai is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Its status as a seaport on the north shore of the Gulf of Tonkin has granted it historical importance as a port of international trade for Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan. Between the years 2006 and 2020, Beihai is predicted to be the world's fastest growing city. Beihai has a large shipyard, but most of the money generated in the city is derived from trade.

Kaohsiung

Kaohsiung

Kaohsiung City is a special municipality located in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban center to the rural Yushan Range with an area of 2,952 km2 (1,140 sq mi). Kaohsiung City has a population of approximately 2.72 million people as of May 2022 and is Taiwan's third most populous city and largest city in southern Taiwan.

San Luis Potosí City

San Luis Potosí City

San Luis Potosí, commonly called SLP or simply San Luis, is the capital and the most populous city of the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. It is the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of San Luis Potosí. The city lies at an elevation of 1,864 metres. It has an estimated population of 824,229 in the city proper and a population of approximately 1,221,526 in its metropolitan area, formed with the neighbour city of Soledad de Graciano Sánchez and other surrounding municipalities, which makes the metropolitan area of Greater San Luis Potosí the eleventh largest in Mexico.

Tiberias

Tiberias

Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. A major Jewish center during Late Antiquity, it has been considered since the 16th century one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed. In 2019, it had a population of 44,779.

Utsunomiya

Utsunomiya

Utsunomiya is the prefectural capital city of Tochigi Prefecture in the northern Kantō region of Japan. As of 1 January 2020, the city had an estimated population of 519,223, and a population density of 1,246 persons per square kilometre (3,230/sq mi). The total area of the city is 416.85 km2 (160.95 sq mi). Utsunomiya is famous for its gyoza. There are more than two hundred gyoza restaurants in Utsunomiya.

Zelenograd

Zelenograd

Zelenograd is a city and administrative okrug of Moscow, Russia. The city of Zelenograd and the territory under its jurisdiction form the Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug (ZelAO), an exclave located within Moscow Oblast 37 kilometers (23 mi) north-west of central Moscow along the Leningradskoye Shosse highway. Zelenograd is the smallest administrative okrug of Moscow by area, one from bottom by population, and the largest Moscow exclave by area and population within Moscow Oblast. The city of Zelenograd, if it were a separate settlement, would be 5th largest city in Moscow Oblast and one of the 100 largest cities of Russia. Before the expansion of the territory of Moscow in 2012, Zelenograd occupied the second place among the administrative districts of Moscow, second only to the Eastern administrative district in terms of the share of greenery in the total area.

Source: "Tulsa, Oklahoma", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsa,_Oklahoma.

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Notes
  1. ^ According to the July 2020 US Supreme Court ruling McGirt v. Oklahoma, much of eastern Oklahoma, including parts of Tulsa, are part of various Indian reservations for the purpose of federal criminal prosecutions. Tribe members may also be exempt from certain regulations issued by non-tribal governments.[8]
  2. ^ Official records for Tulsa kept August 1893 to December 1930 at downtown and at Tulsa Int'l since January 1931. For more information, see Threadex.
References
  1. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  2. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  3. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup". USPS. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
  4. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tulsa, Oklahoma
  5. ^ a b "QuickFacts: Tulsa city, Oklahoma". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  6. ^ "Tulsa County". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  7. ^ "Tulsa (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. June 28, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
  8. ^ a b "U.S. Supreme Court deems half of Oklahoma a Native American reservation". Reuters. July 9, 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Business Opportunities". Tulsa Metro Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2006.
  10. ^ a b c Everly-Douze, Susan (August 27, 1989). "What's Doing in Tulsa?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  11. ^ Kapoor, Tarun (April 19, 2007). "Business Viewpoint: Private sector plays big downtown role". Tulsa World. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  12. ^ "Tulsa, Oklahoma: Recreation". City Data. 2006. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  13. ^ "Quality of Life – Fun and Play". Oklahoma Department of Commerce. 2006. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2006.
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