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Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi

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Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi
Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi 2018.jpg
Tuila'epa in 2018
6th Prime Minister of Samoa
In office
23 November 1998 – 24 May 2021[a]
O le Ao o le MaloMalietoa Tanumafili II
Tui Ātua Tupua Tamasese Efi
Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II
DeputyMisa Telefoni Retzlaff
Fonotoe Pierre Lauofo
Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
Preceded byTofilau Eti Alesana
Succeeded byFiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
Leader of the Opposition
In office
27 July 2021 – 11 November 2022
Prime MinisterFiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
DeputyFonotoe Pierre Lauofo
Preceded byPalusalue Faʻapo II[b]
Succeeded byVacant
Leader of the Human Rights Protection Party
Assumed office
23 November 1998
DeputyMisa Telefoni Retzlaff
Fonotoe Pierre Lauofo
Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
Preceded byTofilau Eti Alesana
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
23 November 1998 – 24 May 2021
Preceded byTofilau Eti Alesana
Succeeded byFiamē Naomi Mataʻafa
Minister of Natural Resources and Environment
In office
11 September 2020 – 24 May 2021
Preceded byFiamē Naomi Mata'afa
Succeeded byToeolesulusulu Cedric Schuster
Deputy Prime Minister of Samoa
In office
15 May 1991 – 23 November 1998
Prime MinisterTofilau Eti Alesana
Preceded byTupua Tamasese Efi
Succeeded byMisa Telefoni Retzlaff (2001)
Member of the Samoan Parliament
for Lepā
Assumed office
May 1981[c]
Preceded byFatialofa Momo'e
Personal details
Born
Sa'ilele Malielegaoi

(1944-02-14) 14 February 1944 (age 78)[1][d]
Lepā, Western Samoa Trust Territory (now Samoa)
Political partyHuman Rights Protection Party
SpouseGillian Meredith
Children8
Alma materUniversity of Auckland
Sports career
Medal record
Archery
Representing  Samoa
South Pacific Games
Silver medal – second place 2007 Apia Mixed team recurve
Tuila'epa with Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop at the 3rd UN Small Islands Developing States conference, August 2014
Tuila'epa with Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop at the 3rd UN Small Islands Developing States conference, August 2014
Tuila'epa and his wife Gillian Muriel Malielegaoi with the Obamas
Tuila'epa and his wife Gillian Muriel Malielegaoi with the Obamas

Susuga Tuila'epa Lupesoliai Neioti Aiono Sa'ilele Malielegaoi (born 14 February 1944)[2] is a Samoan politician and economist who served as the sixth prime minister of Samoa from 1998 to 2021. Tuila’epa is Samoa's longest serving prime minister and is currently the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1998, he has led the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP). Tuila'epa first entered parliament in 1981 when he won a by-election to represent the electorate of Lepā. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in the government of Prime Minister Tofilau Eti Alesana, and also held the portfolios of Tourism and Trade, Commerce & Industry.[3]

Tuila’epa lost his majority in the 2021 election but refused to leave office, leading to the 2021 Samoan constitutional crisis. The crisis was resolved by Samoa's Court of Appeal on 23 July 2021, which ruled that Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa had been prime minister since 24 May.[4] On 26 July, Tuila'epa conceded defeat and assumed the role of opposition leader the following day.[5][6] Tuila'epa was indefinitely suspended from the legislative assembly on 24 May for breach of parliamentary privileges and contempt of parliament. The indefinite suspension was recommended by the privileges and ethics committee.[7] He later described his suspension as a "witch hunt".[8] However, he was later reinstated on 13 September following a Supreme Court ruling that voided the suspension. The privileges and ethics committee then reconvened and suggested that Tuila'epa be suspended again for 24 months. Parliament approved the recommendation on 19 October. His tenure as the opposition leader effectively ended in November 2022 after the speaker of parliament announced the legislature’s recognition of Tuila'epa in the role had ceased due to his suspension. The HRPP are yet to name a successor.

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By-election

By-election

A by-election, also known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, a bye-election in Ireland, a bypoll in India, or a Zimni election in Pakistan, is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections.

Electoral constituencies of Samoa

Electoral constituencies of Samoa

The Fono Aoao Faitulafono of Samoa has 51 members representing 51 electoral constituencies. Until 1991 voting for candidates in traditional territorial constituencies was by matai (chiefs) suffrage only. After a 1990 plebiscite, universal suffrage was introduced with a voting age of 21.

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana, AC, born Aualamalefalelima Alesana was a Samoan politician who served as the fifth prime minister of Samoa from 1982 to 1985, and again from 1988 until his resignation in 1998.

2021 Samoan general election

2021 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 9 April 2021 to determine the composition of the 17th Parliament. In March 2021, Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa, a former member of the ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) and a former Deputy Prime Minister, was elected to lead the main opposition party, Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST). Prime minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi led the HRPP into the election.

2021 Samoan constitutional crisis

2021 Samoan constitutional crisis

A constitutional crisis began in Samoa on 22 May 2021 when O le Ao o le Malo Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II issued a proclamation purporting to prevent the Legislative Assembly from meeting in the wake of the general election in April 2021. Court rulings had upheld the election results, giving a parliamentary majority to the Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST) party, led by Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa. On 24 May 2021, a makeshift ceremony was held outside of Parliament to swear in Mata'afa as prime minister. On 23 July the Court of Appeal declared that the ceremony was binding and that FAST had been the government since that date.

Biography

Tuila'epa, born in the village of Lepā on the island of Upolu, attended high school at St Joseph's College in Lotopa and at St Paul's College, Auckland in New Zealand.[9]: 55  He then obtained a master's from the University of Auckland, becoming the first Samoan to receive a master's degree in commerce.[10]

He worked as a civil servant for the Samoan treasury, and then became director of the Economics Department, and then deputy financial secretary.[11] He then moved to Brussels, where he worked for the European Economic Community and for Coopers & Lybrand before winning election to the Samoan parliament in 1981.[11]

Tuila'epa lost two relatives in the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami, including the daughter of one of his nieces.[12] The tsunami destroyed most of Malielegaoi's hometown of Lepā, leaving just the church and the village's welcome-sign standing.[13]

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Lepā, Samoa

Lepā, Samoa

Lepā is a small village at the southeastern end of Upolu island in Samoa. The village has a population of 166.

Upolu

Upolu

Upolu is an island in Samoa, formed by a massive basaltic shield volcano which rises from the seafloor of the western Pacific Ocean. The island is 75 kilometres long and 1,125 square kilometres in area, making it the second largest of the Samoan Islands by area. With approximately 145,000 inhabitants, it is by far the most populous of the Samoan Islands. Upolu is situated to the southeast of Savai'i, the "big island". Apia, the capital, is in the middle of the north coast, and Faleolo International Airport is at the western end of the island. The island has not had any historically recorded eruptions, although there is evidence of three lava flows, dating back only to between a few hundred and a few thousand years ago.

Lotopa

Lotopa

Lotopa is a village on the island of Upolu in Samoa. It is situated on the north central side of the island near the country's capital Apia. The village is in the political district of Tuamasaga.

St Paul's College, Auckland

St Paul's College, Auckland

St Paul's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys owned by the Marist Brothers and located in the central Auckland suburb of Ponsonby on a spacious 7.3 hectare campus. The Marist Brothers first opened a school on the site in 1903. St Paul's College commenced operations in 1955..

University of Auckland

University of Auckland

The University of Auckland is a public research university based in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the largest, most comprehensive and highest-ranked university in New Zealand and consistently places among the top 100 universities in the QS World University Rankings. The institution was established in 1883 as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand. Originally it was housed in a disused courthouse. Today, the University of Auckland is New Zealand's largest university by enrolment, hosting about 40,000 students on five Auckland campuses. The City Campus, in the Auckland CBD, has the bulk of the students and faculties. There are eight faculties, including a law school, as well as three associated research institutes.

Brussels

Brussels

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated region in Belgium, and although it has the highest GDP per capita, it has the lowest available income per household. It covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million. The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.

European Economic Community

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957, aiming to foster economic integration among its member states. It was subsequently renamed the European Community (EC) upon becoming integrated into the first pillar of the newly formed European Union in 1993. In the popular language, however, the singular European Community was sometimes inaccuratelly used in the wider sense of the plural European Communities, in spite of the latter designation covering all the three constituent entities of the first pillar.

2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami

The 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami took place on 29 September 2009 in the southern Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Kermadec-Tonga subduction zone. The submarine earthquake occurred in an extensional environment and had a moment magnitude of 8.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI (Strong). It was the largest earthquake of 2009. The earthquake initiated with a normal-faulting event with a magnitude of 8.1. Within two minutes of the earthquake rupture, two large magnitude 7.8 earthquakes occurred on the subduction zone interface. The two magnitude 7.8 earthquakes had a combined magnitude equivalent to 8.0. The event can be considered a doublet earthquake.

Political career

Tuila'epa was appointed Minister of Economic Affairs in 1982 and Minister of Finance in 1984.[11] He served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance under Tofilau Eti Alesana following the Human Rights Protection Party's return to power after the coalition government of Va'ai Kolone and Tupua. For a while he was both Prime Minister and Minister of Finance after Tofialu stepped down from the Premiership. However, following a Cabinet reshuffle after the following elections of 2001 in which he led the HRPP for an additional term, Tuila'epa relinquished the post of Minister of Finance to Misa Telefoni Retzlaff who also became the new Deputy Prime Minister.

The reason given for Tuila'epa's relinquishment of the Ministry of Finance was the amount of responsibility and work involved being both Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and to do the job properly required a full-time Minister.

Tuila'epa first won election to represent his Lepā district in 1980,[14] after the death of the previous representative. He has been re-elected for Lepā since that time. He served as finance minister in the Tofilau government of 1991 and 1996. In 1991, he was appointed deputy prime minister. In 1998, Tofilau retired from parliament (and hence the prime ministership) due to ill-health. Tuila'epa then became the 6th Prime Minister of Samoa. He has successfully led his HRPP party to re-election in the 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 general elections.[14] In 2012 Tuila'epa became Samoa's longest serving Prime Minister, surpassing the tenure of his predecessor, Tofilau Eti Alesana. At the time of his electoral defeat in 2021, Tuila'epa was also the second longest serving incumbent prime minister in the world, only behind Cambodia's Hun Sen.[15]

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Minister of Finance (Samoa)

Minister of Finance (Samoa)

This is a list of finance ministers of Samoa.Leicester Mitchell Cook, 1952–1959 Eugene Paul, 1959–1961 Fred Betham, 1961–1970 Tofa Siaosi, 1970–1973 Sam Saili, 1973–1975 Aumua Ioane, 1975–1976 Vaovasamanaia Filipo, 1976–1982 Tofilau Eti, 1982–1984 Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, 1984–1985 Faasootauloa Semu Plagi 1985–? Sam Saili, ?–1986–1987 Faasootauloa Pualanga, 1987–1988 Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, 1988–2001 Misa Telefoni, 2001—2006 Niko Lee Hang, 2006—2011 Faumuina Tiatia Liuga, 2011–2014 Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, 2014–2016 Sili Epa Tuioti, 2016–2021 Mulipola Anarosa Ale Molioo, 2021–

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana, AC, born Aualamalefalelima Alesana was a Samoan politician who served as the fifth prime minister of Samoa from 1982 to 1985, and again from 1988 until his resignation in 1998.

Human Rights Protection Party

Human Rights Protection Party

The Human Rights Protection Party is a Samoan political party. It was founded in 1982 and dominated Samoan party politics for decades thereafter, leading every government until their defeat in 2021.

Misa Telefoni Retzlaff

Misa Telefoni Retzlaff

Misa Telefoni Retzlaff is a Samoan author and retired politician who served as the deputy prime minister of Samoa and deputy leader of the Human Rights Protection Party from 2001 to 2011. A member of the Human Rights Protection Party, Retzlaff was also minister of finance from 2006 to 2011.

2001 Samoan general election

2001 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 2 March 2001 to determine the composition of the 13th Parliament. Prime minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi led the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) into the election. Opposition leader and former prime minister and future head of state, Tui Ātua Tupua Tamasese Efi led the Samoan National Development Party (SNDP) into the election. The HRPP won 23 seats, but initially fell short of a majority. The SNDP won 13 seats, the Samoan United People's Party secured one seat and the remaining 12 were won by independents. Following the election, all 12 independents joined the HRPP, giving the party a majority in parliament and allowing Tuila'epa to remain prime minister.

2006 Samoan general election

2006 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 31 March 2006 to determine the composition of the 14th Parliament. The main contesting parties were that of incumbent Prime Minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi, of the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP); and the Samoan Democratic United Party (SDUP). In addition, three other parties, the Christian Party (SCP), the Samoa Party (SP), and the Samoa Progressive Party (SPP), competed in the election. The result was a landslide victory for the HRPP, which won 33 of the 49 seats. The newly founded SDUP secured ten seats, and the remaining six were won by independents. After the election, three independents joined the HRPP, increasing the party's seat count to 36.

2011 Samoan general election

2011 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 4 March 2011, in which voters elected 49 members to the Legislative Assembly for its 15th term. Unlike most neighbouring countries in the Pacific, Samoa has established party politics. The major contesting parties were that of incumbent Prime Minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi, the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP); and the Tautua Samoa Party (TSP), a newly formed opposition party which included candidates from recently disbanded parties like the Samoa Party.

2016 Samoan general election

2016 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 4 March 2016 to determine the composition of the 16th Parliament. Two parties contested the election, the ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP), led by prime minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi which had governed since 1982 and the Tautua Samoa Party, led by opposition leader Palusalue Faʻapo II.

Hun Sen

Hun Sen

Hun Sen is a Cambodian politician and former military commander who has served as the prime minister of Cambodia since 1985. He is the longest-serving head of government of Cambodia, and one of the longest-serving leaders in the world. He is also the president of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and a member of the National Assembly for Kandal. His full honorary title is Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen.

Policies

Opposition to Fiji's Bainimarama

Tuila'epa has emerged as one of Oceania's most vocal critics of Fijian interim leader Commodore Frank Bainimarama, who came to power in the 2006 Fijian coup d'état. Tuila'epa has stated that Bainimarama has shown little respect for the opinions of regional Pacific leaders.[16] Tuila'epa has said that Bainimarama's actions since the 2006 coup have shown that Bainimarama has no intentions of returning Fiji to democratic rule or holding transparent, free elections.[16] Tuila'epa cites numerous actions by Bainimarama to back up his criticisms, including rescinding assurances to leaders at a regional meeting in Tonga that elections would be held in May 2008.[16] He has also criticised Bainimarama as a "no-show" at regional meetings of the Pacific Islands Forum in Niue and Papua New Guinea.[16] Tuila'epa has said that Bainimarama's failure to compromise, hold democratic elections and meet with regional leaders is not the "Pacific way."[16]

In a February 2009 continuation of the war of words between Bainimarama and Tuila'epa, Bainimarama accused Samoa's foreign policy of being dictated by New Zealand.[16] He also accused Tuila'epa of being "un-Pacific".[16] Tuila'epa fired back, questioning whether Bainimarama was sober when he made these claims and reiterating that Bainimarama shows little respect for Pacific leaders.[16]

Regional Polynesian integration

In late 2011, Tuila'epa initiated a meeting of Polynesian leaders which led, in November, to the formal launching of the Polynesian Leaders Group, a regional grouping intended to co-operate on a variety of issues including culture and language, education, responses to climate change, and trade and investment. The Group was in part a response to the Melanesian Spearhead Group.[17][18][19]

Christianity

In June 2017, the Samoan Parliament passed a bill to increase support for Christianity in the country's constitution, including a reference to the Trinity. Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “Samoa is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”. According to The Diplomat, "What Samoa has done is shift references to Christianity into the body of the constitution, giving the text far more potential to be used in legal processes."[20] The preamble to the constitution already described the country as "an independent State based on Christian principles and Samoan custom and traditions."[20]

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Acting (law)

Acting (law)

In law, a person is acting in a position if they are not serving in the position on a permanent basis. This may be the case if the position has not yet been formally created, the person is only occupying the position on an interim basis, the person does not have a mandate, or if the person meant to execute the role is incompetent or incapacitated.

Commodore (rank)

Commodore (rank)

Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to brigadier and air commodore. It is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. It is either regarded as the most junior of the flag officers rank or may not hold the jurisdiction of a flag officer at all depending on the officer's appointment. Non-English-speaking nations commonly use the rank of flotilla admiral, counter admiral, or senior captain as an equivalent, although counter admiral may also correspond to rear admiral lower half abbreviated as RDML.

Frank Bainimarama

Frank Bainimarama

Josaia Voreqe "Frank" Bainimarama is the 8th and current prime minister of Fiji since 2007. A member of the Fiji First Party, he began his career as a naval officer and commander of the Fijian Military Forces.

2006 Fijian coup d'état

2006 Fijian coup d'état

The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 was a coup d'état carried out by Commodore Frank Bainimarama, Commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, against the government of President Josefa Iloilo. Iloilo was removed as president, but he was later reinstated by Bainimarama on 4 January 2007. The coup occurred as a continuation of the pressure which had been building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005–06 Fijian political crisis.

Pacific Islands Forum

Pacific Islands Forum

The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between countries and territories of the Oceania, including formation of a trade bloc and regional peacekeeping operations. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum (SPF), and changed its name in 1999 to "Pacific Islands Forum", so as to be more inclusive of the Forum's Oceania-spanning membership of both north and south Pacific island countries, including Australia. It is a United Nations General Assembly observer.

Niue

Niue

Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi) and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016. Niue is located in a triangle between Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands. It is 604 kilometres northeast of Tonga. The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia". Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain of the island has two noticeable levels. The higher level is made up of a limestone cliff running along the coast, with a plateau in the centre of the island reaching approximately 60 metres above sea level. The lower level is a coastal terrace approximately 0.5 km wide and about 25–27 metres high, which slopes down and meets the sea in small cliffs. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi.

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania that comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The country is the world's third largest island country, with an area of 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi).

Foreign policy

Foreign policy

A state's foreign policy or external policy is its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, unions, and other political entities, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms. The Encyclopedia Britannica notes that a government's foreign policy may be influenced by "domestic considerations, the policies or behaviour of other states, or plans to advance specific geopolitical designs."

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Polynesian Leaders Group

Polynesian Leaders Group

The Polynesian Leaders Group (PLG) is an international governmental cooperation group bringing together eight independent or self-governing countries or territories in Polynesia.

Melanesian Spearhead Group

Melanesian Spearhead Group

The Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) is an intergovernmental organization, composed of the four Melanesian states of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front of New Caledonia. In June 2015, Indonesia was recognized as an associate member.

The Diplomat

The Diplomat

The Diplomat is an international online news magazine covering politics, society, and culture in the Indo-Pacific region. It is based in Washington, D.C.

Sporting aspirations

Tuila'epa was founder of Apia West Rugby, and is currently chairman of the Samoa Rugby Union.[21] Tuila'epa competed for his country at the 2007 South Pacific Games in the sport of target archery.[22] In participating in the Games, Tuila'epa became the first elected leader to represent his country at a multi-sport event. Having taken up the sport only five months prior to the Games, Tuila'epa was ranked second in Samoa in the combined bow discipline. Tuila'epa's son was also a reserve team member.[22] On day 10 of the Games, Tuila'epa won a silver medal in the mixed recurve team play event.[23]

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2007 South Pacific Games

2007 South Pacific Games

The 2007 South Pacific Games were held in Apia, Samoa, from 25 August to 8 September 2007. The Games were the thirteenth to be held since the inception of the South Pacific Games in 1963, and included traditional multi-sport event disciplines, such as athletics and swimming, alongside region-specific and smaller events such as outrigger canoeing, surfing and lawn bowls.

Target archery

Target archery

Target archery is the most popular form of archery, in which members shoot at stationary circular targets at varying distances. All types of bow – longbow, barebow, recurve and compound – can be used. In Great Britain, imperial rounds, measured in yards, are still used for many tournaments and these have slightly different rules to metric (WA) rounds, which are used internationally. Archers are divided into seniors and juniors, with juniors being those under the age of 21.

Multi-sport event

Multi-sport event

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the Olympic Games, first held in modern times in 1896 in Athens, Greece and inspired by the Ancient Olympic Games, one of a number of such events held in antiquity. Most modern multi-sports events have the same basic structure. Games are held over the course of several days in and around a "host city", which changes for each competition. Countries send national teams to each competition, consisting of individual athletes and teams that compete in a wide variety of sports. Athletes or teams are awarded gold, silver or bronze medals for first, second and third place respectively. Each game is generally held every four years, though some are annual competitions.

Silver medal

Silver medal

A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives a gold medal and the third place a bronze medal. More generally, silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones.

Recurve bow

Recurve bow

In archery, a recurve bow is one of the main shapes a bow can take, with limbs that curve away from the archer when unstrung. A recurve bow stores more energy and delivers energy more efficiently than the equivalent straight-limbed bow, giving a greater amount of energy and speed to the arrow. A recurve will permit a shorter bow than the simple straight limb bow for given arrow energy, and this form was often preferred by archers in environments where long weapons could be cumbersome, such as in brush and forest terrain, or while on horseback.

Matai titles

Tuila'epa has the following Fa'amatai titles.[24]

  • Tuila'epa
  • Lupesoliai
  • Neioti
  • Aiono
  • Fatialofa
  • Lolofie
  • Galumalemana (Vaitele)
  • Aueluā

Criticism

Traffic lane switch

Tuila'epa's government passed highly controversial legislation in 2009 to switch Samoan road use from right to left-hand traffic.[25][26] The controversy resulted in a peaceful demonstration which drew more than 15,000 people the largest protest demonstration in Samoan history,[25] and to the founding of the People's Party, a political party established to protest against changing sides.[26][27]

International Date Line shift

In 2011, Tuila'epa's government introduced a bill to shift Samoa west of the International Date Line, to facilitate economic relations with Australia, New Zealand and Asia (by ensuring that Samoa would no longer be one calendar day away from them). According to Samoa Observer editor Keni Lesa, many Samoans viewed the bill as "another crazy idea from our crazy prime minister". Opposition politicians also criticised it, arguing that it would not increase exports, and that it would in fact deprive Samoa of "its unique tourism selling point as the last place on earth to see the sun", just east of the Date Line. Tuila'epa responded by calling opposition MP Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi (of the Tautua Samoa Party) "very stupid", adding that "only an idiot" would fail to see the merits of the bill.[28] However, the bill had the support of the Samoa Chamber of Commerce and the vast majority of the private and finance sector. The major benefit being that, given that most trade was conducted with New Zealand and Australia, and a growing trade sector with South East and East Asia, that being on the same day as these major trading partners would lead to improvements in productivity, as more trade could be facilitated during a shared five-day week, as opposed to the previous situation of only sharing four week days to conduct business.

Measles outbreak

A measles outbreak began in September 2019.[29] As of 26 December, there were 5,612 confirmed cases of measles and 81 deaths, out of a Samoan population of 200,874.[30][31] Over two percent of the population has been infected.[30]

The outbreak has been attributed to a sharp drop in measles vaccination from the previous year. In 2013, 90% of babies in Samoa received the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination at one year of age.[32] On 6 July 2018 on the east coast of Savai'i, two 12-month-old children died after receiving MMR vaccinations.[33] The cause of death was incorrect preparation of the vaccine by two nurses who mixed vaccine powder with expired anaesthetic instead of the appropriate diluent.[34] These two deaths were picked up by anti-vaccine groups and used to incite fear towards vaccination on social media.[35] The government stopped its vaccination programme for 10 months, despite advice from the WHO.[36] The incident caused many Samoan residents to lose trust in the healthcare system.[37]

Nevertheless, as of 29 December a public inquiry into the government's role in suspending vaccinations had not been announced. Deputy director of health Gaualofa Matalavea Saaga stated, "Having our case blasted out to the world is the last thing we want."[33] Samoa's political opposition called for the health minister to be removed from his position.[33]

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Transport in Samoa

Transport in Samoa

Transport in Samoa includes one international airport situated on the north west coast of Upolu island, paved highways reaching most parts of the two main islands, one main port in the capital Apia and two ports servicing mainly inter island ferries for vehicles and passengers between the two main islands, Upolu and Savai'i.

International Date Line

International Date Line

The International Date Line (IDL) is an internationally accepted demarcation on the surface of Earth, running between the South Pole and North Pole and serving as the boundary between one calendar day and the next. It passes through the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude and deviating to pass around some territories and island groups. Crossing the date line eastbound decreases the date by one day, while crossing the date line westbound increases the date.

Samoa Observer

Samoa Observer

The Samoa Observer is the largest newspaper group in Samoa published in both English and Samoan. The Samoa Observer is published Monday to Friday, the Weekend Observer on Saturdays and the Sunday Samoan on Sundays with all editions available online. Coverage includes local and international news, editorial opinion, sports and investigative journalism. The Samoa Observer was founded in 1978 by Editor in Chief, Savea Sano Malifa, a poet and leading Pacific journalist who was awarded the prestigious Commonwealth Astor Award for press freedom in 1998.

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi is a Samoan politician and member of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa. He is the founder of the Tautua Samoa Party.

Tautua Samoa Party

Tautua Samoa Party

The Tautua Samoa Party is a political party in Samoa. The party's policies include economic development, particularly in the agricultural sector, public service reform, a limit on the number of Associate Ministers, and a reduction in the term of Parliament from 5 to 3 or 4 years. Its current president is Afualo Wood Salele.

2019 Samoa measles outbreak

2019 Samoa measles outbreak

The 2019 Samoa measles outbreak began in September 2019. As of 6 January 2020, there were over 5,700 cases of measles and 83 deaths, out of a Samoan population of 200,874. Over three percent of the population were infected. The cause of the outbreak was attributed to decreased vaccination rates, from 74% in 2017 to 31–34% in 2018, even though nearby islands had rates near 99%.

Measles

Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by measles virus. Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days. Initial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104 °F), cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes. Small white spots known as Koplik's spots may form inside the mouth two or three days after the start of symptoms. A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms. Common complications include diarrhea, middle ear infection (7%), and pneumonia (6%). These occur in part due to measles-induced immunosuppression. Less commonly seizures, blindness, or inflammation of the brain may occur. Other names include morbilli, rubeola, red measles, and English measles. Both rubella, also known as German measles, and roseola are different diseases caused by unrelated viruses.

Samoa

Samoa

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesian island country consisting of two main islands ; two smaller, inhabited islands ; and several smaller, uninhabited islands, including the Aleipata Islands. Samoa is located 64 km (40 mi) west of American Samoa, 889 km (552 mi) northeast of Tonga, 1,152 km (716 mi) northeast of Fiji, 483 km (300 mi) east of Wallis and Futuna, 1,151 km (715 mi) southeast of Tuvalu, 519 km (322 mi) south of Tokelau, 4,190 km (2,600 mi) southwest of Hawaii, and 610 km (380 mi) northwest of Niue. The capital city is Apia. The Lapita people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed a Samoan language and Samoan cultural identity.

MMR vaccine

MMR vaccine

The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella, abbreviated as MMR. The first dose is generally given to children around 9 months to 15 months of age, with a second dose at 15 months to 6 years of age, with at least four weeks between the doses. After two doses, 97% of people are protected against measles, 88% against mumps, and at least 97% against rubella. The vaccine is also recommended for those who do not have evidence of immunity, those with well-controlled HIV/AIDS, and within 72 hours of exposure to measles among those who are incompletely immunized. It is given by injection.

2021 Samoan general election

During the 2021 general election held on 9 April 2021, Tuilaʻepa was re-elected to his parliamentary constituency of Lepā unopposed.[38][39] Preliminary results from the general election indicated that the HRPP had secured 24 seats, FAST 23 and Tautua Samoa and an Independent both winning one seat. An accounting error was detected in the Vaimauga No. 2 constituency, which had incorrectly displayed the Tautua Samoa candidate leading ahead of the HRPP candidate. This subsequently showed the results for the HRPP and FAST tied with 25 seats each, and first term Independent MP Tuala Iosefo Ponifasio holding the balance of power.[40]

After the election, the HRPP and FAST entered into talks with Tuala in an attempt to win him over in order to form a new government. Before Tuala had made a decision, the Samoan Electoral Commission announced that the 10% female quota in parliament had not been fulfilled. An extra seat was added in parliament going to the HRPP. Tuala agreed to enter into a coalition with FAST, resulting in a hung parliament in which both parties had 26 seats each.[41]

On the evening of 4 May 2021, O le Ao o le Malo (Head of State) Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II announced that a second election would be held in order to resolve the deadlock. This occurred before any of the electoral petitions were resolved. The HRPP endorsed the decision, whilst it was opposed by FAST.[42] Tuila'epa reportedly advised Sualauvi II to issue the proclamation. The HRPP then began to campaign for the second election, despite the legality of it being in question.[43]

On 17 May, the Supreme Court of Samoa ruled that the addition of the new seat was unconstitutional, giving FAST a parliamentary majority.[44][45][46] They subsequently overturned the voiding of the 9 April election results and declared that the call for a new election had no legal authority, and ordered parliament to convene within 45 days of the original polling. Thus preventing Tuila'epa and the HRPP from being re-elected.[47] The O le Ao o le Malo then issued a statement, proclaiming that parliament convene on 24 May. This was retracted shortly after, triggering a constitutional crisis. The O le Ao o le Malo did not elaborate on why the decision was made.[48]

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2021 Samoan general election

2021 Samoan general election

General elections were held in Samoa on 9 April 2021 to determine the composition of the 17th Parliament. In March 2021, Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa, a former member of the ruling Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP) and a former Deputy Prime Minister, was elected to lead the main opposition party, Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST). Prime minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi led the HRPP into the election.

O le Ao o le Malo

O le Ao o le Malo

The O le Ao o le Malo is the head of state of Samoa. The position is described in Part III of the 1960 Samoan constitution. At the time the constitution was adopted, it was anticipated that future heads of state would be chosen from among the four Tama a 'Aiga "matai" paramount chiefs in line with customary protocol. This is not a constitutional requirement, so Samoa can be considered a parliamentary republic rather than a constitutional monarchy. The government Press Secretariat describes Head of State as a "ceremonial president". The holder is given the formal style of Highness, as are the heads of the four paramount chiefly dynasties.

Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II

Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II

Afioga Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Eti Sualauvi II is a Samoan politician who is the current O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa, in office since 2017. He was appointed to the Tama-a-ʻaiga title of Tuimalealiʻifano in July 1977, one of four paramount titles of Samoa.

Supreme Court of Samoa

Supreme Court of Samoa

The Supreme Court of Samoa is the superior court dealing with the administration of justice in Samoa.

2021 Samoan constitutional crisis

Tuila'epa denounced the court decision to convene parliament as ‘illegal’, and that the Supreme Court justices should be charged for breaching the state of emergency regulations. Tuila'epa also announced that he and the HRPP caucus would refuse to be sworn in when parliament convened.[49] On the evening of 23 May, a day before the scheduled convention of parliament, Parliament speaker Leaupepe Toleafoa Faafisi purported to cancel the swearing-in ceremony in defiance of the Supreme Court's ruling.[50] The following morning, the FAST caucus and supporters arrived at parliament only to find it locked and surrounded by police. When the O le Ao o le Malo did not show up, Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa and the FAST caucus were sworn in outside parliament under a tent.[51] Tuila'epa denounced the ceremony and accused Fiamē and the FAST party of treason.[52]

On 29 May, Tuila'epa was cited for contempt of court for not obeying the court's orders and using offensive language towards the Supreme Court justices.[53]

On 3 June, Tuila'epa entered into negotiations with Fiamē to discuss a political transition.[54] After only two sessions the talks reached an impasse, with Tuila'epa refusing to either leave the prime ministership or convene parliament unless all petitions were resolved.[55]

Due to various electoral court petitions, the HRPP's seat count in parliament fell from 25 to 17 whilst FAST maintained its 26-seat majority.[56]

On 23 July 2021, the Court of Appeal ruled that the 24 May swearing in of the FAST party was legal and that they had been the government since then. The court also declared that Tuila'epa and the HRPP ministers had been illegally occupying the government offices since that date.[57] Following the court decision, Tuila'epa accused the judiciary of "treason" and stated that the decision was "bizarre". He also claimed that "leaders are chosen by god".[58] The following day he began to pack up his office.[59] On 25 July, the head of state recognised the new FAST government.[60] Tuila'epa conceded defeat on 26 July, nearly three months after the election.[61]

On 23 March 2022 he was convicted alongside HRPP secretary Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi of scandalising the court for his attacks on the judiciary during and following the constitutional crisis, but escaped penalty.[62][63] On 24 May 2022 both were suspended indefinitely from the Legislative Assembly after the Privileges Committee found that they had bought parliament into disrepute.[64][65]

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2021 Samoan constitutional crisis

2021 Samoan constitutional crisis

A constitutional crisis began in Samoa on 22 May 2021 when O le Ao o le Malo Tuimalealiʻifano Vaʻaletoʻa Sualauvi II issued a proclamation purporting to prevent the Legislative Assembly from meeting in the wake of the general election in April 2021. Court rulings had upheld the election results, giving a parliamentary majority to the Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST) party, led by Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa. On 24 May 2021, a makeshift ceremony was held outside of Parliament to swear in Mata'afa as prime minister. On 23 July the Court of Appeal declared that the ceremony was binding and that FAST had been the government since that date.

State of emergency

State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state during a natural disaster, civil unrest, armed conflict, medical pandemic or epidemic or other biosecurity risk. Justitium is its equivalent in Roman law—a concept in which the Roman Senate could put forward a final decree that was not subject to dispute yet helped save lives in times of strife.

Leaupepe Toleafoa Faafisi

Leaupepe Toleafoa Faafisi

Leaupepe Toleafoa Apulu Faafisi is a Samoan politician. He has served as a Cabinet Minister and as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa. He is a member of the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP).

O le Ao o le Malo

O le Ao o le Malo

The O le Ao o le Malo is the head of state of Samoa. The position is described in Part III of the 1960 Samoan constitution. At the time the constitution was adopted, it was anticipated that future heads of state would be chosen from among the four Tama a 'Aiga "matai" paramount chiefs in line with customary protocol. This is not a constitutional requirement, so Samoa can be considered a parliamentary republic rather than a constitutional monarchy. The government Press Secretariat describes Head of State as a "ceremonial president". The holder is given the formal style of Highness, as are the heads of the four paramount chiefly dynasties.

Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa

Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa

Afioga Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa is a Samoan politician and High Chiefess (matai) who has served as the seventh Prime Minister of Samoa and leader of the Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST) party since 2021.

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi is a Samoan politician and member of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa. He is the founder of the Tautua Samoa Party.

Leader of the Opposition (2021–2022)

On 27 July 2021, Tuila'epa assumed the role of opposition leader.[66] Shortly after, he began to call for the resignation of all the Supreme Court justices.[67] Tuila'epa also continued to question the judgement of the court of appeals on their recognition of FAST as the new government.[68]

In November 2022, speaker Papali’i declared that parliament no longer recognised Tuila'epa as the official opposition leader due to his suspension, effectively ending his tenure.[69] His party are yet to designate a successor.[70]

Convoy protest

On 30 July, Tuila'epa and supporters of the HRPP led a convoy protest against the judiciary.[71] Once the convoy arrived in Savaiʻi, the HRPP set out to lay wreaths at the graves of former HRPP prime ministers Tofilau Eti Alesana and Vaʻai Kolone. The convoy were able to lay wreaths at Tofilau's grave, but were refused to do so at Kolone's by his son Va'ai Papu Va'ai. The HRPP had used Va‘ai Kolone's image in an advertisement to promote the party's demonstration in Savaiʻi, something that Va'ai Papu expressed discontent about. Va'ai Papu had been critical of the HRPP's actions during the 2021 constitutional crisis, and stated that the party should be ‘ashamed’ and accused them of using his father's image ‘in vain’. He also suggested that the party change its name from the ‘Human Rights Protection Party’ to the ‘Malielegaoi Human Rights Demolition Party’.[72] The convoy was forced to turn around, when the villages of Salelologa and Sasina on Savai‘i established roadblocks and refused the HRPP passage. Tuila'epa deemed the roadblocks ‘unlawful’, but agreed to turn back for ‘the sake of peace’.[73] Despite the rally not folding out as he intended, Tuila'epa declared the convoy protest to be a ‘victory’.[74] He then accused FAST Chairman and Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Scientific Research, Laauli Leuatea Polataivao, of being the ‘mastermind’ behind the road blocks. Laauli denied being involved.[75] Tuila'epa issued an informal apology to the judiciary on 8 September after weeks of criticising and protesting against them. He also expressed that it is the ‘nature of the role of the opposition to question all three arms of government’.[76][77] Tuila'epa later contradicted this, when he denied ever apologising to the judiciary.[78]

Threat of lawsuit against the ministry of finance

On 21 August 2021, the Minister of Finance, Mulipola Anarosa Ale Molioo expressed that she ‘did not have the complete confidence’ in the chief executive officer of the Ministry of Finance, Oscar Malielegaoi son of Tuila'epa. In response, Tuila'epa stated that whilst they can sack the C.E.O for a lack of cooperation with the minister, he would file a lawsuit against the ministry should they not have ‘strong reasons’ for carrying out this decision.[79] Ale Molioo later requested that Oscar Malielegaoi resign, which he then did on 28 August.[80]

Claims of feminist plot

On 24 August 2021 Tuila'epa claimed that he had been unseated by a feminist plot led by New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, who allegedly "wanted Samoa to have a female Prime Minister".[81] This was later rejected by prime minister Ardern.[82]

Swearing in of the HRPP caucus

During the ad hoc ceremony outside parliament on 24 May 2021, FAST MPs were sworn in whilst the HRPP members were absent. Once the Supreme Court recognised the ceremony as legal, uncertainty arose about whether the HRPP caucus would be able to be sworn in at the convention of parliament. The Samoan constitution states that parliament must convene within 45 days of an election, 24 May was the last day for parliament to meet within the deadline.[83] On 1 September 2021, prime minister Fiamē Naomi Mata’afa announced that the 17th Samoan parliament would convene on 14 September.[84] Shortly before the prime minister's announcement, Tuila'epa wrote to the speaker of the legislative assembly Papali’i Li’o Taeu Masipau, asserting that himself and the HRPP caucus intend to be sworn by the head of state once parliament convenes.[85] Papali’i then replied by saying that the HRPP caucus would be sworn in by himself in accordance with the constitution.[86] Regardless of whether they would be sworn in or not, Tuila'epa announced that the HRPP caucus would attend the first convention of the 17th parliament.[87] A day before the sitting of parliament, Papali’i announced that the HRPP members would not be sworn and that they would not be permitted to attend.[88] Thus making it likely that Tuila'epa and the HRPP caucus will have to contend by elections in order to return to parliament.[89] On the morning of 14 September, Tuila'epa and the opposition HRPP MPs along with supporters of the party, attempted to enter parliament. They were stopped by the police who told them to turn back, the crowd returned to party headquarters two hours later.[90][91] Tuila'epa described the event as being "a sad day for Samoa", he also accused the FAST party of being ‘dictatorial’.[92] He then announced that the HRPP would be challenging the speaker's decision in court.[93] The Supreme Court ruled in the HRPP's favour on 16 September, ordering the speaker to swear in all 18 elected members of the HRPP caucus.[94][95] Papali’i had them sworn in the following morning.[96]

Opposition to abortion legalisation proposal

In November 2021, Tuila’epa rejected a United Nations recommendation for Samoa to legalise abortion. He described abortion as ‘murder’ and stated that it should not be legalised as it violates Samoa's ‘Christian beliefs’. Tuila’epa also commented that not all UN proposals are ‘good and suitable’ for all nation-states, adding that "this is because the world is made of different people with different beliefs and from different ethnic groups." He also said that some UN proposals, particularly abortion, were not ‘applicable’ to Samoa.[97]

Calls to step down

Following a poor showing at the November 2021 Samoan by-elections, HRPP MP and former Minister of Education, Sports and Culture Loau Keneti Sio called upon Tuila'epa to resign when he stated that HRPP senior members should "hang up their boxing gloves". Despite the HRPP having won all seven electorates up for by-elections in the April general election, the party only retained two seats.[98][99] Tuila'epa responded to Loau's statement by denying "tension (was) brewing within the Human Rights Protection Party". Instead, he expressed that 'Samoa's oldest political party is still in unity' and that the HRPP fight is "far from over".[100] Tuila'epa later said he was ready for party members to address a potential resignation.[101]

Suspension from parliament

Following Tuila'epa's permanent suspension from the legislative assembly, after the privileges and ethics committee found him and the HRPP secretary Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi in contempt of parliament, the HRPP filed a lawsuit against the decision. The order arose following a formal complaint by deputy prime minister Tuala Iosefo Ponifasio. Tuila'epa claimed that his permanent suspension violated the terms of the ‘Harmony Agreement’ signed by his party and FAST, which sought a resolution to the constitutional crisis of 2021. Tuila'epa, who was absent from parliament when the suspension came into effect as he was in isolation following a trip to Ireland to attend the World Rugby Council meeting, stated his absence meant he could not defend himself, implying unfairness. In response, the chair of the privileges and ethics committee, Valasi Toogamaga Tafito, dismissed Tuila'epa's claims and highlighted the three-hour zoom call that the committee had with him.[102][103] Tuila'epa later accused prime minister Fiamē of being the "mastermind" behind his indefinite suspension and stated that "no secret can remain forever in a small society like Samoa, and eventually no leader can continue to hide forever whilst directing others to do her dirty bidding." Fiamē dismissed the claims as false.[104] Tuila'epa also claimed that FAST was conducting a "witch hunt" and alleged that the governing party behaved as if they were in the opposition. He urged FAST to focus instead on "nation-building" and issues such as the COVID 19 pandemic, climate change and the effects of both on the Samoan economy.[8] On 30 August, the supreme court ruled the suspension to be unconstitutional.[105] He was reinstated on 13 September.[106]

The privileges and ethics committee subsequently reviewed Tuila'epa's case and recommended that he and Lealailepule be re-suspended without pay for 24 months. The legislative assembly then approved the committee's motion on 19 October, with all present FAST members and one from the HRPP voting for it.[107] Tuila'epa reacted by stating that he and Lealailepule would not resign from their seats, insisting, "if we resign, it will make it look like we did something wrong, and we are admitting it. But we know we did not do anything wrong..." The deputy prime minister demanded that Tuila'epa and the HRPP apologise for their actions in the constitutional crisis, but the opposition leader refused and said "why would we apologise when we did not do anything wrong? We only apologise to God which is what we had done, but never to them (FAST)".[108] One high-ranking Matai in Lepā affirmed that support for Tuila'epa in the constituency was high.[109]

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Savaiʻi

Savaiʻi

Savaiʻi is the largest and highest island both in Samoa and in the Samoan Islands chain. The island is also the sixth largest in Polynesia, behind the three main islands of New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Maui.

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana

Tofilau Eti Alesana, AC, born Aualamalefalelima Alesana was a Samoan politician who served as the fifth prime minister of Samoa from 1982 to 1985, and again from 1988 until his resignation in 1998.

Va'ai Papu Vailupe

Va'ai Papu Vailupe

Va'ai Papu Vailupe, also known as Mafasolia Papu Vailupe, was a Samoan politician and accountant who served as a Cabinet Minister. He was the leader of the Tautua Samoa Party from 2010 to 2011. His father is former Prime Minister Va'ai Kolone, who co-founded the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP). His younger brother Asiata Sale'imoa Va'ai was leader of the Samoan Democratic United Party.

Mulipola Anarosa Ale Molioo

Mulipola Anarosa Ale Molioo

Mulipola Anarosa Ale Molioo is a Samoan politician and Cabinet Minister. She is the first woman ever appointed finance minister of Samoa. She is a member of the FAST Party.

Jacinda Ardern

Jacinda Ardern

Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern is a New Zealand politician who has been serving as the 40th prime minister of New Zealand and leader of the Labour Party since 2017. A member of the Labour Party, she has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Mount Albert since 2017.

Papali’i Li’o Taeu Masipau

Papali’i Li’o Taeu Masipau

Papali’i Li’o Oloipola Taeu Masipau is a Samoan politician and Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa.

Abortion

Abortion

Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or "spontaneous abortion"; these occur in approximately 30% to 40% of pregnancies. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently "induced miscarriage". The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. The reasons why women have abortions are diverse and vary across the world. Reasons include maternal health, an inability to afford a child, domestic violence, lack of support, feeling they are too young, wishing to complete education or advance a career, and not being able or willing to raise a child conceived as a result of rape or incest.

2021 Samoan by-elections

2021 Samoan by-elections

Six simultaneous by-elections were held in Samoa on 26 November 2021. They were called in the aftermath of the 2021 Samoan general election, which resulted in seven seats being vacant due to resignations and convictions for bribery and treating. While seven by-elections were called, the contest in Falealupo was resolved without the need for a poll, after the Supreme Court declared the HRPP candidate Tuitogamanaia Peniamina Le'avai to be ineligible, resulting in the FAST Party's Fuiono Tenina Crichton being elected unopposed.

Loau Keneti Sio

Loau Keneti Sio

Loau Solamalemalo Keneti Sio is a Samoan politician, former Cabinet Minister, and rugby union player. He is a member of the Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP).

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi

Lealailepule Rimoni Aiafi is a Samoan politician and member of the Legislative Assembly of Samoa. He is the founder of the Tautua Samoa Party.

Republic of Ireland

Republic of Ireland

Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern side of the island. Around 2.1 million of the country's population of 5.13 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area. The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann; an upper house, Seanad Éireann; and an elected President who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

Valasi Toogamaga Tafito

Valasi Toogamaga Tafito

Valasi Luapitofanua Toogamaga Tafito Selesele is a Samoan politician and Cabinet Minister. He is leader of the Samoa National Democratic Party.

Assassination attempts

Tuila'epa has been the target of three plots to kill him; one of those being almost successful when in 1999, Eletise Leafa Vitale, tried to kill him but instead one of Tuila'epa's Cabinet Ministers was murdered. In December 2010, another plot was uncovered by Samoan police and, in August 2019, authorities foiled a detailed plan to assassinate him.[110][111][112]

Source: "Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 3rd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuila'epa_Sa'ilele_Malielegaoi.

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Notes
  1. ^ Disputed: 24 May 2021 – 23 July 2021. The Supreme Court ruled on 23 July that Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa's FAST government had been legitimate since 24 May. Tuila'epa's HRPP government did not relinquish power until 27 July.
  2. ^ Office vacant: 2016 – 2021
  3. ^ Suspended: 24 May – 13 September 2022; 19 October 2022 – present
  4. ^ Sailele's birthday is normally stated to be 14 April 1945, however this was an altered birth date by his father to allow him to attend primary school.
References
  1. ^ Malielegaoi, Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele; Swain, Peter (2017). Pālemia : Prime Minister Tulla'epa Sa'ilele of Samoa : a memoir. Victoria University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-77656-115-5.
  2. ^ Malielegaoi, Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele; Swain, Peter (2017). Pālemia : Prime Minister Tulla'epa Sa'ilele of Samoa : a memoir. Victoria University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-77656-115-5.
  3. ^ "Prime Minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi". Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020 – via samoagovt.ws.
  4. ^ Lanuola Tusani Tupufia - Ah Tong (23 July 2021). "F.A.S.T. declared new Government as appeal upheld". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Tuilaepa concedes, welcomes F.A.S.T. government". Samoa Observer. 26 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  6. ^ "Tuilaepa accepts defeat, opposition leadership". Samoa Observer. 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Tuilaepa & Lealailepule suspended indefinitely for contempt of Parliament". Talamua Online. 24 May 2022. Archived from the original on 25 May 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Constitutional checks and balances of power in Samoa's Parliament thrown overboard". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  9. ^ Swain, Peter (2017). Palemia: Prime Minister Tuila'epa Sa'ilele Malielegaoi of Samoa, A Memoir. ISBN 9781776561155.
  10. ^ "The Hon. Tuilaepa Malielegaoi". University of Auckland School of Business. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  11. ^ a b c So‘o, Asofou (2000). "Samoa in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999". The Contemporary Pacific. 12 (1): 240. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  12. ^ Ah Mu, Alan (1 October 2009). "PM lost two relatives". Samoa Observer. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  13. ^ McClean, Tamara (2 October 2009). "Searching ruins for reason to live after the tsunami". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  14. ^ a b "Government of Samoa – Official Website". Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Samoa's ruling party faces strongest election challenge in 20 years". The Guardian. 7 April 2021. Archived from the original on 7 April 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021..
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