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Tsenacommacah

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Powhatan Confederacy
Tsenacommacah (Powhatan)
Late 1500s–1677
The Powhatan Confederacy ca. 1607
The Powhatan Confederacy ca. 1607
CapitalWerowocomoco, Powhatan
(late 1500s–1609)

Orapakes
(1609–1614)

Matchut
(1614–?)
Common languagesPowhatan
Religion
Native American religion
GovernmentConfederation
Mamanatowick 
• late 1500s–1618
Wahunsenacawh
• 1618–1619
Opichapum
• 1619–1646
Opchanacanough
• 1646–1655
Necotowance
• 1646–1657
Totopotomoi
Historical eraEarly modern period
• Wahunsenacawh creates the Powhatan Confederacy
Late 1500s
1610-1614
1622-1626
1644-1646
1676
1677
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Powhatan
Arrohattoc
Appomattoc
Pamunkey
Mattaponi
Kiskiack
Colony of Virginia
John Smith's map of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. The map details the location of numerous villages within Tsenacommacah ca. 1612
John Smith's map of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. The map details the location of numerous villages within Tsenacommacah ca. 1612

Tsenacommacah (pronounced /ˌsɛnəˈkɒməkə/ in English; "densely inhabited land"; also written Tscenocomoco, Tsenacomoco, Tenakomakah, Attanoughkomouck, and Attan-Akamik)[1] is the name given by the Powhatan people to their native homeland,[2] the area encompassing all of Tidewater Virginia and parts of the Eastern Shore. More precisely, its boundaries spanned 100 miles (160 km) by 100 miles (160 km) from near the south side of the mouth of the James River all the way north to the south end of the Potomac River and from the Eastern Shore west to about the Fall Line of the rivers.[3][4]

The term Tsenacommacah comes from the Powhatan language, and means “densely inhabited land.”

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Powhatan

Powhatan

The Powhatan people may refer to any of the indigenous Algonquian people that are traditionally from eastern Virginia. All of the Powhatan groups descend from the Powhatan Confederacy. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people. This is most commonly the case in historical records from English colonial accounts. The Powhatans have also been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language, also known as Virginia Algonquian. It is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when English colonists established Jamestown in 1607.

Eastern Shore of Virginia

Eastern Shore of Virginia

The Eastern Shore of Virginia consists of two counties on the Atlantic coast detached from the mainland of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The 70-mile-long (110 km) region is part of the Delmarva Peninsula and is separated from the rest of Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay. Its population was 45,695 as of 2020.

James River

James River

The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia that begins in the Appalachian Mountains and flows 348 miles (560 km) to the Chesapeake Bay. The river length extends to 444 miles (715 km) if one includes the Jackson River, the longer of its two source tributaries. It is the longest river in Virginia. Jamestown and Williamsburg, Virginia's first colonial capitals, and Richmond, Virginia's current capital, lie on the James River.

Potomac River

Potomac River

The Potomac River drains the Mid-Atlantic United States, flowing from the Potomac Highlands into Chesapeake Bay. It is 405 miles (652 km) long, with a drainage area of 14,700 square miles (38,000 km2), and is the fourth-largest river along the East Coast of the United States and the 21st-largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within its watershed.

Powhatan language

Powhatan language

Powhatan or Virginia Algonquian was an Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian languages. It was formerly spoken by the Powhatan people of tidewater Virginia. Following 1970s linguistic research by Frank Thomas Siebert, Jr., some of the language has been reconstructed with assistance from better-documented Algonquian languages, and attempts are being made to revive it.

History

Origins and contact

The Powhatan were part of a powerful Chiefdom of Virginia Indian[5] tribes, also known as the Powhatan Confederacy, that spoke an Algonquian language.

The chief of the Powhatan people in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Wahunsenacawh, had originally controlled only six tribes, but throughout the late 1500s he added more tribes to his nation, through diplomacy and/or force. He added the Kecoughtan by 1598.

By 1607, Wahunsenacawh controlled more than thirty tribes. The original six tribes under Wahunsenacawh were: the Powhatan (proper), the Arrohateck, the Appamattuck, the Pamunkey, the Mattaponi, and the Chiskiack. Some other affiliated groups included the Rappahannocks, Weyanoak, Paspahegh, Warraskoyack, and Nansemond. Another closely related tribe of the same language group was the Chickahominy, but they managed to preserve their autonomy from the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom.

The Accawmacke, located on the Eastern Shore across the Chesapeake Bay, were paid nominal tribute to the Powhatan Chiefdom, but enjoyed autonomy under their own Paramount Chief or "Emperor", Debedeavon (aka "The Laughing King").

Warfare

By early 1609, relations had begun to sour between the Powhatan and English colonists. As a result Wahunsenacawh moved his primary residence from Werowocomoco, off the York River, to Orapax (or Orapakes), located in a swamp at the head of the Chickahominy River.

By 1614, Wahunsenacawh had again moved his primary residence, this time further northwest to a location on the north bank of the Pamunkey River known as Matchut, which was not far from where Wahunsenacawh's brother Opechancanough ruled at Youghtanund.[6]

Wahunsenacawh died in 1618, after which the chiefdom was ultimately passed to his younger brother Opechancanough, who led the Indian Massacre of 1622 as well as a second attack in 1644. Both attacks provoked retaliations from English colonists.

A peace treaty, signed in 1646, brought an end to the conflicts between the Powhatan and the English. The treaty was signed by Opechancanough's successor Necotowance – Opechancanough himself was captured by English colonists and killed by a settler assigned to guard him in 1646.[7]

As part of the treaty of 1646, the size of Tsenacommacah was reduced. The boundaries specified in the treaty separated Virginia Indian lands from those that were considered colonial territory, and restricted crossings to those on official business. Badges were required for all visitors. The treaty also established the payment of a yearly tribute to the English, as well as delineating a number of tribal land reservations.[4][7][8]

Among the surviving tribes of the now-dissolved Confederacy, the Appomattocs, Nansemonds and Weyanokes retreated to the south, becoming independent of Necotowance, as did the Powhites or Powhatan proper. The Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Chickahominy, Rappahannock, Kiskiack, Wiccocomico, Patawomeck, Morattico, Nanzatico, Sekakawon, and Onawmanient, occupying the peninsulas north of the York, were cut off from the southern tribes by the English colonial authorities.

The Virginia Colony long respected its southern boundary established by this treaty, refusing to recognize settlements beyond it as late as 1705. However, the ban on settling north of the York river was lifted September 1, 1649, and a wave of new immigrants quickly flooded the northern tribes, leaving them scattered and isolated on ever-shrinking patches of land. That year, the Pamunkey weroance, Totopotomoi, received 5,000 acres (20 km2) for his tribe along both sides of the upper Pamunkey River,[9] and the Kiskiack weroance, Ossakican was reserved 5,000 acres (20 km2) on the Piankatank.[10]

In 1650, another treaty reserved land for the creation of Indian towns, where 50 acres (200,000 m2) of land was granted per warrior. These lands became smaller and smaller in following years.[11] Tracts were surveyed for the remaining tribes in the following decades, but these quickly shrank as they were either sold off or in some cases actually seized outright.

Following Bacon's Rebellion, the Treaty of Middle Plantation was signed by many Virginia Indian leaders in 1677, limiting Tsenocommacah even further.[4][7] The treaty set up six reservations, reinforced the annual tribute payment to the English, and more fully acknowledged the Virginia tribes' subjection to the King of England.[11]

Contemporary tribes

All of the reservations, save two, were lost over the next two centuries. Even so, many of the remaining tribes still live in or near their ancestral lands. The Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the only tribes that still maintain their reservations from the 17th century. As such, these two tribes still make their yearly tribute payments, of fish and game, as stipulated by the 1646 and 1677 treaties. As far as anyone knows, the tribes have not missed a "payment" in 331 years. Every year, on the Wednesday before Thanksgiving, they go to the Virginia Governor's house in Richmond to make their yearly payment. A ceremony is held in which a deer, turkey, or fish and some pottery are presented to the governor. Before the ceremony a brunch is held where the tribes are able to converse with the governor. It has not always been easy for the Mattaponi and the Pamunkey to get the necessary items for their yearly payment, but they have made it a point of honor to uphold their end of the bargain.[11][12]

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Powhatan language

Powhatan language

Powhatan or Virginia Algonquian was an Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian languages. It was formerly spoken by the Powhatan people of tidewater Virginia. Following 1970s linguistic research by Frank Thomas Siebert, Jr., some of the language has been reconstructed with assistance from better-documented Algonquian languages, and attempts are being made to revive it.

Powhatan (Native American leader)

Powhatan (Native American leader)

Powhatan, whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh, was the leader of the Powhatan, an alliance of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans living in Tsenacommacah, in the Tidewater region of Virginia at the time when English settlers landed at Jamestown in 1607.

Kecoughtan, Virginia

Kecoughtan, Virginia

In the seventeenth century, Kecoughtan was the name of the settlement now known as Hampton, Virginia, In the early twentieth century, it was also the name of a town nearby in Elizabeth City County. It was annexed into the City of Newport News in 1927.

Arrohattoc

Arrohattoc

The Arrohattoc, also occasionally spelled Arrohateck, was a Native American tribe from Henrico County, Virginia in the United States. The tribe was led by their chief Ashuaquid and was part of the Powhatan Confederacy. Their main village was located on the James River, the location of which is now the site of Henrico, Virginia.

Pamunkey

Pamunkey

The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is one of 11 Virginia Indian tribal governments recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the state's first federally recognized tribe, receiving its status in January 2016. Six other Virginia tribal governments, the Chickahominy, the Eastern Chickahominy, the Upper Mattaponi, the Rappahannock, the Monacan, and the Nansemond, were similarly recognized through the passage of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 on January 12, 2018. The historical people were part of the Powhatan paramountcy, made up of Algonquian-speaking nations. The Powhatan paramount chiefdom was made up of over 30 nations, estimated to total about 10,000–15,000 people at the time the English arrived in 1607. The Pamunkey nation made up about one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the total, as they numbered about 1,000 persons in 1607.

Mattaponi

Mattaponi

The Mattaponi tribe is one of only two Virginia Indian tribes in the Commonwealth of Virginia that owns reservation land, which it has held since the colonial era. The larger Mattaponi Indian Tribe lives in King William County on the reservation, which stretches along the borders of the Mattaponi River, near West Point, Virginia.

Paspahegh

Paspahegh

The Paspahegh tribe was a Native American tributary to the Powhatan paramount chiefdom, incorporated into the chiefdom around 1596 or 1597. The Paspahegh Indian tribe lived in present-day Charles City and James City counties, Virginia. The Powhatan Confederacy included Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands who spoke a related Eastern Algonquian languages.

Nansemond

Nansemond

The Nansemond are the indigenous people of the Nansemond River, a 20-mile long tributary of the James River in Virginia. Nansemond people lived in settlements on both sides of the Nansemond River where they fished, harvested oysters, hunted, and farmed in fertile soil.

Debedeavon

Debedeavon

Debedeavon was the chief ruler of the Accawmack people who lived on the Eastern Shore of Virginia upon the first arrival of English colonists in 1608. His title was recorded as "Ye Emperor of Ye Easterne Shore and King of Ye Great Nussawattocks," and he was also known familiarly as "the Laughing King". He also seems to be the same figure who was known variously in English records as Esmy Shichans, Tobot Deabot, and Okiawampe.

Chickahominy River

Chickahominy River

The Chickahominy is an 87-mile-long (140 km) river in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia. The river, which serves as the eastern border of Charles City County, rises about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Richmond and flows southeast and south to the James River. The river was named after the Chickahominy Indian tribe who lived near the river when it was claimed by English colonists in 1607. Chickahominy descendants live in Charles City County today.

Pamunkey River

Pamunkey River

The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 93 miles (150 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. Via the York River it is part of the watershed of Chesapeake Bay.

Opechancanough

Opechancanough

Opechancanough was paramount chief of the Powhatan Confederacy in present-day Virginia from 1618 until his death. He had been a leader in the confederacy formed by his older brother Powhatan, from whom he inherited the paramountcy.

Society

Population

The population of Tsenacommacah was 14,000 to 21,000 people by 1607. The tribes shared mutually intelligible dialects of the Powhatan Language. The language, however, died out by the 1790s after the people switched to English. Much of the language has been forgotten, and is only known from two wordlists made by William Strachey and Captain John Smith. However, there have been attempts to reconstruct the language, particularly from linguists like Frank T. Siebert and Blair A. Rudes.

Lifestyle

Reconstructed Powhatan village at the Jamestown Settlement living-history museum.
Reconstructed Powhatan village at the Jamestown Settlement living-history museum.

The Powhatan lived in Tidewater Virginia. Their homes were called yehakins, and they were made by bending saplings and placing woven mats or bark over top of the saplings. All of Virginia's natives practiced slash-and-burn agriculture, and cultivated maize. A village became unusable as soil productivity gradually declined and local fish and game were depleted, so they periodically moved their villages from site to site. Villagers cleared the fields by felling, girdling, or firing trees at the base and then using fire to reduce the slash and stumps. The natives also used fire to maintain extensive areas of open game habitat throughout the East, later called "barrens" by European colonists. The Powhatan also had rich fishing grounds. Bison had migrated to this area by the early 15th century.[13]

The Powhatan primarily used fires to heat their sleeping rooms. As a result, less bedding was needed, and bedding materials could be easily stored during daytime hours. Couples typically slept head to foot.[14]

Powhatan men were warriors and hunters, and would run and walk extensively through the woods in pursuit of enemies or game, while women were gardeners and gatherers and would spend hours tending crops, pounding corn into meal, gathering nuts, and performing other chores. The women would construct hunting camps when the men were gone for extended periods of time. Women were also believed to serve as barbers, decorate homes, and produce decorative clothing. The Powhatan domestic economy depended on the labor of both sexes.[15]

Religion

The native Powhatan religion has been well documented. The Powhatans believed in two primary Gods. Ahone was the creator of life. Oke was the lesser twin god who accepted sacrifices and was prayed to for help. Beneath these two were many other spirits. The Powhatan tried to appease Oke with various offerings such as jewelry and tobacco. Religious leaders were advisors to tribal leaders.[16] It is believed that Powhatans would make offerings and pray to the sun during sunrises.[14]

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William Strachey

William Strachey

William Strachey was an English writer whose works are among the primary sources for the early history of the English colonisation of North America. He is best remembered today as the eye-witness reporter of the 1609 shipwreck on the uninhabited island of Bermuda of the colonial ship Sea Venture, which was caught in a hurricane while sailing to Virginia. The survivors eventually reached Virginia after building two small ships during the ten months they spent on the island. His account of the incident and of the Virginia colony is thought by most Shakespearean scholars to have been a source for Shakespeare's play The Tempest.

Blair A. Rudes

Blair A. Rudes

Blair Arnold Rudes was an American linguist and professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte best known for his expertise in Native American languages. He was hired in 2004 to reconstruct the long extinct Powhatan language for use in the film, The New World.

Jamestown Settlement

Jamestown Settlement

Jamestown Settlement is a living history museum operated by the Commonwealth of Virginia, created in 1957 as Jamestown Festival Park for the 350th anniversary celebration. Today it includes a recreation of the original James Fort, a Powhatan Native American town, indoor and outdoor displays, and replicas of the original settlers' ships: the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery.

Tidewater (region)

Tidewater (region)

Tidewater refers to the north Atlantic coastal plain region of the United States of America.

Slash-and-burn

Slash-and-burn

Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an area. The downed vegetation, or "slash", is then left to dry, usually right before the rainiest part of the year. Then, the biomass is burned, resulting in a nutrient-rich layer of ash which makes the soil fertile, as well as temporarily eliminating weed and pest species. After about three to five years, the plot's productivity decreases due to depletion of nutrients along with weed and pest invasion, causing the farmers to abandon the field and move to a new area. The time it takes for a swidden to recover depends on the location and can be as little as five years to more than twenty years, after which the plot can be slashed and burned again, repeating the cycle. In Bangladesh and India, the practice is known as jhum or jhoom.

Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Sheep, goats, pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture.

Maize

Maize

Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that when fertilized yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. The term maize is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage as a common name because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike corn, which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region.

Girdling

Girdling

Girdling, also called ring-barking, is the complete removal of the bark from around the entire circumference of either a branch or trunk of a woody plant. Girdling results in the death of the area above the girdle over time. A branch completely girdled will fail and when the main trunk of a tree is girdled, the entire tree will die, if it cannot regrow from above to bridge the wound. Human practices of girdling include forestry, horticulture, and vandalism. Foresters use the practice of girdling to thin forests. Animals such as rodents will girdle trees by feeding on outer bark, often during winter under snow. Girdling can also be caused by herbivorous mammals feeding on plant bark and by birds and insects, both of which can effectively girdle a tree by boring rows of adjacent holes.

Slash (logging)

Slash (logging)

In forestry, slash, or slashings are coarse and fine woody debris generated during logging operations or through wind, snow or other natural forest disturbances. Slash generated during logging operations may increase fire hazard, and some North American states have passed laws requiring the treatment of logging slash. Logging slash can be chipped and used in the production of electricity or heat in cogeneration power-plants.

American bison

American bison

The American bison is a species of bison native to North America. Sometimes colloquially referred to as American buffalo or simply buffalo, it is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the European bison. Its historical range, by 9000 BC, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard as far north as New York, south to Georgia and, according to some sources, further south to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750. Once roaming in vast herds, the species nearly became extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was culled down to just 541 animals by 1889. Recovery efforts expanded in the mid-20th century, with a resurgence to roughly 31,000 wild bison as of March 2019. For many years, the population was primarily found in a few national parks and reserves. Through multiple reintroductions, the species now freely roams wild in several regions in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, with it also being introduced to Yakutia in Russia.

Ahone

Ahone

Ahone was the chief god and creator in the religion of the Native American Powhatan tribe and related Algonquians in the Virginia Tidewater area. According to tribal legend, Ahone created the world as a flat disk with the Powhatan tribe at its center. He was also considered to be detached from mankind and required no offerings or sacrifices like many other gods. The god Oki was his wrathful counterpart.

Government

Capitals

Tsenacommacah originally had two capitals. The main capital was the village of Werowocomoco, located in present-day Gloucester County. The second capital, the village of Powhatan was believed to be in the present-day Powhatan Hill section of the eastern part of Richmond, Virginia, or perhaps nearby in a location which became part of Tree Hill Farm.

Werowocomoco was described by the English colonists as only 15 miles (24 km) as the crow flies from Jamestown, but also described as 25 miles (40 km) downstream from present-day West Point, measurements which conflict with each other. In 2003 archaeologists initiated excavations at a site in Gloucester County that have revealed an extensive indigenous settlement from about 1200 (the late Woodland period) through the early Contact period. Work since then has added to their belief that this is the location of Werowocomoco. The site is on a farm bordering on Purtan Bay of the York River, about 12 nautical miles (22 km) from Jamestown. The more than 50 acres (200,000 m2) residential settlement extends up to 1,000 feet (300 m) back from the river. In 2004, researchers excavated two curving ditches of 200 feet (60 m) at the far edge, which were constructed about 1400 CE. In addition to extensive artifacts from hundreds of years of indigenous settlement, researchers have found a variety of trade goods related to the brief interaction of Native Americans and English in the early years of Jamestown.

Around 1609, Wahunsenacawh shifted his capital from Werowocomoco to Orapakes, located in a swamp at the head of the Chickahominy River, near the modern-day interchange of Interstate 64 and Interstate 295. Sometime between 1611 and 1614, he moved further north to Matchut, in present-day King William County on the north bank of the Pamunkey River.

Leadership

Each tribe had its own name and chief (werowance/weroance or weroansqua if female), and Tsenacommacah as a whole was ruled by a paramount chief (mamanatowick) named Wahunsenacawh, or more popularly Chief Powhatan.[6]

The Mamanatowick let their district and subordinate weroances make the final decision on how to handle hostile situations. This was made apparent with the events that took place in 1607 and the hostility with the newcomers (English colonists). Weroances and Priest were the only ones allowed to enter into religious temples. A weroance did not go to meet any visitor, visitors were escorted to see a weroance. The weroance, their wives, and councilors often dressed in the finest jewels, and tanned deer skin.[17]

Several of the weroances' personal names were known and some recorded by William Strachey and other sources.[18] The names of their respective chieftaincies were also commonly used as titles, exactly analogous to European peerages, so that the Weroance of Arrohattec (whose given name was Ashaquid) was often referred to simply as "Arrohattec", much as the Earl of Essex would be referred to just as "Essex" in lieu of a personal name.

When the first English colonists arrived in Virginia, some of the weroances subject to the paramount chief Powhatan, or mamanatowick (Wahunsenacawh) were his own nearest male relatives:

  • Parahunt, Weroance of the Powhatan (proper), also called Tanx ("little") Powhatan, said by Strachey to be a son of the paramount chief Powhatan, and often confused with same.
  • Pochins, Weroance of the Kecoughtan, was also a son of the paramount chief, whom he had appointed there some time after slaying their previous ruler in ca. 1598.
  • Opechancanough, Chief Powhatan's younger brother, was a weroance of the Pamunkey, but increased in power, and came to be the effective ruler of the entire Powhatan Confederacy after Wahunsenacawh's death in 1618.

In Tsenacommacah, women could inherit power, because the inheritance of power was matrilineal. In A Map of Virginia John Smith of Jamestown explains:

His [Chief Powhatan's] kingdome descendeth not to his sonnes nor children: but first to his brethren, whereof he hath 3 namely Opitchapan, Opechancanough, and Catataugh; and after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, then to the rest: and after them to the heires male and female of the eldest sister; but never to the heires of the males.[19]

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Werowocomoco

Werowocomoco

Werowocomoco was a village that served as the headquarters of Chief Powhatan, a Virginia Algonquian political and spiritual leader when the English founded Jamestown in 1607. The name Werowocomoco comes from the Powhatan werowans (weroance), meaning "leader" in English; and komakah (-comoco), "settlement". The town was documented by English settlers in 1608 as located near the north bank of the York River in what is now Gloucester County. It was separated by that river and the narrow Virginia Peninsula from the English settlement of Jamestown, located on the James River.

Richmond, Virginia

Richmond, Virginia

Richmond is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871. At the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214; in 2020, the population had grown to 226,610, making Richmond the fourth-most populous city in Virginia. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state.

West Point, Virginia

West Point, Virginia

West Point is an incorporated town in King William County, Virginia, United States. The population was 3,306 at the 2010 census.

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples. The term Indigenous was first, in its modern context, used by Europeans, who used it to differentiate the Indigenous peoples of the Americas from the European settlers of the Americas and from the Sub-Saharan Africans who were brought to the Americas as enslaved people. The term may have first been used in this context by Sir Thomas Browne in 1646, who stated "and although in many parts thereof there be at present swarms of Negroes serving under the Spaniard, yet were they all transported from Africa, since the discovery of Columbus; and are not indigenous or proper natives of America."

Chickahominy River

Chickahominy River

The Chickahominy is an 87-mile-long (140 km) river in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia. The river, which serves as the eastern border of Charles City County, rises about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Richmond and flows southeast and south to the James River. The river was named after the Chickahominy Indian tribe who lived near the river when it was claimed by English colonists in 1607. Chickahominy descendants live in Charles City County today.

Interstate 64

Interstate 64

Interstate 64 (I-64) is an east–west Interstate Highway in the Eastern United States. Its western terminus is at I-70, U.S. Route 40 (US 40), and US 61 in Wentzville, Missouri. Its eastern terminus is at an interchange with I-264 and I-664 at Bower's Hill in Chesapeake, Virginia. I-64 connects the major metropolitan areas of St. Louis, Missouri; Louisville and Lexington in Kentucky; Charleston, West Virginia; and Richmond and Hampton Roads in Virginia.

Interstate 295 (Virginia)

Interstate 295 (Virginia)

Interstate 295 (I-295) is a highway which runs eastward and northward bypass of the cities of Richmond and Petersburg in the US state of Virginia. The southern terminus is an interchange with I-95 southeast of Petersburg. I-295 then has an interchange with I-64 east of Richmond, crosses I-95 north of Richmond, and continues westward to its other terminus at a second interchange with I-64.

King William County, Virginia

King William County, Virginia

King William County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 17,810. Its county seat is King William.

Pamunkey River

Pamunkey River

The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 93 miles (150 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. Via the York River it is part of the watershed of Chesapeake Bay.

Chief Powhatan

Chief Powhatan

Chief Powhatan is a chief in Virgina Conderacy, and the father of Pocahontas.

Opechancanough

Opechancanough

Opechancanough was paramount chief of the Powhatan Confederacy in present-day Virginia from 1618 until his death. He had been a leader in the confederacy formed by his older brother Powhatan, from whom he inherited the paramountcy.

Pamunkey

Pamunkey

The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is one of 11 Virginia Indian tribal governments recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the state's first federally recognized tribe, receiving its status in January 2016. Six other Virginia tribal governments, the Chickahominy, the Eastern Chickahominy, the Upper Mattaponi, the Rappahannock, the Monacan, and the Nansemond, were similarly recognized through the passage of the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 on January 12, 2018. The historical people were part of the Powhatan paramountcy, made up of Algonquian-speaking nations. The Powhatan paramount chiefdom was made up of over 30 nations, estimated to total about 10,000–15,000 people at the time the English arrived in 1607. The Pamunkey nation made up about one-tenth to one-fifteenth of the total, as they numbered about 1,000 persons in 1607.

Source: "Tsenacommacah", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsenacommacah.

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References
  1. ^ David G. Sweet and Gary B. Nash: Struggle and Survival in Colonial America, University of California Press; New Edition (January 1982) ISBN 978-0-520-04501-9
  2. ^ Waugaman, Sandra F. and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D. We're Still Here: Contemporary Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories. Richmond: Palri Publushing, 2006 (revised edition)
  3. ^ http://smithtrail.net/files/Bay_People_607.pdf
  4. ^ a b c Rountree, Helen C. and E. Randolph Turner III. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans and Their Predecessors. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
  5. ^ Virginia Secretary of Natural Resources – Doug Domenech Archived 2012-02-24 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. University of Virginia Press, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c Powhatan Indian Lifeways
  8. ^ Wood, Karenne. The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail, 2007.
  9. ^ Helen Rountree, 1990, Pocahontas's People, p. 110.
  10. ^ Helen Rountree, 1990, Pocahontas's People, p. 116.
  11. ^ a b c Waugaman, Sandra F. and Danielle-Moretti Langholtz, PhD. We're Still Here: Contemporary Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories. Richmond: Palari Publishing, 2006 (revised edition).
  12. ^ Kimberlain, Joanne. "We're Still Here." Virginian-Pilot. June 7–9, 2009: Print.
  13. ^ Brown, Hutch (Summer 2000). "Wildland Burning by American Indians in Virginia". Fire Management Today. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 60 (3): 30–33.
  14. ^ a b Rountree, Helen C. (1998). "Powhatan Indian Women: The People Captain John Smith Barely Saw". Ethnohistory. 45 (1): 1–29. doi:10.2307/483170. ISSN 0014-1801. JSTOR 483170.
  15. ^ ""The Chesapeake Bay Region and its People in 1607"" (PDF). Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  16. ^ "How did the Powhatan express their religious beliefs?".
  17. ^ Rountree, Helen C. (2005). Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough : three Indian lives changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville (Va.): University of Virginia press. p. Chapter 2. ISBN 0-8139-2323-9.
  18. ^ List of weroances recorded by Strachey Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Smith, John. A Map of Virginia. Oxford: Joseph Barnes, 1612. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/jamestown-browse?id=J1008, also Repr. in The Complete Works of John Smith (1580-1631). Ed. Philip L. Barbour. Chapel Hill: University Press of Virginia, 1983. Vol. 1, pp. 305-63.

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