Get Our Extension

Troubled teen industry

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way

The troubled-teen industry is a multi-billion dollar industry, and claims to help or "fix" troubled teenagers through various practices. They consist of privately run, largely unregulated residential facilities. They accept young people who are considered to have struggles with learning disabilties, emotional regulation, behavior, mental illness, and substance abuse. Young people may be labeled as "troubled teens", delinquents, or other language on their websites. The majority encounter the industry through their parents, and some can remain in the industry until they turn 18. Alternatively, these sites can claim to help other self-destructive behaviors, in order to widen their reach. Sometimes, these therapies are used as a punishment for contravening family expectations.[1] In the United States, the industry includes boarding schools, boot camps, residential treatment centers, interventions, and wilderness programs.[2][3]

The troubled teen industry has encountered many scandals due to child abuse, institutional corruption, and deaths.[4][5] Furthermore, many institutions offer youth transportation, in which minors are transported to these facilities against their will, but with their parents' written consent.[6] It is a service offered in the United States, and a practice that has been criticized on ethical and legal grounds as being akin to kidnapping. Some may not even realise their parents signed off on it until days after.[7][3][8] Clients have reported being ambushed in their own beds at home, or tricked into believing they're going elsewhere.[9]

Discover more about Troubled teen industry related topics

Learning disability

Learning disability

Learning disability, learning disorder, or learning difficulty is a condition in the brain that causes difficulties comprehending or processing information and can be caused by several different factors. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. Therefore, some people can be more accurately described as having a "learning difference", thus avoiding any misconception of being disabled with a lack of ability to learn and possible negative stereotyping. In the United Kingdom, the term "learning disability" generally refers to an intellectual disability, while conditions such as dyslexia and dyspraxia are usually referred to as "learning difficulties".

Substance abuse

Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is the use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others. It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases, criminal or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long-term personality changes in individuals may also occur. In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, the use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.

Residential treatment center

Residential treatment center

A residential treatment center (RTC), sometimes called a rehab, is a live-in health care facility providing therapy for substance use disorders, mental illness, or other behavioral problems. Residential treatment may be considered the "last-ditch" approach to treating abnormal psychology or psychopathology.

History

  • 1967: CEDU High School is founded by Mel Wasserman, a former Synanon member, in Running Springs, CA.[10]
  • May 30, 1970: The Élan School is founded by Joe Ricci, a former resident of Daytop Village, in Naples, ME.[11][12]
  • February 16, 1982: Nancy Reagan vists Straight Inc. in Florida.[13]
  • May 26, 1983: A federal jury awards a Straight Inc. patient $220,000 after finding said patient to have been falsely imprisoned by the foundation.[14]
  • November 11, 1985: Princess Diana and Nancy Reagan visit Straight Inc.[15]
  • 1987: Scientology troubled teen program called Mace Kingsley Ranch School opens in California[16]
  • January 15, 1995: Aaron Bacon dies from acute peritonitis whilst attending the North Star Wilderness program in Utah.[17]
  • December 21, 1996: Craig Fisher is sentenced over his role in Aaron Bacon's death.[18]
  • July 15, 2002: Ian August dies while attending the Skyline Journey wilderness program in Utah.[19]
  • December 25, 2002: A 17-year-old girl named Kiley Jaquays falls to her death while visiting the Bloomington Caves in Utah with her residential treatment center Integrity House.[20]
  • May 23, 2003: Costa Rican government officials shut down the Academy at Dundee Ranch, a behavior modification program run by a US-based company called World Wide Association of Specialty Programs and Schools.[21]
  • February 8, 2004: 16-year-old Daniel Yeun goes missing from CEDU High School in the state of California.[22]
  • February 8, 2013: The hacking collective group Anonymous launches a campaign against the troubled teen industry calling it #OpTTIabuse.[23]
  • July 10, 2019: Red Rock Canyon School in Utah closes after a riot breaks out in April 2019.[24]
  • August 31, 2022: Agape boarding school served indictment for transporting California teenager and violating protection order.[25]
  • January 11, 2023: Agape Boarding school announced plans for permanent closure[26]

Discover more about History related topics

CEDU

CEDU

CEDU Educational Services, Inc., known simply as CEDU, was a company founded in 1967 by Mel Wasserman. The company owned and operated several therapeutic boarding schools, group homes, wilderness therapy programs, and behavior modification programs in California and Idaho. The company's schools have faced numerous allegations of abuse. CEDU originated from Synanon, a group that has been called one of the "most dangerous and violent cults America had ever seen."

Mel Wasserman

Mel Wasserman

Merle "Mel" Wasserman Was a businessman, entrepreneur, and founder of CEDU Education. He was a pioneer in the unaccredited Therapeutic Boarding School industry. Over the course of many years, he opened a total of six therapeutic boarding schools in the states of California and Idaho.

Synanon

Synanon

Synanon is a US-founded social organization created by Charles E. "Chuck" Dederich Sr. in 1958 in Santa Monica, California, United States. It is currently active in Germany.

Daytop

Daytop

Daytop, or Daytop Village, is a drug addiction treatment organization with facilities in New York City. It was founded in 1963 in Tottenville, Staten Island by Daniel Harold Casriel along with Monsignor William B. O'Brien, a Roman Catholic priest and founder and president of the World Federation of Therapeutic Communities. Ron Brancato from the Pelham Bay area of Bronx New York, Program Director and former resident of Synanon, California. Synanon was the only drug rehabilitation program until Daytop Village NY.

Naples, Maine

Naples, Maine

Naples is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States. It is part of the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area. The population was 3,925 at the 2020 census, and it is home to part of Sebago Lake State Park. Naples is a resort area.

Florida

Florida

Florida is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico; Alabama to the northwest; Georgia to the north; the Bahamas and Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Straits of Florida and Cuba to the south. It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Spanning 65,758 square miles (170,310 km2), Florida ranks 22nd in area among the 50 states, and with a population of over 21 million, it is the third-most populous. The state capital is Tallahassee and the most populous city is Jacksonville. The Miami metropolitan area, with a population of almost 6.2 million, is the most populous urban area in Florida and the ninth-most populous in the United States; other urban conurbations with over one million people are Tampa Bay, Orlando, and Jacksonville.

Mace-Kingsley Ranch School

Mace-Kingsley Ranch School

Mace-Kingsley Ranch School was a Church of Scientology affiliated ranch school for children aged 8 to 17 set in a rural environment. The School opened in 1987 and was initially based in Palmdale, California before moving to a property in the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico. It was eventually closed in 2002 and its certificate of incorporation was revoked. The school's curriculum focused heavily on the teachings of Scientology. Students were subjected to pseudo-scientific processes such as the Purification Rundown and daily auditing. A large portion of each day was dedicated to cleaning and general manual labor. The school received criticism over the years for the treatment of students under its care. Students have reported cases of being underfed as well as being beaten, whipped and publicly humiliated as forms of punishment.

Utah

Utah

Utah is a landlocked state in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It is bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its south by Arizona, and to its west by Nevada. Utah also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Of the fifty U.S. states, Utah is the 13th-largest by area; with a population over three million, it is the 30th-most-populous and 11th-least-densely populated. Urban development is mostly concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which is home to roughly two-thirds of the population and includes the capital city, Salt Lake City; and Washington County in the southwest, with more than 180,000 residents. Most of the western half of Utah lies in the Great Basin.

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in the Central American region of North America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and maritime border with Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around five million in a land area of 51,060 km2 (19,710 sq mi). An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José, with around two million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.

Academy at Dundee Ranch

Academy at Dundee Ranch

Academy at Dundee Ranch was a behavior modification facility for United States teenagers, located on La Ceiba Cascajal, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) west of Orotina, province of Alajuela, Costa Rica. It was promoted as a residential school, offering a program of behavior modification, motivational "emotional growth seminars," a progressive academic curriculum, and a structured daily schedule, for teenagers struggling in their homes, schools, or communities.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Anonymous (hacker group)

Anonymous (hacker group)

Anonymous is a decentralized international activist and hacktivist collective and movement primarily known for its various cyberattacks against several governments, government institutions and government agencies, corporations and the Church of Scientology.

Media

Discover more about Media related topics

Children of Darkness

Children of Darkness

Children of Darkness is a 1983 American documentary film on PBS produced by Ara Chekmayan and Richard Kotuk. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

Not My Kid

Not My Kid

Not My Kid is a 1985 American made-for-television drama film directed by Michael Tuchner, which was based on a 1984 book of the same name by Beth Polson and Miller Newton. The movie aired on CBS in the United States, and had a VHS release both there and in the United Kingdom, with ITC handling distribution rights.

Drug Free America Foundation

Drug Free America Foundation

The Drug Free America Foundation (DFAF) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded in 1976 by former US Ambassador Mel Sembler, his wife Betty Sembler, and Joseph Zappala as Straight, Inc., renamed The Straight Foundation, Inc. in 1985 and Drug Free America Foundation in 1995.

Brat Camp

Brat Camp

Brat Camp was a reality television show.

Idaho

Idaho

Idaho is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canada–United States border with the province of British Columbia. It borders the states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. With an area of 83,570 square miles (216,400 km2), Idaho is the 14th largest state by land area, but with a population of approximately 1.8 million, it ranks as the 13th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states.

Arizona

Arizona

Arizona is a state in the Southwestern United States. It is the 6th-largest and the 14th-most-populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is part of the Four Corners region with Utah to the north, Colorado to the northeast, and New Mexico to the east; its other neighboring states are Nevada to the northwest, California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

Boot Camp (film)

Boot Camp (film)

Boot Camp, also released in the UK as Punishment, is a 2008 psychological thriller film written by Agatha Dominik and John Cox and directed by Christian Duguay.

Kidnapped for Christ

Kidnapped for Christ

Kidnapped for Christ is a documentary film that details the experiences of several teenagers who were removed from their homes and sent to a behavior modification and ex-gay school in Jarabacoa, Dominican Republic. The film was directed by Kate Logan. Tom DeSanto, Lance Bass and Mike Manning are the executive producers.

Behavior modification

Behavior modification

Behavior modification is an early approach that used respondent and operant conditioning to change behavior. Based on methodological behaviorism, overt behavior was modified with consequences, including positive and negative reinforcement contingencies to increase desirable behavior, or administering positive and negative punishment and/or extinction to reduce problematic behavior. It also used Flooding desensitization to combat phobias.

Lorraine Nicholson

Lorraine Nicholson

Lorraine Broussard Nicholson is an American actress and director. She is known for playing Alana Blanchard in the biographical film Soul Surfer (2011).

Stephen Dorff

Stephen Dorff

Stephen Hartley Dorff Jr. is an American actor. He is known for portraying Roland West in the third season of HBO's crime drama anthology series True Detective, PK in The Power of One, Stuart Sutcliffe in Backbeat, Johnny Marco in Sofia Coppola's Somewhere, Glen in The Gate, and for his roles in Cecil B. DeMented, The Motel Life, S.F.W., Space Truckers, and in Blade as vampire mastermind Deacon Frost.

Paris Hilton

Paris Hilton

Paris Whitney Hilton is an American media personality, businesswoman, socialite, model, and entertainer. Born in New York City, and raised there and in Beverly Hills, California, she is a great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton, the founder of Hilton Hotels. Hilton first attracted tabloid attention in the late 1990s, when she became a fixture in NYC's social scene, and ventured into modeling at age 19, signing with Donald Trump's agency Trump Model Management. After David LaChapelle photographed her and sister Nicky for the September 2000 issue of Vanity Fair, Hilton was proclaimed "New York's leading It Girl" in 2001. The reality television series The Simple Life (2003–2007), in which she starred with her friend Nicole Richie, and a leaked 2001 sex tape with her then-boyfriend Rick Salomon, later released as 1 Night in Paris (2004), catapulted her into global fame.

Techniques

Discover more about Techniques related topics

Attack therapy

Attack therapy

Attack therapy was one of several pseudo-therapeutic methods described in the book Crazy Therapies. It involves highly confrontational interaction between the patient and a therapist, or between the patient and fellow patients during group therapy, in which the patient may be verbally abused, denounced, or humiliated by the therapist or other members of the group.

Primal therapy

Primal therapy

Primal therapy is a trauma-based psychotherapy created by Arthur Janov, who argues that neurosis is caused by the repressed pain of childhood trauma. Janov argues that repressed pain can be sequentially brought to conscious awareness for resolution through re-experiencing specific incidents and fully expressing the resulting pain during therapy. Primal therapy was developed as a means of eliciting the repressed pain; the term Pain is capitalized in discussions of primal therapy when referring to any repressed emotional distress and its purported long-lasting psychological effects. Janov criticizes the talking therapies as they deal primarily with the cerebral cortex and higher-reasoning areas and do not access the source of Pain within the more basic parts of the central nervous system.

Large-group awareness training

Large-group awareness training

The term large-group awareness training (LGAT) refers to activities - usually offered by groups with links to the human potential movement - which claim to increase self-awareness and to bring about desirable transformations in individuals' personal lives. LGATs are unconventional; they often take place over several days, and may compromise participants' mental wellbeing.

Conversion therapy

Conversion therapy

Conversion therapy is the pseudoscientific practice of attempting to change an individual's sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression to align with heterosexual and cisgender norms. In contrast to evidence-based medicine and clinical guidance, such practices typically view homosexuality and gender variance as unnatural or unhealthy. There is a scientific consensus that conversion therapy is ineffective at changing a person's sexual orientation or gender identity and that it frequently causes significant, long-term psychological harm in individuals who undergo it.

Source: "Troubled teen industry", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troubled_teen_industry.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ Okoren, Nicolle (14 November 2022). "The wilderness 'therapy' that teens say feels like abuse: 'You are on guard at all times'". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  2. ^ Mooney, Heather; Leighton, Paul (2019). "Troubled Affluent Youth's Experiences in a Therapeutic Boarding School: The Elite Arm of the Youth Control Complex and Its Implications for Youth Justice". Critical Criminology. 27 (4): 611–626. doi:10.1007/s10612-019-09466-4. ISSN 1572-9877. S2CID 210585644.
  3. ^ a b Golightley, Sarah (2020). "Troubling the 'troubled teen' industry: Adult reflections on youth experiences of therapeutic boarding schools". Global Studies of Childhood. 10 (1): 53–63. doi:10.1177/2043610619900514. ISSN 2043-6106. S2CID 213786803.
  4. ^ Younis, Yasmin (2021). "Institutionalized Child Abuse: The Troubled Teen Industry". SLU Law Journal Online.
  5. ^ Mohr, Wanda K. (2009). "Still Shackled in the Land of Liberty: Denying Children the Right to be Safe From Abusive "Treatment"". Advances in Nursing Science. 32 (2): 173–185. doi:10.1097/ANS.0b013e3181a3b16f. ISSN 0161-9268. PMID 19461233. S2CID 40494944.
  6. ^ "The man who takes troubled youths to therapy camp". BBC News. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  7. ^ Magnuson, Doug; Dobud, Will; Harper, Nevin J. (2022). "Can Involuntary Youth Transport into Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Treatment Programs (Wilderness Therapy) Ever Be Ethical?". Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. doi:10.1007/s10560-022-00864-2. ISSN 1573-2797. S2CID 250539733.
  8. ^ Robbins, Ira P. (2014). "Kidnapping Incorporated: The Unregulated Youth-Transportation Industry and the Potential for Abuse". American Criminal Law Review. 51: 563.
  9. ^ Rensin, Emmett (7 July 2016). "Vox First Person: I went into the woods a teenage drug addict and came out sober. Was it worth it?". Vox. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  10. ^ Nussberger, Kathy (26 June 2005). "Bigger Than Life: A personal journey into the history of CEDU". Struggling Teens. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  11. ^ Fraga, Kaleena (12 January 2022). "The Controversial Story Of The Élan School, The 'Last Stop' For Troubled Teens In Maine". All That's Interesting. Archived from the original on 3 December 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  12. ^ Curley, Maura (1991). Duck in a Raincoat (2nd ed.). Marblehead, MA: Menukie Press. pp. 2–5.
  13. ^ Nemy, Enid (February 16, 1982). "MRS. REAGAN, IN FLORIDA, SEES EFFORTS TO FIGHT DRUG ABUSE". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  14. ^ Zibart, Eve (May 26, 1983). "Drug Patient's Award $220,000". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  15. ^ SCHAFER, SUSANNE (November 11, 1985). "Princess Diana and Nancy Reagan Visit Drug Abuse Center With AM-Royalty, Bjt". AP News. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  16. ^ Bentley, Jean (2017-10-10). "'Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath' Investigates Church's Treatment of Children". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2023-01-20.
  17. ^ Morgenstern, Joe (January 15, 1995). "A Death in the Desert". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  18. ^ "FORMER NORTH STAR COUNSELOR SENTENCED TO A YEAR IN JAIL". Deseret News. December 21, 1996. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  19. ^ "Teen Dies During Utah Wilderness Hike". AP News. July 15, 2002. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  20. ^ "Teen girl dies in fall from ledge". Deseret News. December 25, 2002. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  21. ^ "Costa Rica Intervenes at Troubled U.S.-Owned Academy". The New York Times. May 23, 2003. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  22. ^ Shaprio, Emily (January 19, 2019). "New clues emerge 15 years after teen's disappearance: 'We just want to know he's safe,' family says". ABC News. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  23. ^ "Anonymous goes after the "troubled-teen industry"". Daily Dot. February 8, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  24. ^ Miller, Jessica (July 10, 2019). "After a riot, increasing violence and now sex abuse allegations, Red Rock Canyon school will close". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  25. ^ Salter, Jim (31 August 2022). "Indictment: Boy forcibly taken to Missouri boarding school". AP NEWS. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  26. ^ Salter, Jim (11 January 2023). "Missouri boarding school under investigation will shut down". AP NEWS. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  27. ^ Nilssen, Todd (2017-04-29), The Last Stop (Documentary, Biography, Drama), retrieved 2022-12-26
  28. ^ Nicholson, Lorraine, Life Boat (Short), retrieved 2022-12-26
  29. ^ Dean, Alexandra (2020-09-14), This Is Paris (Documentary), The Intellectual Property Corporation (IPC), retrieved 2022-12-26
Further reading

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.