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Trentepohlia (alga)

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Trentepohlia
Trentepohlia sp. on Cryptomeria japonica bark
Trentepohlia sp. on Cryptomeria japonica bark
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Ulvophyceae
Order: Trentepohliales
Family: Trentepohliaceae
Genus: Trentepohlia
Mart.
Type species
Trentepohlia aurea
Species[1]
Synonyms
  • Byssus Linnaeus, 1753 - unaccepted
  • Chroolepus C.Agardh, 1824 - unaccepted
  • Tophora E.M.Fries, 1825 - unaccepted

Trentepohlia is a genus of filamentous chlorophyte green algae in the family Trentepohliaceae, living free on terrestrial supports such as tree trunks and wet rocks or symbiotically in lichens.[2] The filaments of Trentepohlia have a strong orange colour (photograph at right) caused by the presence of large quantities of carotenoid pigments which mask the green of the chlorophyll.

Trentepohlia species form associations with fungal hyphae, and are widespread phycobionts in lichens, such as the "secret writing" crustose lichen genera Graphis, Graphina, Gyalecta and Opegrapha.[3][4]

There are about 40 species of Trentepohlia mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas[5] but several species also occur in temperate environments including Britain and Ireland.[6] The genus is present in almost all continents.[7]

The genus was circumscribed by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius in Fl. Crypt. Erlang. on page 351 in 1817.

The genus name of Trentepohlia is in honour of Johann Friedrich Trentepohl (1748–1806), who was a German clergyman and botanist. He worked as a lecturer and Pastor in various places in Wesermarsch.[8]

Discover more about Trentepohlia (alga) related topics

Chlorophyta

Chlorophyta

Chlorophyta or Prasinophyta is a taxon of green algae informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister clade of the streptophytes/charophytes. The clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta in which the Embryophyta emerged. In this latter sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species. About 90% of all known species live in freshwater. Like the land plants, green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch in their plastids.

Green algae

Green algae

The green algae are a group consisting of the Prasinodermophyta and its unnamed sister which contains the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta. The land plants (Embryophytes) have emerged deep in the Charophyte alga as sister of the Zygnematophyceae. Since the realization that the Embryophytes emerged within the green algae, some authors are starting to properly include them. The completed clade that includes both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and is referred to as the clade Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae. The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid and filamentous forms, and macroscopic, multicellular seaweeds. There are about 22,000 species of green algae. Many species live most of their lives as single cells, while other species form coenobia (colonies), long filaments, or highly differentiated macroscopic seaweeds.

Carotenoid

Carotenoid

Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi. Carotenoids give the characteristic color to pumpkins, carrots, parsnips, corn, tomatoes, canaries, flamingos, salmon, lobster, shrimp, and daffodils. Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. It is also produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. Carotenoids from the diet are stored in the fatty tissues of animals, and exclusively carnivorous animals obtain the compounds from animal fat. In the human diet, absorption of carotenoids is improved when consumed with fat in a meal. Cooking carotenoid-containing vegetables in oil and shredding the vegetable both increase carotenoid bioavailability.

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll

Chlorophyll is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, khloros and φύλλον, phyllon ("leaf"). Chlorophyll allow plants to absorb energy from light.

Crustose lichen

Crustose lichen

Crustose lichens are lichens that form a crust which strongly adheres to the substrate, making separation from the substrate impossible without destruction. The basic structure of crustose lichens consists of a cortex layer, an algal layer, and a medulla. The upper cortex layer is differentiated and is usually pigmented. The algal layer lies beneath the cortex. The medulla fastens the lichen to the substrate and is made up of fungal hyphae. The surface of crustose lichens is characterized by branching cracks that periodically close in response to climatic variations such as alternate wetting and drying regimes.

Graphis (lichen)

Graphis (lichen)

Graphis is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Graphidaceae.

Graphina

Graphina

Graphina is a genus of script lichens in the family Graphidaceae. It has about 25 species. The genus was circumscribed in 1880 by Swiss lichenologist Johannes Müller Argoviensis. Müller Argoviensis did not indicate a type species for the genus in his original publication; David Hawksworth proposed to designate Graphina anguina as a lectotype in 1981.

Gyalecta

Gyalecta

Gyalecta is a genus of fungi in the family Gyalectaceae that contains 50 species. Gyalecta was circumscribed by lichenologist Erik Acharius in 1808.

Great Britain

Great Britain

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island and the ninth-largest island in the world. It is dominated by a maritime climate with narrow temperature differences between seasons. The 60% smaller island of Ireland is to the west—together with these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands and named substantial rocks, form the British Isles archipelago.

Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.

Circumscription (taxonomy)

Circumscription (taxonomy)

In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the content of a taxon, that is, the delimitation of which subordinate taxa are parts of that taxon. If we determine that species X, Y, and Z belong in Genus A, and species T, U, V, and W belong in Genus B, those are our circumscriptions of those two genera. Another systematist might determine that T, U, V, W, X, Y, and Z all belong in genus A. Agreement on circumscriptions is not governed by the Codes of Zoological or Botanical Nomenclature, and must be reached by scientific consensus.

Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius

Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius

Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius was a German botanist and explorer.

Gallery

Source: "Trentepohlia (alga)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trentepohlia_(alga).

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References
  1. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=X34e5de6b47fb6fc9 ; searched on 28 June 2018.
  2. ^ See the NCBI webpage on Trentepohlia. Data extracted from the "NCBI taxonomy resources". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
  3. ^ F.S. Dobson (2000) Lichens, an illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. Richmond publishing Co. ISBN 0-85546-094-6
  4. ^ T. Friedl and B. Büdel (1996) Photobionts, in Nash, T.H. (ed.) Lichen biology, pp.8-23, Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ van den Hoek, C.; Mann, D.G.; Jahns, H.M. (1995). Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521316873.
  6. ^ John, D.M.; Whitton, B.A.; Brook, A.J., eds. (2002). The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521193757.
  7. ^ Aboal, Marina; Egidos, Ana; Marín, José; Asencio, Antonia (2002). "Trentepohlia jolithus (L.) Wallroth 1833 (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) in subaerial habitats from southeastern Spain". Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Algological Studies. 107: 153–162.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Burkhardt, Lotte (2022). Eine Enzyklopädie zu eponymischen Pflanzennamen [Encyclopedia of eponymic plant names] (pdf) (in German). Berlin: Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum, Freie Universität Berlin. doi:10.3372/epolist2022. ISBN 978-3-946292-41-8. Retrieved January 27, 2022.

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