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Treadmill

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Example of modern treadmill
Example of modern treadmill

A treadmill is a device generally used for walking, running, or climbing while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill operated by a person or animal treading the steps of a treadwheel to grind grain. In later times, treadmills were used as punishment devices for people sentenced to hard labor in prisons. The terms treadmill and treadwheel were used interchangeably for the power and punishment mechanisms.

More recently, treadmills have instead been used as exercise machines for running or walking in one place. Rather than the user powering a mill, the device provides a moving platform with a wide conveyor belt driven by an electric motor or a flywheel. The belt moves to the rear, requiring the user to walk or run at a speed matching the belt. The rate at which the belt moves is the rate of walking or running. Thus, the speed of running may be controlled and measured. The more expensive, heavy-duty versions are motor-driven (usually by an electric motor). The simpler, lighter, and less expensive versions passively resist the motion, moving only when walkers push the belt with their feet. The latter are known as manual treadmills.

Treadmills continue to be the biggest selling exercise equipment category by a large margin. As a result, the treadmill industry has hundreds of manufacturers throughout the world.[1]

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Machine

Machine

A machine is a physical system using power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. The term is commonly applied to artificial devices, such as those employing engines or motors, but also to natural biological macromolecules, such as molecular machines. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, and by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, and include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. They can also include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, often called mechanical systems.

Mill (grinding)

Mill (grinding)

A mill is a device, often a structure, machine or kitchen appliance, that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting. Such comminution is an important unit operation in many processes. There are many different types of mills and many types of materials processed in them. Historically mills were powered by hand or by animals, working animal, wind (windmill) or water (watermill). In modern era, they are usually powered by electricity.

Treadwheel

Treadwheel

A treadwheel, or treadmill, is a form of engine typically powered by humans. It may resemble a water wheel in appearance, and can be worked either by a human treading paddles set into its circumference (treadmill), or by a human or animal standing inside it (treadwheel). These devices are no longer used for power or punishment, and the term "treadmill" has come to mean an exercise machine for running or walking in place.

Exercise machine

Exercise machine

An exercise machine is any machine used for physical exercise. These range from simple spring-like devices to computerized electromechanical devices to recirculating-stream swimming pools. Most exercise machines incorporate an ergometer. An ergometer is an apparatus for measuring the work a person exerts while exercising as used in training or cardiac stress tests or other medical tests.

Conveyor belt

Conveyor belt

A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys, with a closed loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.

Electric motor

Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. An electric generator is mechanically identical to an electric motor, but operates with a reversed flow of power, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Flywheel

Flywheel

A flywheel is a mechanical device which uses the conservation of angular momentum to store rotational energy; a form of kinetic energy proportional to the product of its moment of inertia and the square of its rotational speed. In particular, assuming the flywheel's moment of inertia is constant then the stored (rotational) energy is directly associated with the square of its rotational speed.

History

William Staub, a mechanical engineer, developed the first consumer treadmill for home use.[2] Staub developed his treadmill after reading the 1968 book, Aerobics by Kenneth H. Cooper. Cooper's book noted that individuals who ran for eight minutes four to five times a week would be in better physical condition. Staub noticed that there were no affordable household treadmills at the time and decided to develop one for his own use during the late 1960s.[3] He called his first treadmill the PaceMaster 600. Once finished, Staub sent his prototype treadmill to Cooper, who found the machine's first customers, including sellers of fitness equipment.

Staub began producing the first home treadmills at his plant in Clifton, New Jersey, before moving production to Little Falls, New Jersey.

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William Staub

William Staub

William Edward Staub was an American mechanical engineer who invented and developed the first consumer treadmill for home use, the PaceMaster 600, during the late 1960s. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper, who helped to popularize Staub's invention, has described Staub as "a pioneer in exercise — not for the athlete, but for the masses."

Kenneth H. Cooper

Kenneth H. Cooper

Kenneth H. Cooper is a doctor of medicine and former Air Force lieutenant colonel from Oklahoma, who pioneered the benefits of doing aerobic exercise for maintaining and improving health. In 1966 he coined the term, and his book Aerobics was published in 1968, which emphasized a point system for improving the cardiovascular system. The popular mass market version was The New Aerobics (ISBN 0-553-26874-0), published ten years later.

Clifton, New Jersey

Clifton, New Jersey

Clifton is a city in Passaic County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. Criss-crossed by several major highways, the city is a regional commercial hub for North Jersey and is a bedroom suburb of New York City in the New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2020 United States census, the city had a total population of 90,296, retaining its position as the state's 11th-most-populous municipality. For 2019, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 85,052, an increase of 1.1% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 399th-most-populous in the country.

Little Falls, New Jersey

Little Falls, New Jersey

Little Falls is a township in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. The township was named for a waterfall on the Passaic River at a dam near Beattie Mill.

Treadmills for power

Human-powered treadmill for grinding grain
Human-powered treadmill for grinding grain
Horses powering a threshing mill
Horses powering a threshing mill

Treadmills as power sources originated in antiquity.[4] These ancient machines had three major types of design.[5] The first was a horizontal bar jutting out of a vertical shaft. It rotated around a vertical axis, driven by an ox or other animal walking in a circle and pushing the bar. Humans were also used to power these. The second design was a vertical wheel, a treadwheel, that was powered by climbing in place instead of walking in circles. This is similar to what we know today as the hamster wheel. The third design also required climbing but used a sloped, moving platform instead.

Treadmills as muscle powered engines originated roughly 4000 years ago. Their primary use was to lift buckets of water. This same technology was later adapted to create rotary grain mills and the treadwheel crane. It was also used to pump water and power dough-kneading machines and bellows.

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Threshing

Threshing

Threshing, or thrashing, is the process of loosening the edible part of grain from the straw to which it is attached. It is the step in grain preparation after reaping. Threshing does not remove the bran from the grain.

Ox

Ox

An ox, also known as a bullock, is a male bovine trained and used as a draft animal. Oxen are commonly castrated adult male cattle; castration inhibits testosterone and aggression, which makes the males docile and safer to work with. Cows or bulls may also be used in some areas.

Treadwheel

Treadwheel

A treadwheel, or treadmill, is a form of engine typically powered by humans. It may resemble a water wheel in appearance, and can be worked either by a human treading paddles set into its circumference (treadmill), or by a human or animal standing inside it (treadwheel). These devices are no longer used for power or punishment, and the term "treadmill" has come to mean an exercise machine for running or walking in place.

Hamster wheel

Hamster wheel

A hamster wheel or running wheel is an exercise device used primarily by hamsters and other rodents, but also by other cursorial animals when given the opportunity. Most of these devices consist of a runged or ridged wheel held on a stand by a single or pair of stub axles. Hamster wheels allow rodents to run even when their space is confined. The earliest dated use of the term "hamster wheel", located by the Oxford English Dictionary, is in a 1949 newspaper advertisement.

Treadwheel crane

Treadwheel crane

A treadwheel crane is a wooden, human powered hoisting and lowering device. It was primarily used during the Roman period and the Middle Ages in the building of castles and cathedrals. The often heavy charge is lifted as the individual inside the treadwheel crane walks. The rope attached to a pulley is turned onto a spindle by the rotation of the wheel thus allowing the device to hoist or lower the affixed pallet.

Treadmills for punishment

Treadmill used to punish prisoners at Breakwater Prison, Cape Town
Treadmill used to punish prisoners at Breakwater Prison, Cape Town

Treadmills for punishment were introduced in 1818 by an English engineer named Sir William Cubitt, who was the son of a miller. Noting idle prisoners at Bury St Edmunds gaol, he proposed using their muscle power to both cure their idleness and produce useful work.[6]

Cubitt's treadmills for punishment usually rotated around a horizontal axis, requiring the user to step upwards, like walking up an endless staircase. Those punished walked around the outside of the wheel holding a horizontal handrail for stability. By the Prison Act of 1865 every male prisoner over 16, sentenced to hard labour, had to spend three months at least of his sentence in labour of the first class, which consisted primarily of the treadmill.[7]

Punishment treadmills remained in use until the second half of the 19th century; they were typically twenty-foot (0,6 m) long paddle wheels with twenty-four steps around a six-foot (1,82 m) cylinder. Several prisoners stood side-by-side on a wheel, and had to work six or more hours a day, effectively climbing 5,000 to 14,000 vertical feet (1500 to 4000 m). While the purpose was mainly punitive, the most infamous mill at Brixton Prison was installed in 1821 and used to grind grain to supplement an existing windmill which Cubitt had previously installed nearby. It gained notoriety for the cruelty with which it was used, which then became a popular satirical metaphor for early-19th century prisons.

The machines could also be used to pump water or power ventilators in mines.[8][9]

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Penal treadmill

Penal treadmill

A penal treadmill was a treadmill with steps set into two cast iron wheels. These drove a shaft that could be used to mill corn, pump water or connect to a large fan for resistance.

Cape Town

Cape Town

Cape Town is one of South Africa's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the Parliament of South Africa. It is the legislative capital of the country, the oldest city in the country, and the second largest. Colloquially named the Mother City, it is the largest city of the Western Cape province, and is managed by the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The other two capitals are Pretoria, the executive capital, located in Gauteng, where the Presidency is based, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital in the Free State, where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located.

William Cubitt

William Cubitt

Sir William Cubitt FRS was an eminent English civil engineer and millwright. Born in Norfolk, England, he was employed in many of the great engineering undertakings of his time. He invented a type of windmill sail and the prison treadwheel, and was employed as chief engineer, at Ransomes of Ipswich, before moving to London. He worked on canals, docks, and railways, including the South Eastern Railway and the Great Northern Railway. He was the chief engineer of Crystal Palace erected at Hyde Park in 1851.

Bury St Edmunds

Bury St Edmunds

Bury St Edmunds, commonly referred to locally as Bury, is a historic market, cathedral town and civil parish in Suffolk, England. Bury St Edmunds Abbey is near the town centre. Bury is the seat of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich of the Church of England, with the episcopal see at St Edmundsbury Cathedral.

Prison Act

Prison Act

Prison Act is a stock short title used in Malaysia and the United Kingdom for legislation relating to prisons.

Cruelty

Cruelty

Cruelty is the pleasure in inflicting suffering or inaction towards another's suffering when a clear remedy is readily available. Sadism can also be related to this form of action or concept. Cruel ways of inflicting suffering may involve violence, but affirmative violence is not necessary for an act to be cruel. For example, if a person is drowning and begging for help and another person is able to help with no cost or risk, but is merely watching with disinterest or perhaps mischievous amusement, that person is being cruel—rather than violent.

Satire

Satire

Satire is a genre of the visual, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.

Metaphor

Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two different ideas. Metaphors are often compared with other types of figurative language, such as antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy, and simile. One of the most commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature comes from the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It:

Exercise treadmills

The first US patent for a treadmill "training machine" (#1,064,968) was issued on June 17, 1913.[10]

The forerunner of the exercise treadmill was designed to diagnose heart and lung diseases, and was invented by Robert Bruce and Wayne Quinton at the University of Washington in 1952.[11] Kenneth H. Cooper's research on the benefits of aerobic exercise, published in 1968, provided a medical argument to support the commercial development of the home treadmill and exercise bike.

Treadmill test at the medical center of the Olympic village at the 1980 Summer Olympics
Treadmill test at the medical center of the Olympic village at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Among users of treadmills today are medical facilities (hospitals, rehabilitation centers, medical and physiotherapy clinics, institutes of higher education), sports clubs, biomechanics institutes, orthopedic shoe shops, running shops, Olympic training centers, universities, fire-training centers, NASA, test facilities, police forces and armies, gyms and even home users.

Treadmill ergometers are now mainly motor driven. Most treadmills have a running deck with a rotating belt. Before and after the running deck, there are two shafts. The belt is stretched between the shafts and the running deck. Safety standards for treadmills are IEC EN 957-1 and IEC EN 957-6.

For medical treadmills applicable norms, standards and guidelines include the Medical Device Directive (MDD), European Guideline 93/42 EEC, European Guideline 2007/47 EEC, IEC EN 60601-1, EN 62304, EN 14971 and the machinery directive 2006/42/EC.

Medical treadmills are class IIb active therapeutic devices and also active devices for diagnosis. With their very powerful (e.g. 3.3 kW = 4.5 HP) electric motor powered drive system, treadmills deliver mechanical energy to the human body through the moving running belt of the treadmill. The subject does not change their horizontal position and is passively moved and forced to catch up with the running belt underneath their feet. The subject can also be attached in a safety harness, unweighting system, various supports or even fixed in and moved with a robotic orthotic system utilizing the treadmill.

Medical treadmills are also active measuring devices. When connected through an interface with ECG, ergospirometry, blood pressure monitor (BPM), or EMG, they become a new medical system (e.g., stress test system or cardiopulmonary rehabilitation system) and can also be equipped to measure VO₂ max and various other vital functions.

Most treadmills have a "cardio mode", where a target heart rate is defined and the speed and elevation (load) is controlled automatically until the subject is in "heart rate steady state". So the treadmill is delivering mechanical energy to the human body based on the vital function (heart rate) of the subject.

A medical treadmill which is also used for ergometry and cardiopulmonary stress test as well as performance diagnostics is always a class IIb medical device either when used as stand-alone device in a medical environment or when used in connection with an ECG, EMG, ergospirometry, or blood pressure monitoring device.

NASA astronaut T.J. Creamer, Expedition 22 flight engineer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.
NASA astronaut T.J. Creamer, Expedition 22 flight engineer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

On the running deck the subject moves, adapting to the adjustable speed of the belt. The running deck is usually mounted on damping elements, so the running deck has shock absorbing characteristics. A lifting element raises the entire frame including the running deck, and simulating a pitch angle for uphill running. Some treadmills can also reverse the running belt to simulate downhill loads. Most treadmills for professional use in the fitness area have table sizes of about 150 cm (59 in) long and 50 cm (20 in) width, a speed range of about 0–20 km/h (0–12 mph) and slope angle of 0-20%.

For athletes, larger and more stable treadmills are necessary. With some weight relief, sprinters reach temporary speeds of up to 45 km/h (28 mph) and must therefore run on a large deck of up to 300 cm (120 in) in length and up to 100 cm (39 in) in width. With high physical exertion and an increased risk of falling, a fall stop unit is required to prevent the subject or patient from falling. This fall stop device usually takes the form of a safety arch to which a line is attached to an electrical switch. A harness bears the subject, preventing them from falling and shutting down the running belt if necessary.

In some offices, employees are provided with treadmill desks so that employees can walk while working on a computer or speaking on the phone.[12]

In treatment centers, treadmills are used with built-in seats left and right for therapists, for example, so the therapists can move the legs of a stroke patient in order to simulate walking movements and help them learn to walk again. This is called manual locomotion therapy.

Oversized treadmills are also used for cycling at speeds up to 80 km/h (50 mph), for wheelchair users and in special applications with sturdy running belts for cross-country skiing and biathlon, where athletes perform training and testing exercises with roller skis on a running deck of up to 450 cm × 300 cm (180 in × 120 in).

Advantages

  • Enable the user to adhere to an indoor exercise regime irrespective of the weather.
  • Cushioned tread can provide slightly lower impact training than running on outdoor surfaces. Although cushioned belts have mostly been phased out and cushioned replacement belts may be hard to find, many treadmills have rubber or urethane deck elastomers (cushions) which are superior in cushioning and last longer than cushioned belts. For a time, banana shaped flexible decks were available which were among the very best for cushioning and were priced at a mid-range level, but these are no longer being sold, perhaps because of the increased manufacturing cost of making flexible decks. Cushioned belts do not last as long as regular belts due to their construction from weaker materials. For calorie burning, incline can be used to significantly reduce impact for a given rate of energy use.
  • Incline setting can allow for consistent "uphill" training that is not possible when relying on natural features.
  • Rate settings force a consistent pace.
  • Some treadmills have programmes so that the user can simulate terrains, e.g. rolling hills, to provide accurate, programmed, exercise periods.
  • The user can watch TV whilst using the machine, thus preventing TV watching from being a sedentary activity.
  • User progress such as distance, calories burned, and heart rate can be tracked.
  • Running backwards "uphill" may develop many antagonistic muscles otherwise ignored when running forward.

Disadvantages

As a cardiovascular exercise:

  • Some treadmill runners develop poor running habits that become apparent when they return to outdoor running. In particular a short, upright, bouncy gait may result from having no wind resistance and trying to avoid kicking the motor covering with the front of the foot.
  • Imposes a strict pace on runners, giving an unnatural feel to running which can cause a runner to lose balance.
  • Treadmill running is not specific to any sport, i.e., there is no competitive sport that actually utilizes treadmill running. For example, a competitive runner would be far better off running outdoors through space since it is more specific and realistic to their event.
  • There are differences in temporal and angular kinematics which should be considered when treadmills are used within a rehabilitation program.[13]

As an indoor activity:

  • Many users find treadmills monotonous and lose interest after a period.[14]
  • Treadmills do not offer the psychological satisfaction some runners get from running in new locations away from the distractions of home.
  • Neighbours may complain about noise from the treadmill (thumping and vibrations),[15] particularly neighbours downstairs in an apartment

As a machine:

  • May cause personal injury if not used properly. Of particular concern are children who reach into the treadmill belt while it is running and suffer severe friction burns that in the worst case may require multiple skin grafts and result in lasting disability.[16] Injury to children can be avoided by removing the safety key when the treadmill is not in use, without which, the treadmill belt will not start.
  • Costs of purchase, electrical costs, and possible repair are significantly greater than those of running outside.
  • Takes up space in homes.

Treadmill maintenance

A treadmill can lose its speed and performance if not maintained from time to time. Starting from positioning of the treadmill to regular oil checks, a treadmill's longevity is determined by how it is maintained.

Placement

Ideally, a treadmill should be placed on a leveled floor in order to ensure the belt and motor have a proper balanced movement. In case of uneven floors, the elevation of either of the legs (rear or front legs) should be leveled out using a wood block or a brick.

Cleaning

Dirt that gets accumulated on a treadmill can also cause malfunction. Dirt on the belt or the deck is cleared by wiping the belt and the sides of the treadmill once or twice a month using a cloth or a wet sponge.

Belt maintenance

The conveyor belt is an important part that is responsible for the functioning of the treadmill. Regular maintenance for the belt includes:

  1. Lubrication
  2. Alignment
  3. Tension maintenance

Other uses

Steers on a treadmill
Steers on a treadmill

As it is basically a conveyor belt, the treadmill can be used for activities other than running. If horses are being tested (especially in jockey racing) they will be put on a specially constructed treadmill. Large treadmills can also accommodate cars. Treadmills can also be used to exercise dogs that are accustomed to running on a conveyor; however, tying the leash to the treadmill should be avoided as it can cause serious injury.

Donkey powered well hoist
Donkey powered well hoist
Military working dog, walks on an underwater treadmill to recover from an injury
Military working dog, walks on an underwater treadmill to recover from an injury

Underwater treadmill

Underwater treadmills are a type of treadmill encased in glass or plastic and filled with water to a point where the occupant is partially submerged. They are used for both humans and animals, often for physical therapy.[17]

Dog/pet and underwater pet treatment treadmills are available for both home and clinical use. A variety of makes and models are available, but key features of treadmills designed for pet use include a longer running surface, open front and back entries and side rails to prevent the pet from falling off the treadmill. None are designed to be used without human supervision. Many veterinary and animal rehabilitation clinics also offer underwater treadmill therapy as part of their services provided to clients' pets.

Omnidirectional treadmill

Advanced applications are so called omnidirectional treadmills. They are designed to move in two dimensions and are intended as the base for a "holodeck". Several solutions have been proposed, but research continues as some issues remain unsolved, such as large size, noise and vibration. Parallel developments are being conducted by researchers working on projects sponsored by the US Department of Veterans Affairs to create virtual reality environments for a wheelchair trainer in order to promote therapeutic exercise.[18]

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Robert A. Bruce

Robert A. Bruce

Robert Arthur Bruce was an American cardiologist and a professor at the University of Washington. He was known as the "father of exercise cardiology" for his research and development of the Bruce Protocol.

Wayne Quinton

Wayne Quinton

Wayne Everett Quinton was a developer of over 30 biomedical devices, including the Quinton catheter. He also invented a lightweight treadmill, for cardiac stress testing - the prototype of those used in fitness centers.

Kenneth H. Cooper

Kenneth H. Cooper

Kenneth H. Cooper is a doctor of medicine and former Air Force lieutenant colonel from Oklahoma, who pioneered the benefits of doing aerobic exercise for maintaining and improving health. In 1966 he coined the term, and his book Aerobics was published in 1968, which emphasized a point system for improving the cardiovascular system. The popular mass market version was The New Aerobics (ISBN 0-553-26874-0), published ten years later.

1980 Summer Olympics

1980 Summer Olympics

The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad and commonly known as Moscow 1980, were an international multi-sport event held from 19 July to 3 August 1980 in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The games were the first to be staged in an Eastern Bloc country, as well as the first Olympic Games and only Summer Olympics to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country. They were also the only Summer Olympic Games to be held in a self-proclaimed communist country until the 2008 Summer Olympics held in China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin before he was succeeded by Juan Antonio Samaranch, a Spaniard, shortly afterwards. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games, the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States, 66 countries boycotted the games entirely, because of the Soviet–Afghan War. Several alternative events were held outside of the Soviet Union. Some athletes from some of the boycotting countries participated in the games under the Olympic Flag. The Soviet Union later boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. The Soviet Union won the most gold and overall medals, and together with East Germany more than half of the available gold and overall medals.

Spirometry

Spirometry

Spirometry is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). It measures lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. Spirometry is helpful in assessing breathing patterns that identify conditions such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and COPD. It is also helpful as part of a system of health surveillance, in which breathing patterns are measured over time.

Electromyography

Electromyography

Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electric potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect abnormalities, activation level, or recruitment order, or to analyze the biomechanics of human or animal movement. Needle EMG is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique commonly used by neurologists. Surface EMG is a non-medical procedure used to assess muscle activation by several professionals, including physiotherapists, kinesiologists and biomedical engineers. In Computer Science, EMG is also used as middleware in gesture recognition towards allowing the input of physical action to a computer as a form of human-computer interaction.

Expedition 22

Expedition 22

Expedition 22 was the 22nd long duration crew flight to the International Space Station (ISS). This expedition began on December 1, 2009 when the Expedition 21 crew departed. For a period of 3 weeks, there were only 2 crew members; it was the first time that had happened since STS-114. Commander Jeff Williams and flight engineer Maksim Surayev were joined by the rest of their crew on 22 December 2009, making the Expedition 22 a crew of five.

Treadmill desk

Treadmill desk

A treadmill desk, walking desk or treadmill workstation is a computer desk that is adapted so that the user walks on a treadmill while performing office tasks. Persons using a treadmill desk seek to change the sedentary lifestyle associated with being an office worker and to integrate gentle exercise into their working day.

Conveyor belt

Conveyor belt

A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor system consists of two or more pulleys, with a closed loop of carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.

Horse

Horse

The horse is a domesticated, one-toed, hoofed mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BCE, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BCE. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.

Omnidirectional treadmill

Omnidirectional treadmill

An omnidirectional treadmill (ODT) is a mechanical device, similar to a typical treadmill, that allows a person to perform locomotive motion in any direction, allowing for 360 degrees of movement. The ability to move in any direction is how these treadmills differ from their basic counterparts.

Holodeck

Holodeck

The Holodeck is a fictional device from the television franchise Star Trek which uses "holograms" to create a realistic 3D simulation of a real or imaginary setting, in which participants can freely interact with the environment as well as objects and characters, and sometimes a predefined narrative.

Source: "Treadmill", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treadmill.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "Top Treadmill Manufacturers in the USA". www.thomasnet.com. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  2. ^ Douglas-Walton, Josh. "The History of the Treadmill". Health and Fitness Education. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  3. ^ Yardley, William (2012-07-28). "William Staub, Engineer Who Built an Affordable Treadmill, Dies at 96". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  4. ^ Major, Kenneth (1980). "The Pre-Industrial Sources of Power: Muscle Power". History Today. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  5. ^ "Histories and Precedents". University of Illinois at Chicago. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  6. ^ Cassie Arnold. "The Treadmill's Prison Origins". Mental Floss, Inc (USA). Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  7. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tread-mill". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 223.
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