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Tierra del Fuego

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Tierra del Fuego archipelago
NASA Tierra del Fuego image.jpg
Tierra del Fuego archipelago
at the tip of South America
Tierra del Fuego archipelago is located in Southern Patagonia
Tierra del Fuego archipelago
Tierra del Fuego archipelago
Political map of Tierra del Fuego
and mainland South America
Geography
LocationPacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean
Major islandsTierra del Fuego, Hoste, Navarino, Gordon, Wollastone, Noir, Staten, Hermite, Santa Inés, Clarence, Dawson, Capitán Aracena, Londonderry, Picton, Lennox, Nueva, Diego Ramírez, O'Brien, and Desolación Islands among many others
Highest pointMonte Shipton [es]
Administration
Region Magallanes y Antártica Chilena
ProvincesTierra del Fuego Province and Antártica Chilena
CommunesCabo de Hornos, Antártica, Porvenir, Primavera, Timaukel
ProvinceTierra del Fuego Province, Argentina Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands
Demographics
Population>135,000 (2010)
Ethnic groupsArgentines, Chileans, Selknams, Kawésqar, Yaghans

Tierra del Fuego (/tiˈɛərə dɛl ˈfwɡ/, Spanish: [ˈtjera ðel ˈfweɣo]; Spanish for "Land of the Fire", rarely also Fireland in English) is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the latter controlling the eastern half of the main island and the former the western half plus the islands south of Beagle Channel and the southernmost islands. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is just north of latitude 56°S.

The earliest known human settlement in Tierra del Fuego dates to approximately 8,000 BC.[1] Europeans first explored the islands during Ferdinand Magellan's expedition of 1520. Tierra del Fuego and similar namings stem from sightings of the many bonfires that the natives built.

Settlement by those of European descent and the displacement of the native populations did not begin until the second half of the nineteenth century, at the height of the Patagonian sheep farming boom and of the local gold rush.[2] Today, petroleum extraction dominates economic activity in the north of Tierra del Fuego, while tourism, manufacturing, and Antarctic logistics are important in the south.

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Archipelago

Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster, or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

South America

South America

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere at the northern tip of the continent. It can also be described as the southern subregion of a single continent called America.

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego also formerly Isla de Xátiva is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. The western portion (61.4%) of the island is in Chile, while the eastern portion is in Argentina. It forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago also known as Tierra del Fuego.

Cape Horn

Cape Horn

Cape Horn is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island. Although not the most southerly point of South America, Cape Horn marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage and marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet.

Diego Ramírez Islands

Diego Ramírez Islands

The Diego Ramírez Islands are a small group of subantarctic islands located in the southernmost extreme of Chile.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Beagle Channel

Beagle Channel

Beagle Channel is a strait in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago, on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina. The channel separates the larger main island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego from various smaller islands including the islands of Picton, Lennox and Nueva; Navarino; Hoste; Londonderry; and Stewart. The channel's eastern area forms part of the border between Chile and Argentina and the western area is entirely within Chile.

Latitude

Latitude

In geography, latitude is a coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the surface of the Earth or another celestial body. Latitude is given as an angle that ranges from –90° at the south pole to 90° at the north pole, with 0° at the Equator. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude and longitude are used together as a coordinate pair to specify a location on the surface of the Earth.

56th parallel south

56th parallel south

The 56th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. No land lies on the parallel — it crosses nothing but ocean.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He is best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage bearing thereafter his name and achieved the first European navigation from the Atlantic to Asia.

Patagonian sheep farming boom

Patagonian sheep farming boom

In late 19th and early 20th centuries, sheep farming expanded across the Patagonian grasslands making the southern regions of Argentina and Chile one of the world's foremost sheep farming areas. The sheep farming boom attracted thousands of immigrants from Chiloé and Europe to southern Patagonia. Early sheep farming in Patagonia was oriented towards wool production but changed over time with the development of industrial refrigerators towards meat export. Besides altering the demographic and economic outlook of Southern Patagonia the sheep farming boom also changed the steppe ecosystem.

History

Prehistory

Selk'nam hunters
Selk'nam hunters

The earliest human settlement occurred approximately 8,000 BC. The Yaghan were some of the earliest known humans to settle in Tierra del Fuego. Archeological sites with characteristics of their culture have been found at locations such as Navarino Island.[3]

European exploration

World map from 1572, when the area was believed to be part of what was called Terra Australis
World map from 1572, when the area was believed to be part of what was called Terra Australis

The name Tierra del Fuego was given by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan while sailing for the Spanish Crown in 1520; he was the first European to visit these lands. He believed he was seeing the many fires (fuego in Spanish) of the Yaghan, which were visible from the sea, and that the "Indians" were waiting in the forests to ambush his armada.[4]

In 1525, Francisco de Hoces was the first to speculate that Tierra del Fuego was one or more islands rather than part of what was then called Terra Australis. Francis Drake in 1578 and a Dutch East India Company expedition in 1616 learned more about the geography. The latter expedition named Cape Horn at Hornos Island.

On his first voyage with HMS Beagle in 1830, Robert FitzRoy picked up four native Fuegians, including "Jemmy Button" (Orundellico) and brought them to England. The three who survived the voyage were taken to London to meet the king and queen and were, for a time, celebrities. They returned to Tierra del Fuego in the Beagle with FitzRoy and Charles Darwin, who made extensive notes about his visit to the islands.

European colonization and extinction of Native Americans (1860–1910)

During the second half of the nineteenth century, the archipelago began to come under Chilean and Argentine influence. Both countries sought to claim the whole archipelago based on de jure Spanish colonial titles. Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island.

Anglican missionaries, who had established missions on Keppel Island in 1855, established new missions in 1870 at Ushuaia. These missions continued to operate through the nineteenth century. Missionary Thomas Bridges (1842–1898) learned the native language and compiled a 30,000-word Yaghan grammar and dictionary while he worked at Ushuaia.[5] It was published in the 20th century and considered an important ethnological work.[5]

An 1879 Chilean expedition led by Ramón Serrano Montaner reported large amounts of placer gold in the streams and river beds of Tierra del Fuego. This prompted massive immigration to the main island between 1883 and 1909. Numerous Argentines, Chileans, and Croatians settled on the main island, leading to increased conflicts with native Selk'nam.

Julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region. Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, Popper has been identified as a central figure in the Selk'nam genocide.

Following contact with Europeans, the native Selk'nam and Yaghan populations were greatly reduced by unequal conflict and persecution by settlers, by infectious diseases to which the indigenous people had no immunity, and by mass transfer to the Salesian mission of Dawson Island. Despite the efforts of the missionaries, many natives died. Today, only a few Selk'nam remain. Some of the few remaining Yaghan have settled in Villa Ukika in Navarino Island; others have scattered throughout Chile and Argentina.

Following the signing of the Boundary Treaty of 1881, Tierra del Fuego was divided between Argentina and Chile; previously, it had been claimed in its entirety by both countries.

The gold rushes of the late nineteenth century led to the founding of numerous small settlements by immigrants such as the Argentine settlements of Ushuaia and Río Grande and the Chilean settlements of Porvenir and Puerto Toro.

Recent history (1940–present)

In 1945 a division of Chilean CORFO (Spanish acronym for Production Development Corporation) engaged in oil exploration made a breakthrough discovery of oil in northern Tierra del Fuego. Extraction began in 1949, and in 1950, the state of Chile created ENAP (National Petroleum Company) to deal with oil extraction and prospecting. Until 1960, most oil extracted in Chile came from Tierra del Fuego.[6]

During the 1940s Chile and Argentina formulated their Antarctic claims. The governments realized the key role of Tierra del Fuego's geographical proximity in backing their claims, as well as, in supplying their Antarctic bases. In the 1950s, the Chilean military founded Puerto Williams to counter Ushuaia's monopoly as the only settlement in the Beagle Channel, a zone where Argentina disputed the 1881 borders.

In the 1960s and 1970s, sovereignty claims by Argentina over Picton, Lennox, and Nueva Islands in Tierra del Fuego led the two countries to the brink of war in December 1978. In response to the threat of an Argentine invasion, minefields were deployed and bunkers built on the Chilean side in some areas of Tierra del Fuego. The threat of war caused the Chilean Pinochet regime to give logistical support and information to the British during the Falklands War of 1982. Chilean radar supplied the British with information on Argentine jet movements in Tierra del Fuego, from where the Argentine Air Force launched raids on targets in the Falklands.

In 1986, the Argentine congress decided that the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego should be a new province; the law was not promulgated until 26 April 1990.[7]

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Fuegians

Fuegians

Fuegians are the indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America. In English, the term originally referred to the Yaghan people of Tierra del Fuego. In Spanish, the term fueguino can refer to any person from the archipelago.

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He is best known for having planned and led the 1519 Spanish expedition to the East Indies across the Pacific Ocean to open a maritime trade route, during which he discovered the interoceanic passage bearing thereafter his name and achieved the first European navigation from the Atlantic to Asia.

Monarchy of Spain

Monarchy of Spain

The monarchy of Spain or Spanish monarchy, constitutionally referred to as The Crown, is a constitutional institution and the highest office of Spain. The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch, his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish monarchy is currently represented by King Felipe VI, Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, and Infanta Sofía.

Naval fleet

Naval fleet

A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships – the largest formation in any navy – controlled by one leader. A fleet at sea is the direct equivalent of an army on land.

Francisco de Hoces

Francisco de Hoces

Francisco de Hoces was a Spanish sailor who in 1525 joined the Loaísa Expedition to the Spice Islands as commander of the vessel San Lesmes.

Francis Drake

Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake was an English explorer, sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer, and politician. Drake is best known for his circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580. This included his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, until then an area of exclusive Spanish interest, and his claim to New Albion for England, an area in what is now the U.S. state of California. His expedition inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an area that had previously been largely unexplored by Western shipping.

Dutch East India Company

Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company was a chartered company established on the 20th March 1602 by the States General of the Netherlands amalgamating existing companies into the first joint-stock company in the world, granting it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia. Shares in the company could be bought by any resident of the United Provinces and then subsequently bought and sold in open-air secondary markets. It is sometimes considered to have been the first multinational corporation. It was a powerful company, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies. They are also known for their international slave trade.

Cape Horn

Cape Horn

Cape Horn is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island. Although not the most southerly point of South America, Cape Horn marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage and marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet.

Hornos Island

Hornos Island

Hornos Island is a Chilean island at the southern tip of South America. The island is mostly known for being the location of Cape Horn. It is generally considered South America's southernmost island, but the Diego Ramírez Islands are farther south. The island is one of the Hermite Islands, part of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago.

HMS Beagle

HMS Beagle

HMS Beagle was a Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. The vessel, constructed at a cost of £7,803, was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. Later reports say the ship took part in celebrations of the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom, passing through the old London Bridge, and was the first rigged man-of-war afloat upriver of the bridge. There was no immediate need for Beagle so she "lay in ordinary", moored afloat but without masts or rigging. She was then adapted as a survey barque and took part in three survey expeditions.

Jemmy Button

Jemmy Button

Orundellico, known as "Jeremy Button" or "Jemmy Button", was a member of the Yaghan people from islands around Tierra del Fuego, in modern Chile and Argentina. He was taken to England by Captain FitzRoy in HMS Beagle and became a celebrity there for a period.

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist, and biologist, widely known for contributing to the understanding of evolutionary biology. His proposition that all species of life have descended from a common ancestor is now generally accepted and considered a fundamental concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Geography

Nothofagus, Puerto Harberton
Nothofagus, Puerto Harberton

The archipelago consists of a main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, often simply called Tierra del Fuego or Isla Grande, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of smaller islands. Of the main island the westernmost 29,484.7 km2 (11,384 sq mi, 61.43%) belongs to Chile, and 18,507.3 km2 (7,146 sq mi, 38.57%) belongs to Argentina. The archipelago is divided by an east–west channel, the Beagle Channel, immediately south of the main island. The largest islands south of the Beagle Channel are Hoste and Navarino.

The western part of the main island, and almost all the other islands, belong to Chile. They are part of the Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region, the capital and chief town of which is Punta Arenas, situated on the mainland across the strait. The largest Chilean towns are Porvenir, capital of the Chilean Province of Tierra del Fuego, located on the main island, and, on Navarino Island, Puerto Williams, which is the capital of the Antártica Chilena Province.

Puerto Toro lies a few kilometers south of Puerto Williams. Arguably, it is the southernmost village in the world. The mostly uninhabited islands north and west of the main island are part of Magallanes Province.

The eastern part of the main island and a few small islands in the Beagle Channel belong to Argentina. They are part of the Tierra del Fuego, Antarctic Territory and South Atlantic Islands Province, whose capital is Ushuaia, the largest city of the archipelago. The other important city in the region is Río Grande on the Atlantic coast.

The Cordillera Darwin in the southwestern part of the main island contains many glaciers that reach the ocean. While Mount Darwin had previously been thought to be the tallest mountain in the archipelago, this distinction now belongs to the unofficially named Monte Shipton at 2,580 metres (8,460 feet).[8]

The topography of Tierra del Fuego can be divided into four regions: an outer archipelago region (Spanish: Región Archipielágica) to the south and west, a mountainous region in the south (Spanish: Región Cordillerana),[9] a plains region (Spanish: Región de las Planicies Orientales)[10] plus a sub-Andean zone in-between the last two zones (Spanish: Región Sub-Andina Oriental).[11]

Geology

The geology of the archipelago is characterized by the effects of the Andean orogeny and the repeated Pleistocene glaciations. The geology of the island can be divided into large east–west-oriented units. The southwestern islands of the archipelago, including Cape Horn, are part of the South Patagonian Batholith, while Cordillera Darwin and the area around Beagle Channel form the principal cordillera hosting the highest mountains. The Magallanes fold and thrust belt extends north of Almirantazgo Fjord and Fagnano Lake, and north of this lies the Magallanes foreland, an old sedimentary basin that hosts hydrocarbon reserves.[12] Orthogneiss dated at 525 million years is known to underlie some of the oil wells in northern Tierra del Fuego.[13]

The Magallanes–Fagnano Fault, a sinistral strike slip fault crosses the southern part of the main island from west to east. It is an active fault, located inside and parallel to the Fuegian fold and thrust belt, and marks the boundary between a southern belt of Paleozoic meta sediments and a northern Mesozoic belt of sedimentary sequences. Fagnano Lake occupies a glacier-carved depression in a pull-apart basin that has developed along the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault zone.[14]

Podzols and inceptisols occur beneath Nothofagus betuloides forests in Tierra del Fuego.[15]

Climate

Valley near the Beagle Channel
Valley near the Beagle Channel

The Tierra del Fuego region has a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfc) with short, cool summers and long, wet, moderately mild winters: the precipitation averages 3,000 mm (118 in) a year in the far west, but precipitation decreases rapidly to the eastern side. Temperatures are steady throughout the year: in Ushuaia they hardly surpass 9 °C (48 °F) in summers and average 0 °C (32 °F) in winters. Snowfall can occur in summer. The cold and wet summers help preserve the ancient glaciers. The southernmost islands possess a sub-antarctic climate typical of tundra that makes the growth of trees impossible. Some areas in the interior have a polar climate. Regions in the world with similar climates to southern Tierra del Fuego are: the Aleutian islands, Iceland, the Alaska Peninsula, the Faroe Islands, Macquarie Island, and the Heard and McDonald Islands.

Flora

Only 30% of the islands have forests, which are classified as Magellanic subpolar. The northeastern portion of the region is made up of steppe and cool semi-desert.

Six species of tree are found in Tierra del Fuego: canelo or winter's bark (Drimys winteri), Maytenus magellanica, Pilgerodendron uviferum, the southernmost conifer in the world, and three kinds of southern beech: Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus pumilio, and the evergreen Nothofagus betuloides. Several kinds of fruit grow in open spaces in these forests, such as beach strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. chiloensis forma chiloensis) and calafate (Berberis buxifolia), which have long been gathered by both Native Americans and residents of European descent.[16] They are the only forests in the world to have developed in a climate with such cold summers. Tree cover extends very close to the southernmost tip of South America. Winds are so strong that trees in wind-exposed areas grow into twisted shapes, inspiring people to call them "flag-trees". Tree vegetation extends to the southern tip of the region, Isla Hornos, although the Wollaston Islands are mostly covered by subantarctic tundra except in wind sheltered areas where the trees can survive.

Forests from Tierra del Fuego have expanded beyond local importance. These forests have been a source of trees that have been transplanted abroad in places with practically the same climate, but which originally, were devoid of trees, such as the Faroe Islands and nearby archipelagos. Most species were gathered from the coldest places in Tierra del Fuego, mainly sites with tundra borders. This effort resulted in positive changes, as the heavy winds and cool summers in the Faroe Islands did not allow the growth of trees from other regions in the world. The imported trees are used ornamentally, as curtains against wind, and for fighting erosion caused by storms and grazing in the Faroe Islands.[17]

Fauna

Sea lions at Isla de los Lobos in the Beagle Channel, near Ushuaia
Sea lions at Isla de los Lobos in the Beagle Channel, near Ushuaia

Among the most notable animals in the archipelago are austral parakeets, gulls, guanacos,[18] foxes, kingfishers, condors, king penguins, owls, and firecrown hummingbirds.[19]

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is home to the southernmost known lizard in the World, the Liolaemus magellanicus.[20]

North American beavers, introduced during the 1940s, have proliferated and caused considerable damage to the island forests. The governments have established a wide-reaching program to trap and kill beavers in Tierra del Fuego.[21]

Like the mainland of Chile and Argentina to the north, this archipelago boasts some of the finest trout fishing in the world. Sea-run brown trout often exceed 9 kg (20 lb), particularly in rivers such as the Rio Grande and the San Pablo, and in the Lago Fagnano. Much of this water is privately owned, with catch and release and fly fishing only.

Waters adjacent to Tierra del Fuego are very rich in cetacean diversity.[22] Sightings of southern right whales in Tierra del Fuego have increased in the 2000s,[23] [24] humpbacks,[25][26] and some others such as blue whales,[27] southern fins, southern seis,[28] and southern minkes.[29][30] Beagle Channel is a prominent area to watch rare, endemic dolphins,[31] and the less-studied pygmy right whales.

Pinnipeds inhabiting the areas include South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens),[32][33] South American fur seals (Arctophoca australis),[34][35] the carnivorous and seal-eating leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx),[36] and gigantic southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonine).[37][38]

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Alberto de Agostini National Park

Alberto de Agostini National Park

Alberto de Agostini National Park is a protected area that was created on January 22, 1965, on land that was formerly part of the "Hollanda" forest reserve and "Hernando de Magallanes National Park". It covers 1,460,000 hectares and includes the Cordillera Darwin mountain range, which is the final land-based stretch of the Andes before it becomes a chain of mountains appearing as small islands that sink into the Pacific Ocean and the Beagle Channel.

Estancia Harberton

Estancia Harberton

Estancia Harberton was established in 1886, when the missionary pioneer Thomas Bridges (1842-1898) resigned from the Anglican mission at Ushuaia. The estancia was named for Harberton, the home of his wife, Mary Ann Varder (1842-1922), in Devon, England. Bridges was the author of a dictionary of the Yamana or Yaghan language, and their son Lucas Bridges (1874-1949) would write The Uttermost Part of the Earth about his boyhood, the Yamana, and the family's adventures in getting the dictionary published in Europe.

Archipelago

Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster, or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego also formerly Isla de Xátiva is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. The western portion (61.4%) of the island is in Chile, while the eastern portion is in Argentina. It forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago also known as Tierra del Fuego.

Beagle Channel

Beagle Channel

Beagle Channel is a strait in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago, on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina. The channel separates the larger main island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego from various smaller islands including the islands of Picton, Lennox and Nueva; Navarino; Hoste; Londonderry; and Stewart. The channel's eastern area forms part of the border between Chile and Argentina and the western area is entirely within Chile.

Hoste Island

Hoste Island

Hoste Island is one of the southernmost islands in Chile, lying south, across the Beagle Channel, from Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and west of Navarino Island, from which it is separated by the Murray Channel. Hoste Island has the southernmost trees on earth, Nothofagus antarctica. In Magellania, Jules Verne described an imaginary republic on the island.

Navarino Island

Navarino Island

Navarino Island is a Chilean island located between Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, to the north, and Cape Horn, to the south. The island forms part of the Commune of Cabo de Hornos, the southernmost commune in Chile and in the world, belonging to Antártica Chilena Province in the XII Region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica. Its population is concentrated primarily in the communal capital, Puerto Williams, and in small settlements like Puerto Navarino, Río Guanaco and Puerto Toro. The highest point of the island is Pico Navarino at 1,195 m (3,921 ft). The island is a popular destination for fly-fishers.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Porvenir, Chile

Porvenir, Chile

Porvenir is the capital of both the homonymous commune and the Chilean Province of Tierra del Fuego of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region. It is one of Chile's southernmost towns, and has 4,734 inhabitants, including several thousand soldiers. It is the largest settlement in the Chilean half of the island of Tierra del Fuego.

Antártica Chilena Province

Antártica Chilena Province

Antártica Chilena Province is the southernmost and one of four provinces in Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region (XII). The capital is Puerto Williams. The province comprises the extreme southern part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the islands south and west of Isla Grande, and Chile's claims in Antarctica. The province is administratively divided into two communes (comunas): Cabo de Hornos, located at the southern tip of South America, and Antártica, a wedge-shaped claim of Antarctica, which is not internationally recognized. Its total area of 1,265,853.7 km2 (488,749 sq mi) makes it almost twice as large as all other provinces of Chile combined.

Puerto Toro

Puerto Toro

Puerto Toro is a hamlet on the eastern coast of Navarino Island, Chile. Puerto Toro was founded in 1892 during the Tierra del Fuego Gold Rush by Governor of Punta Arenas Señoret.

Magallanes Province

Magallanes Province

Magallanes Province is one of four provinces in the southern Chilean region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena. The provincial capital is the city of Punta Arenas.

Economy

Today, the main economic activities of the archipelago are fishing, extraction of natural gas and oil, sheep farming, and ecotourism. Tourism is gaining in importance and becoming increasingly important as it attracts numerous upmarket visitors. Much of the tourism is based on "southernmost" claims: for example, both Ushuaia and Puerto Williams claim to be the "southernmost city in the world". On the Argentine side of Tierra del Fuego, the government has promoted the establishment of several electronic companies via tributary exemptions, particularly in the city of Río Grande.

Energy production is a crucial economic activity. On the Argentine side of Tierra del Fuego during the 2005 to 2010 period, petroleum and natural gas extraction contributed to 20% of the region's economic output.[39]

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Petroleum

Petroleum

Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that consist of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure.

Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Sheep, goats, pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture.

Ecotourism

Ecotourism

Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being of the local people. Its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Since the 1980s, ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention. Ecotourism may focus on educating travelers on local environments and natural surroundings with an eye to ecological conservation. Some include in the definition of ecotourism the effort to produce economic opportunities that make conservation of natural resources financially possible.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia

Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. With a population of nearly 75,000 and a location below the 54th parallel south latitude, Ushuaia claims the title of world's southernmost city. A much smaller municipality of less than 3,000 people, Puerto Williams in Chile, is nearer to the 55th parallel south, at a latitude of 54°56' S compared to Ushuaia at 54°48' S.

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams is the city, port and naval base on Navarino Island in Chile. It faces the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city. The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named after John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel has decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.

Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

Río Grande is a city in Argentina, on the north coast of the eastern part of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. It has a population of 67,038, and is the industrial capital of the Tierra del Fuego Province. It is located 212 kilometres (132 mi) north-east of Ushuaia, the capital of the province.

Tierra del Fuego in the Fine Arts

  • Alexander Buchan participated in the 1768–1771 first voyage of James Cook aboard HMS Endeavour, where he was one of the artists in the entourage of botanist Joseph Banks. Endeavour lay at anchor in the Bay of Good Success on 15 January 1769. An expedition in Terra Fuego in which he took part started from here.
  • As a ship painter, Conrad Martens drew and created watercolor paintings in 1833 and 1834 during the second voyage of HMS Beagle in Tierra del Fuego.[40][41]
  • The French painter and lithographer Évremond de Bérard illustrated the travel journal "Le Tour du Monde" with Tierra del Fuego motifs in 1861.
  • Rockwell Kent painted "more than twenty large pictures of Tierra del Fuego" during his stay in Tierra del Fuego in 1922 and 1923, as he reported in his autobiography It's Me O Lord: The Autobiography of Rockwell Kent.
  • The German painter Ingo Kühl traveled to Tierra del Fuego three times, where he created paintings in a cycle entitled, Landscapes of the End of the World (2005)[42]

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Alexander Buchan (artist)

Alexander Buchan (artist)

Alexander Buchan was a Scottish landscape artist. He is known for his participation in the 1768–1771 first voyage of James Cook aboard HMS Endeavour, where he was one of the artists in the entourage of botanist Joseph Banks. Buchan suffered from epilepsy. On the journey, he had two documented seizures, the first during an expedition in Tierra del Fuego. Buchan died after the second seizure, shortly after Endeavour's arrival at Tahiti, and was buried at sea. Buchan produced landscapes, coastal views, ethnographic drawings and natural history drawings. He is best known for illustrations of the people of Tierra del Fuego, some of which were engraved for publication in accounts of the voyage. All of his drawings from the voyage were taken by his employer Joseph Banks and are now in the British Library and the Natural History Museum, London.

First voyage of James Cook

First voyage of James Cook

The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which James Cook was the commander. The aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, and to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "undiscovered southern land".

HMS Endeavour

HMS Endeavour

HMS Endeavour was a British Royal Navy research vessel that Lieutenant James Cook commanded to Australia and New Zealand on his first voyage of discovery from 1768 to 1771.

Joseph Banks

Joseph Banks

Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, was an English naturalist, botanist, and patron of the natural sciences.

Bahia Buen Suceso

Bahia Buen Suceso

Bahía Buen Suceso is a small bay in Argentina's Tierra del Fuego province. It is known in English as Bay of Good Success, Bay of Success and Success Bay. It is located on the western shore of Le Maire Strait, which separates Tierra del Fuego and Isla de los Estados.

Conrad Martens

Conrad Martens

Conrad Martens was an English-born landscape painter active on HMS Beagle from 1833 to 1834. He arrived in Australia in 1835 and painted there until his death in 1878.

Second voyage of HMS Beagle

Second voyage of HMS Beagle

The second voyage of HMS Beagle, from 27 December 1831 to 2 October 1836, was the second survey expedition of HMS Beagle, under captain Robert FitzRoy who had taken over command of the ship on its first voyage after the previous captain, Pringle Stokes, committed suicide. FitzRoy had thought of the advantages of having someone onboard who could investigate geology, and sought a naturalist to accompany them as a supernumerary. At the age of 22, the graduate Charles Darwin hoped to see the tropics before becoming a parson and accepted the opportunity. He was greatly influenced by reading Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology during the voyage. By the end of the expedition, Darwin had made his name as a geologist and fossil collector and the publication of his journal gave him wide renown as a writer.

Évremond de Bérard

Évremond de Bérard

Évremond de Bérard was a French painter and lithographer. He spent much of his life travelling, and was present at the opening of the Suez Canal.

Le Tour du Monde

Le Tour du Monde

Le Tour du monde, nouveau journal des voyages was a French weekly travel journal first published in January 1860. It also bore the name of Le Tour du monde, journal des voyages et des voyageurs (1895–1914).

Rockwell Kent

Rockwell Kent

Rockwell Kent was an American painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer, sailor, adventurer and voyager.

Ingo Kühl

Ingo Kühl

Ingo Kühl is a German painter, sculptor and architect.

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena. The city was officially renamed as Magallanes in 1927, but in 1938 it was changed back to "Punta Arenas". It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south, and at the same time the most populous southernmost city in Chile and in the Americas, and due to its location, the coldest coastal city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Latin America. It is one of the most southerly ports in the world, serving as an Antarctic gateway city.

Source: "Tierra del Fuego", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tierra_del_Fuego.

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Notes
  1. ^ Morello, Flavia; Borrero, Luis; Massone, Mauricio; Stern, Charles; García-Herbst, Arleen; McCulloch, Robert; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Calás, Elisa; Torres, Jimena; Prieto, Alfredo; Martinez, Ismael; Bahamonde, Gabriel; Cárdenas, Pedro (1 March 2012). "Hunter-gatherers, biogeographic barriers and the development of human settlement in Tierra del Fuego". Antiquity. 86 (331): 71–87. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00062463. hdl:1893/3664. S2CID 161882222.
  2. ^ Iparraguirre, Sylvia. Tierra del fuego: a biography of the end of the world. p. 146.
  3. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (4 April 2008). "Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens". Megalithic Portal. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  4. ^ Bergreen, Laurence (2003). Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. HarperCollins. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-06-186588-6.
  5. ^ a b "Cook Tried to Steal Parson's Life Work" (PDF). The New York Times. 21 May 1910. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  6. ^ Martinić, Mateo (1982), La Tierra de los Fuegos (in Spanish), Punta Arenas, Chile: Municipalidad de Porvenir, pp. 164–171
  7. ^ "Historia de Tierra del Fuego" (in Spanish). Tierradelfuego.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  8. ^ John Shipton (2004). "Monte Shipton or Monte Darwin?" (PDF). Alpine Journal. London: Alpine Club: 132–142. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  9. ^ Pisano (1977), p. 124
  10. ^ Pisano (1977), p. 128
  11. ^ Pisano (1977), p. 125
  12. ^ Menichetti, M.; Lodolo, E.; Tassone, A. (March 2008). "Structural geology of the Fuegian Andes and Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt – Tierra del Fuego Island". Geologica Acta. 6 (1). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  13. ^ Hervé, Francisco; Miller, Hubert; Pimpirev Christo. 2003. Patagonia – Antarctica Connections before Gondwana Break-Up in Antarctica Contributions to Global Earth Sciences. Chapter 5.1
  14. ^ Lodolo, Emanuele; Menichetti, Marco; Bartole, Roberto; Ben‐Avraham, Zvi; Tassone, Alejandro; Lippai, Horacio (2003). "Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America)". Tectonics. 22 (6): 1076. Bibcode:2003Tecto..22.1076L. doi:10.1029/2003TC001500.
  15. ^ Gerding, Victor; Thiers, Oscar (2002), "Characterization of soils of Nothofagus betuloides (Mirb) Blume forests, in Tierra del Fuego, Chile", Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (in Spanish), 75 (4): 819–833, doi:10.4067/S0716-078X2002000400015
  16. ^ Martínez Crovetto, Raúl. 1968. Estudios Etnobotánicos. Nombres de plantas y su utilidad según los indios Onas de Tierra del Fuego, Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria de la Universidad del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina
  17. ^ Højgaard, A., J. Jóhansen, and S. Ødum (eds) 1989. A Century of Tree Planting in the Faroe Islands, Føroya Frodskaparfelag, Tórshavn.
  18. ^ "Lama guanicoe". 3 February 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T11186A18540211.en. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ "Sephanoides sephaniodes". 1 October 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22687857A93172170.en. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ Jaksic, Fabian M. (2022). "Historical account and current ecological knowledge of the southernmost lizard in the world, Liolaemus magellanicus (Squamata: Liolaemidae)". Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 95 (7). doi:10.1186/s40693-022-00112-y.
  21. ^ Strieker, Gary (9 July 1999). "Argentina eager to rid island of beavers". Cable News Network. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  22. ^ Schiavini, Adrian. "ARGENTINA. PROGRESS REPORT ON CETACEAN RESEARCH, JUNE 2000 TO JUNE 2001". Archived from the original on 10 July 2019.
  23. ^ "Hoy en Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego (ballena)". 18 April 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  24. ^ Goodall, R. Natalie P.; Benegas, G. L.; Dellabianca, N.; Riccialdelli, L.; Pimper, E. L. (17 January 2014). "The Presence of Southern Right Whales off Eastern Tierra del Fuego, 1987–2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  25. ^ "Whale Watching in the Southern Cone – Argentina". Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  26. ^ "Whale Watching in the Southern Cone – Gallery". Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  27. ^ "Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) on Tierra del Fuego Check List". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016.
  28. ^ "Minke Whale (Sei Whale?)". 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016 – via Flickr.
  29. ^ "Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) on Tierra del Fuego Check List". Archived from the original on 4 January 2018.
  30. ^ "Record of a dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in northern Brazil" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2014.
  31. ^ "Scotia Sea: Part 5. The Great Marine Mammals". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  32. ^ "Sailing to the Sea Lions and Les Eclaireurs Lighthouse in Catamarans". Archived from the original on 20 January 2013.
  33. ^ "Southern Sea Lions: Tierra del Fuego, Argentina". 25 September 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  34. ^ "Mark Horrell: Tierra del Fuego". 28 February 2003. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016 – via Flickr.
  35. ^ "Ballenas en el Canal de Beagle". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  36. ^ "Ushuaia Photo: leopard seal". Archived from the original on 20 September 2016.
  37. ^ "Expedition Uncovers Wildlife Wonders at Tierra del Fuego". 25 February 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011.
  38. ^ "Cruceros Australis – Fjords of Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia & Cape Horn, Punta Arenas – Ushuaia – Punta Arenas". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014.
  39. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos". Archived from the original on 6 April 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  40. ^ Richard Keynes: The Beagle Record: Selections from the Original Pictorial Records and Written Accounts of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1979, CUP Archives ISBN 0-521-21822-5
  41. ^ "A Voyage of Sketches: The Art of Conrad Martens". Cambridge Digital Library. 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021 – via www.youtube.com.
  42. ^ Kühl, Ingo (2006). "Landschaften am Ende der Welt / Paisages del fin del mundo / mit einem Text von / con un texto de Antonio Skármeta". I. Kühl – via Deutsche Nationalbibliothek.
References
  • Bridges, Lucas. 1948. Uttermost Part of the Earth. Reprint with introduction by Gavin Young, Century Hutchinson, 1987. ISBN 0-7126-1493-1
  • Keynes, Richard. 2002. Fossils, Finches and Fuegians: Charles Darwin's Adventures and Discoveries on the Beagle, 1832–1836. HarperCollins Publishers, London. Reprint: 2003.
  • Bollen, Patrick. 2000. "Tierra del Fuego" B/W Photobook. Lannoo Publishers, Tielt, Belgium. ISBN 90-209-4040-6
  • Pisano Valdés, E. (1977). "Fitogeografía de Fuego-Patagonia chilena. I.-Comunidades vegetales entre las latitudes 52 y 56º S". Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia (in Spanish). Vol. VIII. Punta Arenas.
External links

Coordinates: 54°S 70°W / 54°S 70°W / -54; -70

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