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Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset

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Thomas Grey
Born1455
Died20 September 1501 (aged 46)
Resting placeAstley, Warwickshire
Title1st Marquess of Dorset
1st Earl of Huntingdon
7th Baron Ferrers of Groby
Spouse(s)Lady Anne Holland
Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington
ChildrenThomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset
Leonard Grey, 1st Viscount Grane
Elizabeth Grey, Countess of Kildare
and others
Parent(s)Sir John Grey of Groby
Elizabeth Woodville

Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, 7th Baron Ferrers of Groby, KG (1455 – 20 September 1501[1][2]) was an English nobleman, courtier and the eldest son of Elizabeth Woodville and her first husband Sir John Grey of Groby. Her second marriage to King Edward IV made her Queen of England, thus elevating Grey's status at court and in the realm as the stepson of the King.[3] Through his mother's assiduous endeavours, he made two materially advantageous marriages to wealthy heiresses, the King's niece Anne Holland and Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington. By the latter, he had 14 children.

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Family

Thomas Grey was born in 1455 close to the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. He was the elder son of John Grey (c.1432-1461) of Groby in Leicestershire, by his wife Elizabeth Woodville, who later became queen consort to King Edward IV.[4]

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Palace of Westminster

Palace of Westminster

The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Informally known as the Houses of Parliament, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England.

City of London

City of London

The City of London is a city, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and constitutes, alongside Canary Wharf, the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the modern area named London has since grown far beyond the City of London boundary. The City is now only a small part of the metropolis of Greater London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, the City of London is not one of the London boroughs, a status reserved for the other 32 districts. It is also a separate ceremonial county, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London, and is the smallest ceremonial county in the United Kingdom.

John Grey of Groby

John Grey of Groby

Sir John Grey, of Groby, Leicestershire was a Lancastrian knight, the first husband of Elizabeth Woodville who later married King Edward IV of England, and great-great-grandfather of Lady Jane Grey.

Groby

Groby

Groby listen (help·info) is a large English village in the county of Leicestershire, to the north west of the city of Leicester. The population at the time of the 2011 census was 6,796.

Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville was Queen of England from her marriage to King Edward IV on 1 May 1464 until Edward was deposed on 3 October 1470, and again from Edward's resumption of the throne on 11 April 1471 until his death on 9 April 1483.

Edward IV of England

Edward IV of England

Edward IV was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, then again from 11 April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a central figure in the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars in England fought between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions between 1455 and 1487.

Career

His mother endeavoured to improve his estates by the conventional methods of their class and time, through his marriages and purchase of wardships. He also found favour with Edward, fighting in the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Grey became Lord Harington and Bonville by right of his second wife Cecily Bonville. In 1475 he was created marquess of Dorset, and he was also a knight of the Garter and a privy councillor.[4]

On the death of his stepfather, Edward IV, Grey proved unable to maintain his family's position. It was not possible to arrange a Woodville regency. Internal fighting, particularly the long-established battle for ascendancy in Leicestershire between the Grey and Hastings families, was now on the national stage. Richard III came to the throne when the sons of Edward IV's bastardy were declared; the Grey family was aligned with Edward.

On 25 June 1483, an assembly of Parliament declared Richard III to be the legitimate king, and Thomas's uncle, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, and brother, Richard Grey, were executed. Later in the summer, learning of the apparent murder of both his young half-brothers, Grey joined the Duke of Buckingham's rebellion against Richard III. When the rebellion failed he fled to Brittany to join Henry Tudor, who pledged to marry Grey's half-sister Elizabeth of York and heal the division between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians.

However, just before Henry and the Lancastrian army left to launch their ultimately successful invasion of England in August 1485, Grey heard rumours from England that his mother had come to terms with Richard III, and he was persuaded to desert Henry Tudor. He was intercepted at Compiègne on his way to England, and played no part in the invasion or subsequent overthrow of Richard III. Grey was instead confined to Paris, as security for the repayment of a loan made to Henry Tudor by the French government, unable to return home until Henry VII was safely installed as king of England.

Thereafter Henry VII took good care to keep his half-brother-in-law under control and Grey was not permitted to recover his former influence, although his attainder was reversed. Thomas Grey was confined in the Tower in 1487 during Lambert Simnel's rising and not released until after the House of Tudor victory in the Battle of Stoke Field. Though he accompanied the King on his expedition to France in 1492, he was obliged to commit himself in writing to ensure he did not commit treason. He was permitted to assist in the suppression of the Cornish rising in 1497.

Thomas Grey, Marquess of Dorset, died in London on 20 September 1501, aged about 46, and was buried in the collegiate church of Astley, Warwickshire. His widow married Grey's cousin, Henry Stafford, later Earl of Wiltshire.

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Battle of Tewkesbury

Battle of Tewkesbury

The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses in England. King Edward IV and his forces loyal to the House of York completely defeated those of the rival House of Lancaster. The Lancastrian heir to the throne, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, and many prominent Lancastrian nobles were killed during the battle or executed. The Lancastrian king, Henry VI, who was a prisoner in the Tower of London, died shortly after the battle, perhaps murdered. Tewkesbury restored political stability to England until the death of Edward IV in 1483.

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington, 2nd Baroness Bonville was an English peer, who was also Marchioness of Dorset by her first marriage to Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, and Countess of Wiltshire by her second marriage to Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire.

Leicestershire

Leicestershire

Leicestershire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East Midlands, England. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, and Derbyshire to the north-west. The border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street, the modern A5 road.

Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers

Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers

Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, was an English nobleman, courtier, bibliophile and writer. He was the brother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville who married King Edward IV. He was one of the leading members of the Woodville family, which came to prominence during the reign of King Edward IV. After Edward's death, he was arrested and then executed by the Duke of Gloucester as part of a power struggle between Richard and the Woodvilles. His English translation of The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers is one of the first books printed in England.

Henry VII of England

Henry VII of England

Henry VII was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death in 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Elizabeth of York

Elizabeth of York

Elizabeth of York was Queen of England from her marriage to King Henry VII on 18 January 1486 until her death in 1503. Elizabeth married Henry after his victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, which marked the end of the Wars of the Roses. They had seven children together.

Compiègne

Compiègne

Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. It is located on the river Oise. Its inhabitants are called Compiégnois.

Lambert Simnel

Lambert Simnel

Lambert Simnel was a pretender to the throne of England. In 1487, his claim to be Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, threatened the newly established reign of Henry VII (1485–1509). Simnel became the figurehead of a Yorkist rebellion organised by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln. The rebellion was crushed in 1487. Simnel was pardoned because of his tender years, and was thereafter employed by the Royal household as a scullion, and, later, as a falconer.

House of Tudor

House of Tudor

The House of Tudor was a royal house of largely Welsh origin that held the English throne from 1485 to 1603. They descended from the Tudors of Penmynydd and Catherine of France. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland for 118 years with five monarchs: Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. There is also a sixth Tudor monarch, Jane Grey, who disputedly reigned for nine days, in between Edward VI and Mary I. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantagenet as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and were succeeded by the House of Stuart. The first Tudor monarch, Henry VII of England, descended through his mother from a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster, a cadet house of the Plantagenets. The Tudor family rose to power and started the Tudor period in the wake of the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487), which left the main House of Lancaster extinct in the male line.

Battle of Stoke Field

Battle of Stoke Field

The Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487 may be considered the last battle of the Wars of the Roses, since it was the last major engagement between contenders for the throne whose claims derived from descent from the houses of Lancaster and York respectively. The Battle of Bosworth Field, two years previously, had established King Henry VII on the throne, ending the last period of Yorkist rule and initiating that of the Tudors. The Battle of Stoke Field was the decisive engagement in an attempt by leading Yorkists to unseat him in favour of the pretender Lambert Simnel.

Astley, Warwickshire

Astley, Warwickshire

Astley is a village and civil parish within the North Warwickshire district of Warwickshire, England. In the 2001 census it had a population of 219, reducing slightly to 218 at the 2011 census. Astley is Knebly in George Eliot's Mr Gilfil's Love Story. Eliot's parents were married in the church.

Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire

Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire

Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire was an English peer.

Marriages and issue

His mother sought to make provision for him by marriage to wealthy heiresses. He married firstly, at Greenwich in October 1466, Lady Anne Holland (1461[5] – c. 1474), the only daughter of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, and Anne of York. His mother-in-law was the second child and eldest surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, thus sister to his mother's second husband King Edward IV.

After Anne Holland died young without issue, Thomas married secondly, by papal dispensation 5 September 1474,[6] Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington of Aldingham and 2nd Baroness Bonville, the wealthiest heiress in England.[7] Cecily Bonville, born in 1461, was the daughter and heiress of William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington, by his wife Katherine Neville, daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury.[6] Katherine was sister to the late Earl of Warwick and thus aunt to his daughters.

By his second wife Grey had seven sons and seven daughters:[6]

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Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter

Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter

Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, 3rd Earl of Huntington was a Lancastrian leader during the English Wars of the Roses. He was the only son of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, and his first wife, Anne Stafford. His maternal grandparents were Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford, and Anne of Gloucester.

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington

Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington, 2nd Baroness Bonville was an English peer, who was also Marchioness of Dorset by her first marriage to Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, and Countess of Wiltshire by her second marriage to Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire.

Baron Harington

Baron Harington

Baron Harington, of Aldingham, was a title in the Peerage of England. On 30 December 1324 John Harington was summoned to parliament. On the death of the 5th baron in 1458, the barony was inherited by the heir to the barony of Bonville, with which title it merged in 1461, until both baronies were forfeited in 1554.

Katherine Neville, Baroness Hastings

Katherine Neville, Baroness Hastings

Katherine Neville, Baroness Hastings, was a noblewoman and a member of the powerful Neville family of northern England. She was one of the six daughters of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and the sister of military commander Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, known to history as Warwick the Kingmaker.

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury was an English nobleman and magnate based in northern England who became a key supporter of the House of York during the early years of the Wars of the Roses. He was the father of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the "Kingmaker".

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander. The eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, he became Earl of Warwick through marriage, and was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the leaders in the Wars of the Roses, originally on the Yorkist side but later switching to the Lancastrian side, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, which led to his epithet of "Kingmaker".

London

London

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a 50-mile (80 km) estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The City of London, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains its medieval boundaries. The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries hosted the national government and parliament. Since the 19th century, the name "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which largely comprises Greater London, governed by the Greater London Authority.

Somerleyton

Somerleyton

Somerleyton is a village and former civil parish in the north of the English county of Suffolk. It is 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north-west of Lowestoft and 5.5 miles (8.9 km) south-west of Great Yarmouth in the East Suffolk district. The village is closely associated with Somerleyton Hall and was largely rebuilt as a model village in the 19th century at the direction of Samuel Morton Peto. The parish was combined with Herringfleet and Ashby to create the parish of Somerleyton, Ashby and Herringfleet in 1987.

Henry Barley

Henry Barley

Henry Barley or Barlee, of Albury, Hertfordshire, was a Member of Parliament during the Tudor period.

Albury, Hertfordshire

Albury, Hertfordshire

Albury is a village and civil parish in the East Hertfordshire district of Hertfordshire, England, about five miles west of Bishop's Stortford. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 537, increasing in the 2011 Census to 595.

Robert Drury (speaker)

Robert Drury (speaker)

Sir Robert Drury (1456–1536) was an English knight, Lord of the Manor of Hawstead, Suffolk, and Knight of the Body to Kings Henry VII and Henry VIII. As a politician he was Knight of the Shire for Suffolk, Speaker of the House of Commons, and Privy Councillor. He was also a barrister-at-law. His London townhouse was on the site of today's Drury Lane.

Edmund Walsingham

Edmund Walsingham

Sir Edmund Walsingham of Scadbury Hall, Chislehurst in Kent, was a soldier, Member of Parliament, and Lieutenant of the Tower of London during the reign of King Henry VIII.

Titles

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Earl of Huntingdon

Earl of Huntingdon

Earl of Huntingdon is a title which has been created several times in the Peerage of England. The medieval title was associated with the ruling house of Scotland.

William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke

William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke

William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was an English nobleman and politician.

Parliament of England

Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England from the 13th century until 1707 when it was replaced by the Parliament of Great Britain. Parliament evolved from the great council of bishops and peers that advised the English monarch. Great councils were first called Parliaments during the reign of Henry III. By this time, the king required Parliament's consent to levy taxation.

Marquess of Dorset

Marquess of Dorset

The title Marquess of Dorset has been created three times in the Peerage of England. It was first created in 1397 for John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, but he lost the title two years later. It was then created in 1442 for Edmund Beaufort, 1st Earl of Dorset, who was created Duke of Somerset in 1448. That creation was attainted in 1463.

Baron Ferrers of Groby

Baron Ferrers of Groby

Baron Ferrers of Groby was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ on 29 December 1299 when William Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby was summoned to parliament. He was the son of Sir William de Ferrers, Knt., of Groby, Leicestershire, (d.1287) by his first wife Anne Durward, 2nd daughter of Alan Durward and his wife Margery of Scotland, and grandson of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby. The first Baron was married to Ellen de Menteith, daughter of Alexander, Earl of Menteith. In 1475 the eighth baron was created the Marquess of Dorset, and the barony in effect merged with the marquessate. It was forfeited along with the marquessate when the third marquess was attainted in 1554.

Attainder

Attainder

In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime. It entailed losing not only one's life, property and hereditary titles, but typically also the right to pass them on to one's heirs. Both men and women condemned of capital crimes could be attainted.

Richard III of England

Richard III of England

Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 26 June 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.

Henry VII of England

Henry VII of England

Henry VII was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death in 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Arms

Arms of Grey
Arms of Grey

The arms of the head of the Grey family are blazoned Barry of six argent and azure in chief three torteaux gules.

Source: "Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Grey,_1st_Marquess_of_Dorset.

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Notes
  1. ^ Cokayne 1916, pp. 418–19.
  2. ^ According to Richardson and Pugh he was born c.1455.
  3. ^ a b Pugh 2004.
  4. ^ a b Chisholm 1911, p. 431.
  5. ^ Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Digby 57, fol. 2*r
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Richardson II 2011, p. 304.
  7. ^ Lympstone: From Roman Rimes to the 17th Century. Retrieved 1 September 2011
  8. ^ Barley, Henry (1487-1529), of Albury, Hertfordshire, History of Parliament Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  9. ^ Richardson II 2011, p. 93.
  10. ^ Hyde 2004.
  11. ^ Campling 1937.
  12. ^ Challen 1963, pp. 5–9.
  13. ^ 'Anne Jerningham', A Who’s Who of Tudor Women: I-J, compiled by Kathy Lynn Emerson to update and correct Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984) Archived 5 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  14. ^ Richardson II 2011, pp. 304–7.
  15. ^ a b c d Challen 1963, p. 6.
  16. ^ a b c d Richardson II 2011, pp. 304–6.
  17. ^ Challen 1963, pp. 5–7.
  18. ^ Richardson states that he was executed 28 July 1541.
  19. ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 50–1.
  20. ^ Lyons 2004.
  21. ^ As stated on the inscribed monumental brass of Sir John Arundell in St Columb Major Church, Cornwall (See: Jewers, Arthur John (ed.), The registers of the parish of St. Columb Major, Cornwall, from the year 1539 to 1780, London, 1881, Preface XI [1])
  22. ^ Byrne, Muriel St. Clare, (ed.) The Lisle Letters, 6 vols, University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, 1981, vol.1Byrne, vol.1, p.307
  23. ^ "Mary Grey, Viscountess of Hereford". Geni. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Grey of Dorset". Tudor Place. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
References
Depictions in fiction

Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, is depicted in:

Peerage of England
New creation Marquess of Dorset
1475–1501
Succeeded by
Preceded by Baron Ferrers of Groby
1483–1501

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