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The Football Association

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The Football Association
UEFA
FA crest 2009.svg
Founded26 October 1863; 159 years ago (1863-10-26)
HeadquartersLondon
FIFA affiliation
  • 1905–1920
  • 1924–1928
  • 1946–present
UEFA affiliation1954
IFAB affiliation1886
PresidentWilliam, Prince of Wales
Websitewww.thefa.com Edit this at Wikidata

The Football Association (known by its abbreviation The FA) is the governing body of association football in England and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur and professional game in its territory.

The FA facilitates all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the county football associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup. It is also responsible for appointing the management of the men's, women's, and youth national football teams.

The FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board (IFAB) which is responsible for the Laws of the Game. As the first football association, it does not use the national name "English" in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London. The FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the men's and women's Great Britain Olympic football team.[1]

All of England's professional football teams are members of the Football Association. Although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the league chairman and chief executive and over any changes to league rules.[2] The English Football League, made up of the three fully professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FA's sanctions.

Discover more about The Football Association related topics

Association football

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players who primarily use their feet to propel a ball around a rectangular field called a pitch. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposite team by moving the ball beyond the goal line into a rectangular-framed goal defended by the opposing side. Traditionally, the game has been played over two 45-minute halves, for a total match time of 90 minutes. With an estimated 250 million players active in over 200 countries and territories, it is considered the world's most popular sport.

Crown Dependencies

Crown Dependencies

The Crown Dependencies are three island territories in the British Islands that are self-governing possessions of the British Crown: the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man. They are not part of the United Kingdom (UK) nor are they British Overseas Territories. They have the status of "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible", rather than sovereign states. As a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth and other international organisations, and are members of the British–Irish Council. They have their own teams in the Commonwealth Games.

Bailiwick of Guernsey

Bailiwick of Guernsey

The Bailiwick of Guernsey is an island country off the coast of France as one of the three Crown Dependencies.

County football association

County football association

The county football associations are the local governing bodies of association football in England and the Crown dependencies. County FAs exist to govern all aspects of football in England. They are responsible for administering club and player registration as well as promoting development amongst those bodies and referees.

FA Cup

FA Cup

The Football Association Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world. It is organised by and named after The Football Association. Since 2015, it has been known as The Emirates FA Cup after its headline sponsor. A concurrent Women's FA Cup has been held since 1970.

England women's national football team

England women's national football team

The England women's national football team, also known as the Lionesses, have been governed by the Football Association (FA) since 1993, having been previously administered by the Women's Football Association (WFA). England played its first international match in November 1972 against Scotland. Although most national football teams represent a sovereign state, England is permitted by FIFA statutes, as a member of the United Kingdom's Home Nations, to maintain a national side that competes in all major tournaments, with the exception of the Women's Olympic Football Tournament.

England national under-17 football team

England national under-17 football team

The England national under-17 football team, also known as England under-17s or England U17(s), represents England in football at an under-17 age level and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. They are currently coached by Ryan Garry.

FIFA

FIFA

The Fédération internationale de football association is the international governing body of association football, beach soccer, and futsal. It was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. These national associations must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: CAF (Africa), AFC, UEFA (Europe), CONCACAF, OFC (Oceania) and CONMEBOL.

British Olympic Association

British Olympic Association

The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom. It is responsible for organising and overseeing the participation of athletes from the Great Britain and Northern Ireland Olympic Team, at both the summer and winter Olympic Games, the Youth Olympic Games, the European Youth Olympic Festivals, and at the European Games.

Great Britain men's Olympic football team

Great Britain men's Olympic football team

The Great Britain men's Olympic football team is the men's football team that represents the United Kingdom at the Summer Olympic Games. The team is organised by the English Football Association as the men's footballing representative of the British Olympic Association. The team only competes in the Olympic Games. In other international football tournaments, the Home Nations of the United Kingdom are represented by their own national teams, a situation which pre-dated the establishment of a GB team.

Great Britain women's Olympic football team

Great Britain women's Olympic football team

The Great Britain women's Olympic football team represents the United Kingdom in the women's football tournament at the Olympic Games. Normally, no team represents the whole of the United Kingdom in women's football, as separate teams represent England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

English Football League

English Football League

The English Football League (EFL) is a league of professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in the world. It was the top-level football league in England from its foundation until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split from it to form the Premier League.

History

For centuries before the first meeting of the Football Association in the Freemasons' Tavern on Great Queen Street, London on 26 October 1863, there were no universally accepted rules for playing football.[3][4] Ebenezer Cobb Morley, as captain of Barnes, in 1862 wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport "with the object of establishing a definite code of rules for the regulation of the game"; the letter led to the first meeting at The Freemasons' Tavern that created the FA in 1863. Morley was a founding member.[4] Six meetings near London's Covent Garden, at 81–82 Long Acre,[5] ended in a split between the Football Association and what would become the future rugby ten years later.[6] Both of them had their own uniforms, rituals, gestures and highly formalised rules.[7]

In each public school the game was formalised according to local conditions; but when the schoolboys reached university, chaos ensued when the players used different rules, so members of the University of Cambridge devised and published a set of Cambridge Rules in 1848 which was widely adopted.[3] Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s.

Eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules.[3][4] The founding clubs present at the first meeting were:

Charterhouse sent their captain, B.F. Hartshorne, but declined the offer to join.[10] Many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the only one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence and playing association football,[4] although Forest School has been a member since the fifth meeting in December 1863 and Crystal Palace and Wanderers have been refounded.

Ebenezer Cobb Morley was the FA's first secretary (1863–66) and its second president (1867–74) and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the "London Rules" at his home in Barnes, London.[4] He played in the first-ever match in 1863.

Photo of an early handwritten draft of the 'Laws of the game' for association Football drafted for and behalf of The Football Association by Ebenezer Cobb Morley in 1863 on display at the National Football Museum, Manchester
Photo of an early handwritten draft of the 'Laws of the game' for association Football drafted for and behalf of The Football Association by Ebenezer Cobb Morley in 1863 on display at the National Football Museum, Manchester

The first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons' Tavern from October till December.[4] Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School and Forest School.[11]

Split from rugby

At the final meeting, F. M. Campbell, the first FA treasurer and the Blackheath representative, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union.[3] The term "soccer" dates back to this split to refer to football played under the "association" rules. After six clubs had withdrawn as they supported the opposing Rugby Rules, the Football Association had just nine members in January 1864: Barnes, Kilburn, Crystal Palace, War Office (Civil Service), Forest Club, Forest School, Sheffield, Uppingham and Royal Engineers (Chatham).[12]

An inaugural game using the new FA rules was initially scheduled for Battersea Park on 2 January 1864, but enthusiastic members of the FA could not wait for the new year: the first game under F. A. rules was played at Mortlake on 19 December 1863 between Morley's Barnes team and their neighbours Richmond (who were not members of the FA), ending in a goalless draw. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they subsequently helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871. The Battersea Park game was the first exhibition game using FA rules, and was played there on Saturday 9 January 1864.[13] The members of the opposing teams for this game were chosen by the President of the FA (A. Pember) and the Secretary (E. C. Morley) and included many well-known footballers of the day.[14] After the first match according to the new FA rules a toast was given "Success to football, irrespective of class or creed".[15]

Another notable match was London v Sheffield, in which a representative team from the FA played Sheffield FC under Association rules in March 1866; Charles Alcock described this game as "first [match] of any importance under the auspices of the Football Association".[16] Alcock (of Harrow School) of the Wanderers was elected to the committee of the FA in 1866, becoming its first full-time secretary and treasurer in 1870. He masterminded the creation of the Football Association Cup[17]—the longest-running association football competition in the world—in 1871. Fifteen participating clubs subscribed to purchase a trophy. The first Cup Final was held at The Oval on 16 March 1872, fought between the Wanderers and the Royal Engineers (RE), watched by 2,000 spectators.[4] In 1874 Francis Marindin becomes the third president of the Football Association.

Single set of laws

Coat of arms of the Football Association
Coat of arms of the Football Association

After many years of wrangling between the London-based Football Association and the Sheffield Football Association, the FA Cup brought the acceptance that one undisputed set of laws was required. The two associations had played 16 inter-association matches under differing rules; the Sheffield Rules, the London Rules and Mixed Rules. In April 1877, those laws were set with a number of Sheffield Rules being incorporated. In 1890 Arthur Kinnaird replace Major Francis Marindin, becoming the fourth president of the Football Association. Kinnaird had at that time been a FA committeeman since the age of 21, in 1868. Kinnaird remained president for the next 33 years, until his death in 1923.

The FA Cup was initially contested by mostly southern, amateur teams, but more professionally organised northern clubs began to dominate the competition during the early 1880s; "The turning point, north replacing south, working class defeating upper and professionals impinging upon the amateurs' territory, came in 1883."[18] Hitherto, public school sides had played a dribbling game punctuated by violent tackles, but a new passing style developed in Scotland was successfully adopted by some Lancashire teams, along with a more organised approach to training. Blackburn Olympic reached the final in March 1883 and defeated Old Etonians.[19] Near-neighbours Blackburn Rovers started to pay players, and the following season won the first of three consecutive FA Cups.[19][18] The FA initially tried to outlaw professionalism but, in the face of a threatened breakaway body (the British Football Association), by 1885 was forced to permit payments to players.[20] Three years later, in 1888, the first Football League was established, formed by six professional clubs from northwest England and six from the midlands.[18]

In 1992, the Football Association took control of the newly created Premier League which consisted of 22 clubs who had broken away from the First Division of the Football League. The Premier League reduced to 20 clubs in 1995 and is one of the richest football leagues in the world.[21]

The Football Association has updated their logo several times. They celebrated their 150th year with a special 2013–2014 season logo. The shield design (taken from the coat of arms of the Football Association) is the same, but the three lions, rosettes and border are in gold instead of black and red, with the usual white background. The title strip above reads "The FA" in white on gold, and there is a scroll below reading "150 years" in white on gold, between "1863" and "2013".[22][23]

Women's football

By 1921 women's football had become increasingly popular through the charitable games played by women's teams during and after the First World War. In a move that was widely seen as caused by jealousy of the crowds' interest in women's games which frequently exceeded that of the top men's teams, in 1921 the Football Association banned all women's teams from playing on grounds affiliated to the FA because they thought football damaged women's bodies.[24][25]

For several decades this decision meant that women's football virtually ceased to exist. It only reversed from 1969 when, after the increased interest in football caused by England's 1966 World Cup triumph, the Women's Football Association was founded,[26] although it would take a further two years - and an order from UEFA - to force the (men's) Football Association to remove its restrictions on the playing rights of women's teams.[27] It was not until 1983 that the WFA was able to affiliate to the FA as a "County Association" and only in 1993 did the FA found the "Women's Football Committee" to run women's football in England.[28]

FA 2017 reform

In December 2016, five former FA executives - David Bernstein, David Davies, Greg Dyke, Alex Horne and David Triesman - called on Parliament's Culture, Media and Sport Committee to propose legislation to reform the FA, saying it was outdated, held back by "elderly white men", and unable to counter the power of the Premier League or "to reform and modernise in a fast-changing world".[29]

In April 2017, it was announced that some reforms, including reducing the size of the FA's board and increasing the number of women, would be submitted for approval to the FA's annual general meeting on 18 May. However, the proposed changes were criticised by some for not going far enough, particularly to improve minority representation.[30] The proposals were approved at the AGM and include:[31]

  • Establishing three positions on the FA board for female members by 2018
  • Reducing the size of the board to 10 members
  • Adding 11 new members to the FA Council to "better reflects the inclusive and diverse nature of English football"
  • Limiting board membership to three terms of three years
  • Introducing term limits for FA Council members

However, pressure for FA reform continued fuelled by allegations of racism and bullying in relation to the Mark Sampson and Eniola Aluko cases, and the historical sexual abuse scandal.[32] In October 2017, FA chairman Greg Clarke announced a "fundamental" review of the FA after admitting it had "lost the trust of the public" following the Sampson controversy.[33] In the same month, Clarke was criticised by sexual abuse victim Andy Woodward and the Professional Footballers' Association's chief executive Gordon Taylor for remarks Clarke made to a Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee (DCMS) hearing.[34][35][36]

In November 2020, Clarke resigned as FA chairman over his use of the term "coloured" when referring to black players in comments to the DCMS committee via video link.[37] The FA subsequently announced they would seek a new chairman, with hopes there would be an announcement as to the successor by March 2021.[38]

UK football sexual abuse scandal (2016-2021)

In mid-November 2016, allegations of widespread historical sexual abuse at football clubs dating back to the 1970s began to emerge. On 21 November, the Football Association said it would set up a helpline;[39] this was established with the NSPCC and opened on 24 November,[40] reportedly receiving over 50 calls within the first two hours,[41] over 100 by 27 November,[42] and 860 ("more than three times as many referrals as in the first three days of the Jimmy Savile scandal") by 1 December[43] with 350 individuals alleging abuse.[44] The FA and NSPCC also collaborated to produce a film about how to keep children safe in the sport, featuring the captains of England's men's, women's and cerebral palsy football teams (Wayne Rooney, Steph Houghton and Jack Rutter).[45]

On 27 November, the FA announced it was to set up an internal review, led by independent counsel Kate Gallafent QC, into what Crewe and Manchester City knew about convicted child sex offender Barry Bennell and allegations of child sexual abuse in football, and investigate what information it was aware of at the time of the alleged offences.[46]

The FA was criticised by Conservative MP Damian Collins, chairman of the House of Commons' Culture, Media and Sport Committee, for being too slow in reacting and not instigating a wider review.[47] Former sport minister Gerry Sutcliffe talked of previous concern about how the FA dealt with governance of the sport and with youth development (in the 1990s, the FA was said to have reacted "dismissively" to worries about sexual abuse in the game, and too slow to implement criminal record checks;[48] in 2003, the FA had scrapped a project meant to ensure children were being protected from sexual abuse;[49] and FA officials had been uncooperative with the review project, with ten of 14 FA staff not replying to interview requests and a report by the researchers of others being "prevented/bullied" from talking).[50] Sutcliffe said an independent body, such as the Department for Culture, Media and Sport should look at the issue rather than the FA investigating itself: "What I've seen in football over the years is that they're very narrow, very insular, and may not do a proper job even though with the right intentions."[51]

On 6 December 2016, the FA announced that, due to "the increased scope of the review since it was announced"[52] and Gallafent's other professional commitments, the review would be conducted by Clive Sheldon QC.[53] On 11 January 2017, the Sheldon review had made its first call for evidence, writing to all football clubs in England and Wales, amateur and professional, asking for information by 15 March about allegations of child sexual abuse between 1970 and 2005.[54] In March 2018, it was reported that the scale of evidence provided, plus the "chaotic nature of the archiving", had delayed the inquiry team's sift through the FA's legal files; around 500,000 pages of material from 6,000 files were uploaded to a digital platform, and 353 documents were identified as highly relevant. Sheldon expected to start writing his final report in August 2018.[55]

In July 2018, it was reported that the FA's independent inquiry had found no evidence of an institutional cover-up or of a paedophile ring operating within football. Sheldon's report, likely to be highly critical of several clubs, was initially expected to be delivered to the FA in September 2018,[56] but its publication was delayed, potentially by up to a year, pending the retrial of Bob Higgins and possible further charges against Barry Bennell.[57]

The 700-page report was eventually published on 17 March 2021. It identified failures to act adequately on complaints or rumours of sexual abuse at eight professional clubs: Aston Villa, Chelsea, Crewe Alexandra, Manchester City, Newcastle United, Peterborough, Southampton and Stoke City.[58] The report also made 13 recommendations for further improvements, including clubs employing qualified safeguarding officers, an FA board member to be the designated "children’s safeguarding champion", spot checks of amateur clubs, a "national day of safeguarding in football" and an annual safeguarding report. However, the measures were criticised for being too late and lacking ambition. The FA issued a "heartfelt apology" to survivors and said it would be implementing all of Sheldon's recommendations.[58]

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Freemasons' Tavern

Freemasons' Tavern

The Freemasons' Tavern was established in 1775 at 61–65 Great Queen Street in the West End of London. It served as a meeting place for a variety of notable organisations from the 18th century until it was demolished in 1909 to make way for the Connaught Rooms.

Great Queen Street

Great Queen Street

Great Queen Street is a street in the West End of central London in England. It is a continuation of Long Acre from Drury Lane to Kingsway. It runs from 1 to 44 along the north side, east to west, and 45 to about 80 along the south side, west to east. The street straddles and connects the Covent Garden and Holborn districts and is in the London Borough of Camden. It is numbered B402.

Ebenezer Cobb Morley

Ebenezer Cobb Morley

Ebenezer Cobb Morley was an English sportsman. He is regarded as one of the fathers of the Football Association (FA) and modern football.

Barnes Football Club

Barnes Football Club

Barnes Football Club is an association football club in Barnes, London. The club had great importance in the development of the game in the nineteenth century and was the first team ever to win a match in the FA Cup.

Long Acre

Long Acre

Long Acre is a street in the City of Westminster in central London. It runs from St Martin's Lane, at its western end, to Drury Lane in the east. The street was completed in the early 17th century and was once known for its coach-makers, and later for its car dealers.

Rugby football

Rugby football

Rugby football is the collective name for the team sports of rugby union and rugby league.

University of Cambridge

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge is a public collegiate research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, the University of Cambridge is the third-oldest university in continuous operation.

Sheffield Rules

Sheffield Rules

The Sheffield Rules was a code of football devised and played in the English city of Sheffield between 1858 and 1877. The rules were initially created and revised by Sheffield Football Club, with responsibility for the laws passing to the Sheffield Football Association upon that body's creation in 1867. The rules spread beyond the city boundaries to other clubs and associations in the north and midlands of England, making them one of the most popular forms of football during the 1860s and 1870s.

Civil Service F.C.

Civil Service F.C.

Civil Service Football Club is an English football club based in the city of London. The club originally played both association football and rugby football and the Civil Service, along with Blackheath F.C., is one of the two clubs that can claim to be a founder member of both The Football Association and the Rugby Football Union. However, the rugby club is now a distinct entity and appears to have been so since the late nineteenth century. They are currently members of the Southern Amateur League Senior Division 2.

N.N. Club

N.N. Club

N.N. Club or N.N. Kilburn—N.N. standing for "No Names" —was an amateur English football club based in the Kilburn district of London. The poor state of the club's original ground led to them being nicknamed the Mudlarks.

Kilburn, London

Kilburn, London

Kilburn is an area of north west London, England, which spans the boundary of three London Boroughs: Camden to the east, City of Westminster, and Brent to the west. There is also an area in the City of Westminster, known as West Kilburn and sometimes treated as a distinct locality. Kilburn High Road railway station lies 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north-west of Charing Cross.

Crystal Palace F.C. (1861)

Crystal Palace F.C. (1861)

Crystal Palace F.C. was an amateur football club formed in 1861 who contributed a major role in the development of association football during its formative years. They went on to become founder members of the Football Association in 1863, and competed in the first ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72.

Crown Dependencies

The football associations within the Crown Dependencies of Jersey (Jersey Football Association), Guernsey (Guernsey Football Association) and the Isle of Man (Isle of Man Football Association) are affiliated to the FA despite having a separate identity from that of the United Kingdom and by extension England.[59] They are considered county football associations by the FA. Matt Le Tissier and Graeme Le Saux have represented the FA's full national representative team and were born in Guernsey and Jersey respectively.[60]

The Guernsey Football Association, Isle of Man Football Association and Jersey Football Association have been affiliated with the FA since 1903, 1908 and 1905 respectively.[61][62][63]

A loophole was closed in May 2008 by FIFA which allowed players born in the Channel Islands to choose which home nation within the United Kingdom they will represent at international level. During the 1990s, Trevor Wood (Jersey) and Chris Tardif (Guernsey) represented Northern Ireland.

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Crown Dependencies

Crown Dependencies

The Crown Dependencies are three island territories in the British Islands that are self-governing possessions of the British Crown: the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man. They are not part of the United Kingdom (UK) nor are they British Overseas Territories. They have the status of "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible", rather than sovereign states. As a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth and other international organisations, and are members of the British–Irish Council. They have their own teams in the Commonwealth Games.

Jersey Football Association

Jersey Football Association

The Jersey Football Association (JFA) is the body which co-ordinates football in Jersey. The Jersey FA acts as a County football association of The Football Association, although in 2015 it applied to join UEFA as a full member. The Jersey Football Combination is overseen by the Jersey FA, as is the Jersey official football team.

Guernsey Football Association

Guernsey Football Association

The Guernsey Football Association, also simply known as the Guernsey FA or the GFA, is the body that co-ordinates and organises the sport of football in Guernsey. Although, as a Crown Dependency, Guernsey is not a part of the United Kingdom, the local FA is affiliated with the English FA, and acts as a county football association.

Isle of Man Football Association

Isle of Man Football Association

The Isle of Man Football Association, also simply known as the Isle of Man FA or the IOMFA, is the body that co-ordinates and organises the sport of football on the Isle of Man. Although, as a Crown Dependency, the Isle of Man is not a part of the United Kingdom, the local FA is affiliated with the English FA, and acts as a County Football Association.

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,495 square kilometres (93,628 sq mi), with an estimated 2023 population of over 68 million people.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea area of the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

County football association

County football association

The county football associations are the local governing bodies of association football in England and the Crown dependencies. County FAs exist to govern all aspects of football in England. They are responsible for administering club and player registration as well as promoting development amongst those bodies and referees.

Matt Le Tissier

Matt Le Tissier

Matthew Paul Le Tissier is a former professional footballer. Born in Guernsey, he won eight caps for the England national team.

Graeme Le Saux

Graeme Le Saux

Graeme Pierre Le Saux is an English former professional footballer and television pundit.

Trevor Wood

Trevor Wood

Trevor John Wood is a former footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He played 130 league games in the English Football League, 100 league games in the League of Ireland, and won one international cap for Northern Ireland in 1995.

Chris Tardif

Chris Tardif

Christopher Luke Tardif is an English former professional footballer, who is currently the first team coach of the Guernsey Rangers Priaulx side. He has represented Northern Ireland at youth level, through a now closed loophole in the Home Nations agreement, and Guernsey at senior level.

Overseas Territories

The British overseas territory of Gibraltar's Gibraltar Football Association was affiliated to the FA from 1911 until it opted to become a fully recognised member of UEFA, a feat achieved after a 14-year legal battle. Joseph Nunez, the Gibraltar FA President claimed they were "unilaterally thrown out" of the FA following an intervention from Geoff Thompson.[61]

On the other hand, the Hong Kong Football Association (HKFA), established in 1914, is one of the oldest football associations in Asia. They joined the FIFA in 1954, and were also one of twelve founding members of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). HK played an important role in the early development of Asian football and hosted the first Asian Cup competition in 1956. The dependent territory was relinquished by the UK in 1997 and handed over to the People's Republic of China.

Some of the other British overseas territories have local football associations or leagues (including the Anguilla Football Association, the Ascension Island Football League, the Bermuda Football Association, the British Virgin Islands Football Association, the Cayman Islands Football Association, the Falkland Islands Football League, the Montserrat Football Association, the Turks and Caicos Islands Football Association), but these are not considered subsidiary to the Football Association.

Although the British overseas territories are too small to support professional teams, they have produced players such as Clyde Best who have gone on to play professionally in the Football Association, and referees such as Carlyle Crockwell, who have refereed FIFA matches.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory and city located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar, at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 32,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.

Gibraltar Football Association

Gibraltar Football Association

The Gibraltar Football Association or also Gibraltar FA (GFA) is the governing body for Gibraltarian football and futsal. It was formed as the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association in 1895, changing to its current name in later years. It is one of the oldest football associations in the world. From October 2012, the GFA were provisional members of UEFA and the Gibraltar national futsal team, under-19 and under-17 representative teams participated in the 2013/14 UEFA season competitions. At the XXXVII UEFA Congress held in London on 24 May 2013, Gibraltar was accepted as a full member of UEFA. Gibraltar were admitted to FIFA as a full member on 13 May 2016 at the 66th FIFA Congress in Mexico.

Geoff Thompson (football executive)

Geoff Thompson (football executive)

Geoffrey Thompson is the former chairman of the Football Association, and a vice-president of both UEFA and FIFA. He has long been associated with football especially in South Yorkshire, having previously been general manager of Doncaster Rovers and held senior positions in the Sheffield & Hallamshire Football Association. He was elected chairman of the FA in 1999, a post he held until January 2008. He is a magistrate.

Asian Football Confederation

Asian Football Confederation

The Asian Football Confederation is the governing body of association football, beach football, and futsal in some countries/territories in Asia and Oceania. It has 47 member countries most of which are located in Asia. Australia, formerly in OFC, joined AFC in 2006. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, both territories of the United States, are also AFC members that are geographically in Oceania. The Asian Ladies Football Confederation (ALFC) was the section of AFC who managed women's association football in Asia. The group was independently founded in April 1968 in a meeting involving Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. In 1986 ALFC merged with AFC.

Anguilla Football Association

Anguilla Football Association

The Anguilla Football Association is the governing body of football in Anguilla.

Ascension Island Football League

Ascension Island Football League

The Ascension Island Football League is the top division of football on Ascension Island.

Bermuda Football Association

Bermuda Football Association

The Bermuda Football Association, founded in 1928, is the official football organization in Bermuda and is in charge of the Bermudian national team. The league is also in charge of the sporting leagues on the island.

British Virgin Islands Football Association

British Virgin Islands Football Association

The British Virgin Islands Football Association is the governing body of football in the British Virgin Islands.The Association is also responsible for the British Virgin Islands national football team.

Cayman Islands Football Association

Cayman Islands Football Association

The Cayman Islands Football Association is the governing body of football in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands Football Association governs all National Team programs, youth development leagues, Women's league and the Cayman Islands Men's Premier League.

Falkland Islands Football League

Falkland Islands Football League

The Falkland Islands Football League (FIFL), Branded Stanley Services Ltd. Football League is the national governing body of football in the Falkland Islands. The association operates the national team and the Stanley Services League, the only domestic league on the islands. They also sponsor an all-star team from the league, called Stanley F.C. who occasionally play friendly matches against stationed troops on the islands and Royal Navy makeshift teams.

Clyde Best

Clyde Best

Clyde Cyril Best, MBE is a Bermudian former football player. He was one of the first black players in First Division football in England, scoring 47 goals as a striker for West Ham United between 1968 and 1976.

Carlyle Crockwell

Carlyle Crockwell

Carlyle McNeil Eugene Crockwell MBE was a FIFA-certified Bermudian football referee.

Relationship with FIFA

The Football Association first joined FIFA in 1905. The British Associations (England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales) opted to leave FIFA after World War I when FIFA chose not to exclude those who were part of the Central Powers from the organisation. The British Associations' stance had changed by 1922 and in 1924 they had rejoined FIFA.[b]

The British Olympic Association had fought against 'broken time' – monetary compensation for athletes' earnings when competing in the Olympic games. At the 1925 Olympic Congress in Prague, the British had made an amendment that concluded governing federations should define amateur status for their sports but only in accordance with the definition of amateurism accepted by the Olympic Congress. In 1928, Switzerland proposed to FIFA that in certain circumstances, 'broken time' payments should be allowed and FIFA accepted. The FA resigned from FIFA in protest against the proposal. As a result of the FA's resignation, England did not participate in the 1930, 1934 or 1938 FIFA World Cup.

At the 1930 Olympic Congress in Berlin, Belgian delegates proposed that for each sport the definition of amateur status be left to its international federation. The BOA argued for a common definition of amateurism and argued that 'broken time' payments were against the Olympic ideal.

The FA rejoined FIFA in 1946 and participated in their first World Cup in 1950. One of the first actions of the Football Association was to request the expulsion of the German and Japanese national football associations for their countries' role in World War II. Germany and Japan were prevented from qualifying for the 1950 FIFA World Cup as a consequence. They were re-acquainted with FIFA in 1950 following a second request from Switzerland who had had a previous request rejected in 1948.

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World War I

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI, was one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. It was fought between two coalitions, the Allies and the Central Powers. Fighting occurred throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific, and parts of Asia. An estimated 9 million soldiers were killed in combat, plus another 23 million wounded, while 5 million civilians died as a result of military action, hunger, and disease. Millions more died as a result of genocide, while the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war.

Central Powers

Central Powers

The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires, was one of the two main coalitions that fought in World War I (1914–1918). It consisted of the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria and was also known as the Quadruple Alliance.

British Olympic Association

British Olympic Association

The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom. It is responsible for organising and overseeing the participation of athletes from the Great Britain and Northern Ireland Olympic Team, at both the summer and winter Olympic Games, the Youth Olympic Games, the European Youth Olympic Festivals, and at the European Games.

1930 FIFA World Cup

1930 FIFA World Cup

The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 to 30 July 1930. FIFA, football's international governing body, selected Uruguay as the host nation, as the country would be celebrating the centenary of its first constitution and the Uruguay national football team had successfully retained their football title at the 1928 Summer Olympics. All matches were played in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, the majority at the Estadio Centenario, which was built for the tournament.

1934 FIFA World Cup

1934 FIFA World Cup

The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for senior men's national teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934.

1938 FIFA World Cup

1938 FIFA World Cup

The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third edition of the World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for senior men's national teams and was held in France from 4 June until 19 June 1938. Italy defended its title in the final, beating Hungary 4–2. Italy's 1934 and 1938 teams hold the distinction of being the only men's national team to win the World Cup multiple times under the same coach, Vittorio Pozzo. It would be the last World Cup until 1950 due to World War II.

1950 FIFA World Cup

1950 FIFA World Cup

The 1950 FIFA World Cup was the fourth edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for senior men's national teams and held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950. It was the first World Cup tournament in over twelve years, as the 1942 and 1946 World Cups were cancelled due to World War II. Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930, defeated the host nation, Brazil, in the deciding match of the four-team group of the final round. This was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was also the inaugural tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA.

German Football Association

German Football Association

The German Football Association is the governing body of football, futsal, and beach soccer in Germany. A founding member of both FIFA and UEFA, the DFB has jurisdiction for the German football league system and is in charge of the men's and women's national teams. The DFB headquarters are in Frankfurt am Main. Sole members of the DFB are the German Football League, organising the professional Bundesliga and the 2. Bundesliga, along with five regional and 21 state associations, organising the semi-professional and amateur levels. The 21 state associations of the DFB have a combined number of more than 25,000 clubs with more than 6.8 million members, making the DFB the single largest sports federation in the world.

Japan Football Association

Japan Football Association

The Japan Football Association (JFA) is the governing body responsible for the administration of football, futsal, beach soccer and efootball in Japan. It is responsible for the national team, as well as club competitions.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries, including all of the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. Many participants threw their economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind this total war, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Aircraft played a major role, enabling the strategic bombing of population centres and the delivery of the only two nuclear weapons ever used in war.

Competitions

The FA Cup trophy used from 1992 to 2013
The FA Cup trophy used from 1992 to 2013

The FA runs several competitions:

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FA Cup

FA Cup

The Football Association Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world. It is organised by and named after The Football Association. Since 2015, it has been known as The Emirates FA Cup after its headline sponsor. A concurrent Women's FA Cup has been held since 1970.

FA Trophy

FA Trophy

The Football Association Challenge Trophy, commonly known as the FA Trophy, is a men's football knockout cup competition run by and named after the English Football Association and competed for primarily by semi-professional teams. The competition was instigated in 1969 to cater to those non-league clubs that paid their players and were therefore not eligible to enter the FA Amateur Cup.

FA Vase

FA Vase

The Football Association Challenge Vase, usually referred to as the FA Vase, is an annual football competition for teams playing in Steps 5 and 6 of the English National League System. For the 2017–18 season 619 entrants were accepted, with two qualifying rounds preceding the seven proper rounds, semi-finals and final to be played at Wembley Stadium.

FA Women's League Cup

FA Women's League Cup

The FA Women's League Cup is a league cup competition in English women's association football. The competition was originally open to the eight teams in the FA WSL, but since the WSL's restructuring to two divisions, it has featured 23 teams. Prior to this it was known as the FA WSL Cup. The sponsor Continental AG was announced on 19 August 2011, meaning that for sponsorship reasons the competition is referred to as the FA Women's Continental Tyres League Cup.

FA Women's National League Cup

FA Women's National League Cup

The Women's National League Cup is an annual English football cup competition, founded in 1991 by the Women's Football Association (WFA). It was renamed the FA Women's Premier League Cup from 1994 to 2018.

FA Sunday Cup

FA Sunday Cup

The FA Sunday Cup is a knock-out competition founded in 1964 for English Sunday league football teams.

FA County Youth Cup

FA County Youth Cup

The FA County Youth Cup is a football competition run by The Football Association in England. It was launched in the 1944–45 season to provide young players who had not yet signed with a professional club, even on a scholarship basis, with competitive representative football.

FA Community Shield

FA Community Shield

The Football Association Community Shield is English football's annual match contested at Wembley Stadium between the champions of the previous Premier League season and the holders of the FA Cup. If the Premier League champions also won the FA Cup, then the league runners-up provide the opposition. The fixture is recognised as a competitive super cup by The Football Association and UEFA.

FA Inter-League Cup

FA Inter-League Cup

The FA Inter-League Cup is a football competition run by The Football Association. It was created in the 2003–04 season to provide an English representative in the UEFA Regions' Cup.

FA Umbro Fives

FA Umbro Fives

The FA Umbro Fives was a national 5-a-side football competition run by The Football Association. The National Final is held every year at Wembley Stadium with winners from Regional Finals across the country competing to become the official 5-a-side champions of England. "The FA Umbro Fives" usually refers to the English men's tournament, although a women's tournament is also held with the final also at Wembley Stadium. The competition was named after its lead sponsor Umbro.

FA Futsal Cup

FA Futsal Cup

The FA Futsal Cup is a national competition organised by the Football Association in the game of futsal.

FA People's Cup

FA People's Cup

The FA People's Cup is an annual English association football tournament organised by The Football Association. The first installment of the tournament, ran in partnership with the British Broadcasting Corporation's "Get Inspired" campaign took place in 2015.

Finance and governance

Finances

The FA's main commercial asset is its ownership of the rights to England internationals and the FA Cup. Broadcasting income remains the FA's largest revenue stream with both domestic and international broadcasting rights for England fixtures and the FA Cup tied up until at least 2021.

For the four seasons from 2008 to 2012, the FA secured £425 million from ITV and Setanta for England and FA Cup games domestic television rights, a 42% increase over the previous contract, and £145 million for overseas television rights, up 272% on the £39 million received for the previous four-year period.[65] However, during 2008–09 Setanta UK went into administration, which weakened the FA's cashflow position.

Turnover for the year ending 31 July 2016 was £370 million on which it made a profit after tax of £7 million. It has also made an investment of £125 million back into every level of Football in 2016. In July 2015 the FA announced plans to carry out a significant organisational restructure, in order to deliver considerable cost savings to invest in elite England teams, facilities and grassroots coaching.[66]

The FA's income does not include the turnover of English football clubs, which are independent businesses. As well as running its own operations the FA chooses five charities each year to which it gives financial support.[67][68]

In three years up to 2014, the FA received £350,000 in fines from players over comments made on Twitter. The highest fine imposed was a £90,000 fine to Ashley Cole in 2012 after calling the FA "a bunch of twats." The FA became stricter on comments made by players on Twitter, disciplining 121 players in three years.[69]

Principals

The Prince of Wales is the current President of the FA.
The Prince of Wales is the current President of the FA.

The FA has a figurehead President, who since 1939 has always been a member of the British royal family. The Chairman of the FA has overall responsibility for policy. Traditionally this person rose through the ranks of the FA's committee structure (e.g. by holding posts such as the chairmanship of a county football association). In 2008 politician David Triesman was appointed as the FA's first "independent chairman", the first from outside the football hierarchy. The day-to-day head of the FA was known as the Secretary until 1989, when the job title was changed to Chief Executive.[70][71][72]

Office-holders
Office Name Tenure
President Arthur Pember 1863–1867
E. C. Morley 1867–1874
Francis Marindin 1874–1890
Lord Kinnaird 1890–1923
Sir Charles Clegg[c] 1923–1937
William Pickford 1937–1939
The Earl of Athlone 1939–1955
The Duke of Edinburgh 1955–1957
The Duke of Gloucester 1957–1963
The Earl of Harewood 1963–1971
The Duke of Kent 1971–2000
The Duke of York 2000–2006
The Prince of Wales[d] 2006–present
Vice President Charles Crump 1886-1923
Chairman/person Charles Clegg 1890–1937
A. G. Hines 1938
M. Frowde 1939–1941
Sir Amos Brook Hirst[e] 1941–1955
Arthur Drewry 1955–1961
Graham Doggart 1961–1963
Joe Mears 1963–1966
Sir Andrew Stephen[f] 1967–1976
Sir Harold Thompson 1976–1981
Bert Millichip 1981–1996
Keith Wiseman 1996–1999
Geoff Thompson 1999–2008
The Lord Triesman 2008–2010
David Bernstein 2011–2013
Greg Dyke 2013–2016
David Gill 2016 (interim)
Greg Clarke 2016–2020
Peter McCormick 2020–2022 (interim)
Debbie Hewitt 2022–present
Secretary E. C. Morley 1863–1866
R. W. Willis 1866–1867
R. G. Graham 1867–1870
C. W. Alcock 1870–1895
Sir Frederick Wall[g] 1895–1934
Sir Stanley Rous[h] 1934–1962
Denis Follows 1962–1973
Ted Croker 1973–1989
Chief executive Graham Kelly 1989–1998
Adam Crozier 2000–2002
David Davies 2002–2003 (acting)
Mark Palios 2003–2004
David Davies 2004–2005 (acting)
Brian Barwick 2005–2008
Ian Watmore 2009–2010
Alex Horne 2010 (acting)
Martin Glenn 2015–2019
Mark Bullingham 2019–present
General Secretary Alex Horne 2010–present
Executive Director David Davies 1998–2000

Board of directors

Taken from The FA's website on 9 January 2022[73]

  • Chairwoman: Debbie Hewitt MBE
  • Chief Executive: Mark Bullingham

National Game representatives:

  • Sue Hough MBE
  • Jack Pearce
  • Thura Win JP

Professional Game representatives:

Independent Non-Executive directors:

  • Kate Tinsley
  • Tim Score

Board observers:

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England national football team

England national football team

The England national football team has represented England in international football since the first international match in 1872. It is controlled by The Football Association (FA), the governing body for football in England, which is affiliated with UEFA and comes under the global jurisdiction of world football's governing body FIFA. England competes in the three major international tournament contested by European nations: the FIFA World Cup, the UEFA European Championship, and the UEFA Nations League.

FA Cup

FA Cup

The Football Association Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world. It is organised by and named after The Football Association. Since 2015, it has been known as The Emirates FA Cup after its headline sponsor. A concurrent Women's FA Cup has been held since 1970.

Ashley Cole

Ashley Cole

Ashley Cole is an English football coach and former player. As a player, he played as a left-back, most notably for Arsenal and Chelsea. Cole is considered by many critics and fellow professional players as one of the best defenders of his generation, one of the greatest English players of all time as well as one of the greatest left-backs in the history of the sport. Born in Stepney, London, Cole began his youth career at Arsenal and made his full debut for the club in November 1999, going on to make 228 appearances and scoring nine goals for the North London club. With Arsenal he won two Premier League titles, three FA Cups, and was an integral member of the "Invincibles" team of the 2003–04 season, who went the entire league season undefeated. Cole also made an appearance in Arsenal's first UEFA Champions League final in 2006; the club lost 2–1 to Barcelona.

British royal family

British royal family

The British royal family comprises King Charles III and his close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member, although the Royal Household has issued different lists outlining who is a part of the royal family. They support the monarch in undertaking public engagements and often pursue charitable work and interests. The royal family are regarded as British and world cultural icons.

David Triesman, Baron Triesman

David Triesman, Baron Triesman

David Maxim Triesman, Baron Triesman is a British politician, merchant banker and former trade union leader.

Arthur Pember

Arthur Pember

Arthur Pember was a British sportsman, stockbroker, lawyer, journalist and author, notable for serving as the first president of The Football Association from 1863 to 1867.

Ebenezer Cobb Morley

Ebenezer Cobb Morley

Ebenezer Cobb Morley was an English sportsman. He is regarded as one of the fathers of the Football Association (FA) and modern football.

Francis Marindin

Francis Marindin

Colonel Sir Francis Arthur Marindin, KCMG served with the Royal Engineers and was a key figure in the early development of association football. He was later knighted for his work in public services.

Arthur Kinnaird, 11th Lord Kinnaird

Arthur Kinnaird, 11th Lord Kinnaird

Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird, 11th Lord Kinnaird, was a British principal of The Football Association and a leading footballer, considered by some journalists as the first football star. He played in nine FA Cup Finals, a record that stands to this day. His record of five wins in the competition stood until 2010, when it was broken by Ashley Cole.

Charles Clegg (footballer)

Charles Clegg (footballer)

Sir John Charles Clegg, better known as Charles Clegg, was an English footballer and later both chairman and president of the Football Association. He was born in Sheffield and lived there his whole life. He competed in the first international match between England and Scotland in 1872. He was the older brother of William Clegg, whom he played both with and against.

Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone

Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone

Major General Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, was a British Army commander and a close relative of the British royal family, who served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa and Governor General of Canada.

George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood

George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood

George Henry Hubert Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood,, styled The Honourable George Lascelles before 1929 and Viscount Lascelles between 1929 and 1947, was a British classical music administrator and author. He served as director of the Royal Opera House, chairman of the board of the English National Opera (ENO) (1986–95); managing director of the ENO (1972–85), managing director of the English National Opera North (1978–81), governor of the BBC (1985–87), and president of the British Board of Film Classification (1985–96).

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Theodore Bell, formerly captain of football at Uppingham School,[8] represented Surbiton at the 'Meeting of the Captains' when the FA was formed;[9] he may also have represented Dingley Dell.[9]
  2. ^ Ireland had since been partitioned. Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, the Irish Free State was independent of Britain. The latter is now the Republic of Ireland.
  3. ^ Known as Charles Clegg until he was knighted in 1927
  4. ^ Known as Prince William of Wales until 2011 and as the Duke of Cambridge between 2011 and 2022
  5. ^ Known as Amos Brook Hirst until he was knighted in 1954
  6. ^ Known as Andrew Stephen until he was knighted in 1972
  7. ^ Known as Frederick Wall until he was knighted in 1930
  8. ^ Known as Stanley Rous until he was knighted in 1949

References

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  3. ^ a b c d "History of Football - The Global Growth". FIFA.com. 1994. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "The History of the FA". The Football Association. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  5. ^ "The spiritual home of the Football Association". The Freemasons Arms, Covent Garden. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2018. It was here that the Football Association met in 1863 to thrash out the laws of a game now played in more than 200 countries across the globe.
  6. ^ "Soccer's Masonic Birthplace". 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  7. ^ J. Deschamps (20 February 2015). "Freemasons Created the Game of Football". Retrieved 13 September 2018., quoting the books “Freemasons For Dummies,” and “Solomon’s Builders: Freemasons", authored by Master Christopher L. Hodapp
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  9. ^ a b Curry, Graham (2020). The Making of Association Football: Two Decades Which Created the Modern Game. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781527562455.
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  14. ^ Sporting Life, 6 January 1864
  15. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 16 January 1864; pg. 3, New Readerships
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  19. ^ a b "Blackburn Olympic 1883". When Saturday Comes. October 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
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  29. ^ "FA reform: Former chiefs say 'elderly white men' block change". BBC News. BBC. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  30. ^ "FA council votes unanimously to accept reforms". BBC Sport. BBC. 3 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  31. ^ "Diving bans: Football Association approves retrospective action". BBC. 18 May 2017.
  32. ^ Taylor, Daniel (16 October 2017). "Revealed: the 14-word email that puts FA's Greg Clarke under fresh scrutiny". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  33. ^ Rumsby, Ben (26 October 2017). "Greg Clarke admits out-of-touch FA has 'lost the trust of the public'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  34. ^ Rumbsy, Ben (25 October 2017). "Greg Clarke under fire again as abuse survivor Andy Woodward accuses FA chairman of 'humiliating' him". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
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  39. ^ Taylor, Daniel (21 November 2016). "Six come forward after Andy Woodward's allegations of abuse at Crewe". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
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  41. ^ Cacciottolo, Mario (25 November 2016). "Football sex abuse claims: Two more ex-players speak out". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
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  43. ^ "Football abuse hotline receives 'staggering surge' in calls". BBC News. BBC. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  44. ^ Dodd, Vikram (1 December 2016). "Police say 350 people have come forward to report child sex abuse in football". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  45. ^ "Football sex abuse: England captains make child safety film". BBC News. BBC. 3 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  46. ^ "FA sets up review into child sex abuse in football after Barry Bennell claims". The Guardian. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  47. ^ "Football Association child sex abuse review 'not enough'". BBC. 28 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  48. ^ Reed, Jim; Ray, Louis Lee (8 December 2016). "Football abuse: FA reacted 'dismissively' to protection calls". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  49. ^ Reed, Jim (30 November 2016). "FA 'pulled all funding' from child protection project". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  50. ^ Taylor, Daniel (1 April 2017). "Police receive reports that child abuse is still happening in football". The Observer. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  51. ^ "Southampton 'abuser' still working in football". BBC News. BBC. 3 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
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Uppingham School

Uppingham School

Uppingham School is a public school in Uppingham, Rutland, England, founded in 1584 by Robert Johnson, the Archdeacon of Leicester, who also established Oakham School. The headmaster, Richard J. Maloney, belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference and the school to the Rugby Group of British independent schools. Edward Thring was the school's best-known headmaster. His curriculum changes were adopted in other English public schools. John Wolfenden, headmaster from 1934 to 1944, chaired the Wolfenden Committee, whose report recommending the decriminalisation of homosexuality appeared in 1957. Uppingham has a musical tradition based on work by Paul David and Robert Sterndale Bennett. It has the biggest playing-field area of any school in England, in three separate areas of the town: Leicester to the west, Middle to the south, and Upper to the east.

Dingley Dell F.C.

Dingley Dell F.C.

Dingley Dell Football Club was a short-lived English association football club based in the London area in the late 1850s and early 1860s.

Irish Free State

Irish Free State

The Irish Free State was a state established in December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. The treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the Irish Republic – the Irish Republican Army (IRA) – and British Crown forces.

Republic of Ireland

Republic of Ireland

Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern side of the island. Around 2.1 million of the country's population of 5.13 million people reside in the Greater Dublin Area. The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann; an upper house, Seanad Éireann; and an elected President who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

Christopher L. Hodapp

Christopher L. Hodapp

Christopher L. Hodapp is an American author and filmmaker, noted for his writings about Freemasonry, fraternalism, the Knights Templar, secret societies and conspiracy theories. He is the founding editor in chief of the Journal of The Masonic Society, the Associate Director of the Masonic Library and Museum of Indiana, and Public Relations Director for the Grand Lodge F&AM of Indiana.

New Statesman

New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural newsmagazine published in London. Founded as a weekly review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was at first connected with Sidney and Beatrice Webb and other leading members of the socialist Fabian Society, such as George Bernard Shaw, who was a founding director.

Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation

Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation

Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation (WSFF) is the UK charity that campaigns to make physical activity an everyday part of life for women and girls. It was founded in 1984 as Women's Sports Foundation (WSF), or Women's Sports Foundation UK. It gains most of its funding through Sport England.

Wayback Machine

Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit based in San Francisco, California. Created in 1996 and launched to the public in 2001, it allows the user to go "back in time" and see how websites looked in the past. Its founders, Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, developed the Wayback Machine to provide "universal access to all knowledge" by preserving archived copies of defunct web pages.

Source: "The Football Association", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 21st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Football_Association.

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