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TERF

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Anti-TERF placard at Equality March 2022 in Gdańsk
Anti-TERF placard at Equality March 2022 in Gdańsk

TERF (/tɜːrf/) is an acronym for trans-exclusionary radical feminist. First recorded in 2008, the term was originally used to distinguish trans-inclusive feminists from a group of radical feminists who reject the assertion that trans women are women, the inclusion of trans women in women's spaces, and transgender rights legislation. Trans-inclusive feminists assert that these ideas are transphobic. The use of the term TERF has since broadened to include reference to people with trans-exclusionary views who are not necessarily involved with radical feminism.[1][2][3]

Though TERF was created to be a "deliberately technically neutral description", the term is now typically considered derogatory or disparaging.[4][5] People labeled TERFs often reject the label, instead describing their beliefs as gender critical.[6][7] In academic discourse, there is no clear consensus on whether TERF constitutes a slur. Critics of the label have pointed to its usage alongside insulting or abusive rhetoric, and described it as a "bullying tool",[8][9][10][11] while other academics have argued that this alone does not make it a slur.[10][11][12]

Origin

Trans-inclusive cisgender radical feminist blogger Viv Smythe has been credited with creating and popularizing the term[3] in 2008 as an online shorthand. Smythe coined the term, due to a blog post she wrote reacting to the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival's policy of denying admittance to trans women. She wrote that she rejected the alignment of all radical feminists with "trans-exclusionary radfem (TERF) activists".[13][13] It was used to describe a minority of feminists[1] who espouse sentiments that other feminists consider transphobic,[2][3][14][15] including the rejection of the view – predominant in feminist organizations[16] – that trans women are women, opposition to transgender rights,[16] and the exclusion of trans women in women's spaces and organizations.[17] In a 2014 interview with Cristan Williams of The TransAdvocate blog, Smythe – using her net-pseudonym "TigTog"[18] – said:

It was meant to be a deliberately technically neutral description of an activist grouping. We wanted a way to distinguish TERFs from other radfems with whom we engaged who were trans*-positive/neutral, because we had several years of history of engaging productively/substantively with non-TERF radfems...[19][20]

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Cisgender

Cisgender

Cisgender is a term used to describe a person whose gender identity corresponds to their sex assigned at birth. The word cisgender is the antonym of transgender. The prefix cis- is Latin and means on this side of. The term cisgender was coined in 1994 and entered into dictionaries starting in 2015 as a result of changes in social discourse about gender. The term has at times been controversial and subject to critique.

Blog

Blog

A blog is an informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page. The first blogger of the internet, named Justin Hall, a college undergrad, was found in 1994. That site was links.net and still active till the date. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" (MABs) emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.

Shorthand

Shorthand

Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein. It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short), and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys, depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal.

Michigan Womyn's Music Festival

Michigan Womyn's Music Festival

The Michigan Womyn's Music Festival, often referred to as MWMF or Michfest, was a feminist women's music festival held annually from 1976 to 2015 in Oceana County, Michigan, on privately owned woodland near Hart Township referred to as "The Land" by Michfest organizers and attendees. The event was built, staffed, run, and attended exclusively by women, with girls, young boys and toddlers permitted.

Feminism

Feminism

Feminism is a range of socio-political movements and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism holds the position that societies prioritize the male point of view and that women are treated unjustly in these societies. Efforts to change this include fighting against gender stereotypes and improving educational, professional, and interpersonal opportunities and outcomes for women.

Transphobia

Transphobia

Transphobia is a collection of ideas and phenomena that encompass a range of negative attitudes, feelings, or actions towards transgender people or transness in general. Transphobia can include fear, aversion, hatred, violence or anger towards people who do not conform to social gender expectations. It is often expressed alongside homophobic views and hence is often considered an aspect of homophobia. Transphobia is a type of prejudice and discrimination, similar to racism and sexism, and transgender people of color are often subjected to all three forms of discrimination at once.

Usage

Smythe initially used TERF to refer to a particular type of feminist whom she characterized as "unwilling to recognise trans women as sisters" but notes that the term has taken on additional connotations and that it has been "weaponised at times" by both inclusionary and exclusionary groups.[13] The term has since become an established part of the contemporary feminist language but its usage is contested.[21]

Several writers have observed that TERF can be used in broader senses to refer to trans-exclusionary feminists who are not radical, people with a certain kind of trans-exclusionary politics regardless of whether they are radical feminists or even things that are culturally associated with second-wave feminism in general.[2][3][22]

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) added an entry for TERF (noun) in June 2022, which states that although the term was first intended as a neutral descriptor, it is "now typically regarded as derogatory".[5] OED editor Fiona McPherson explained that because "there is a little bit more nuance behind its usage – it's not always just a straight-out insult", the dictionary's editors opted to explain this rather than simply label the term "derogatory" or "chiefly derogatory".[23]

Slur debate

People that have TERF directed at them often characterize it as a pejorative or hate speech.[6][24][25] In a July 2018 solicitation of essays regarding "transgender identities", British magazine The Economist required writers to "avoid all slurs, including TERF", stating that the word was used to try to silence opinions and sometimes incite violence.[26] In August 2018, seven British philosophers wrote on the website Daily Nous that two articles by Veronica Ivy[12] and Jason Stanley[27] published in the journal Philosophy and Phenomenological Research normalized the term. They described the term as "at worst a slur and at best derogatory", and argued that it had been used to denigrate those "who disagree with the dominant narrative on trans issues".[10][11][28] In response, Ernest Sosa, the journal's editor in chief, stated that scholars consulted by the journal advised that the term could become a slur at some point, but that its use as a denigrating term in some contexts did not mean that it could not be used descriptively.[11]

Transgender rights activists generally but not always disagree that the term is a slur. Transgender author Andrea Long Chu described the claim that TERF was a slur as "a grievance that would be beneath contempt if it weren't also true, in the sense that all bywords for bigots are intended to be defamatory."[29]

Linguists and philosophers of language have been skeptical of the idea that the term TERF is a slur. Transgender rights activist[30] and philosophy of language professor Veronica Ivy argues that just because the word could be used pejoratively, it did not mean it was a slur in general.[12] In a 2020 paper published in the philosophy journal Grazer Philosophische Studien, linguists Christopher Davis and Elin McCready argued that three properties could make a term a slur: it had to be derogatory towards a particular group, used to subordinate them within some structure of power relations and that the derogated group must be defined by an intrinsic property. Davis and McCready wrote that the term TERF satisfied the first condition, but failed the third condition, and that the second condition was contentious, in that it depended upon how each group saw itself in relation to the other group.[31] Philosophy of language professor Jennifer Saul disagreed with categorizing TERF as a slur, arguing that a term does not necessarily become a slur when coupled with violent or abusive rhetoric. However, she argued that the term is inaccurate because not all people described as TERFs could reasonably be considered feminists, preferring the term "anti-trans activists" instead.[32]

Other feminist philosophers have differing opinions on the term. Feminist philosopher Talia Mae Bettcher argued that, regardless of whether the term was accurately classified as a slur, it "has at least become offensive to those designated by the term", which suggested it might be best to avoid "in case one wants to have a conversation across deep difference".[33] Feminist philosopher Judith Butler disputed that the term TERF was a slur in an interview with New Statesman, saying "I wonder what name self-declared feminists who wish to exclude trans women from women's spaces would be called? If they do favour exclusion, why not call them exclusionary? If they understand themselves as belonging to that strain of radical feminism that opposes gender reassignment, why not call them radical feminists?"[34]

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Oxford English Dictionary

Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.

Pejorative

Pejorative

A pejorative or slur is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative or a disrespectful connotation, a low opinion, or a lack of respect toward someone or something. It is also used to express criticism, hostility, or disregard. Sometimes, a term is regarded as pejorative in some social or ethnic groups but not in others, or may be originally pejorative but later adopt a non-pejorative sense in some or all contexts.

Hate speech

Hate speech

Hate speech is defined by the Cambridge Dictionary as "public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation". Hate speech is "usually thought to include communications of animosity or disparagement of an individual or a group on account of a group characteristic such as race, colour, national origin, sex, disability, religion, or sexual orientation". Legal definitions of hate speech vary from country to country.

Jason Stanley

Jason Stanley

Jason Stanley is an American philosopher who is the Jacob Urowsky Professor of Philosophy at Yale University. He is best known for his contributions to philosophy of language and epistemology, which often draw upon and influence other fields, including linguistics and cognitive science. He has written for a popular audience on the New York Times philosophy blog "The Stone". In his more recent work, Stanley has brought tools from philosophy of language and epistemology to bear on questions of political philosophy, especially in his 2015 book How Propaganda Works.

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (PPR) is a bimonthly philosophy journal founded in 1940. Until 1980, it was edited by Marvin Farber, then by Roderick Chisholm and since 1986 by Ernest Sosa. It considers itself open to a variety of methodologies and traditions, as indicated by a statement appearing in each issue: "PPR publishes articles in a wide range of areas including philosophy of mind, epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, and philosophical history of philosophy. No specific methodology or philosophical orientation is required in submissions." It is published by the International Phenomenological Society based at Brown University in Rhode Island, United States.

Andrea Long Chu

Andrea Long Chu

Andrea Long Chu is an American writer and critic. Chu has written for such publications as n+1 and The New York Times, and various academic journals including differences, Women & Performance, and Transgender Studies Quarterly. Chu's first book, Females, was published in 2019 by Verso Books and was a finalist for the Lambda Literary Award. In 2021, she joined the staff at New York Magazine as a book critic.

Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language

In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language and the relations between language, language users, and the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of meaning, intentionality, reference, the constitution of sentences, concepts, learning, and thought.

Grazer Philosophische Studien

Grazer Philosophische Studien

Grazer Philosophische Studien/International Journal for Analytic Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal on philosophy published by Rodopi Publishers. It was established in 1975 by Rudolf Haller and is currently edited by Johannes L. Brandl, Marian David, Maria E. Reicher-Marek, and Leopold Stubenberg. At least two volumes of the journal appear each year, including special issues on selected topics. The journal covers all aspects of philosophy, especially analytical philosophy. Contributions are in English or German.

Elin McCready

Elin McCready

Elin McCready is an American linguist and professor in the Department of English Language and Literature at Aoyama Gakuin University. She researches semantics, pragmatics, and philosophy of language, focusing in particular on phenomena like evidentials, honorifics, and slurs. She is also co-director of Aoyama Gakuin University's Singularity Research Institute.

Jennifer Saul

Jennifer Saul

Jennifer Mather Saul is a philosopher working in philosophy of language and philosophy of feminism. Saul is a professor of philosophy at the University of Sheffield and the University of Waterloo.

Judith Butler

Judith Butler

Judith Pamela Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics, and the fields of third-wave feminism, queer theory, and literary theory. In 1993, Butler began teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, where they have served, beginning in 1998, as the Maxine Elliot Professor in the Department of Comparative Literature and the Program of Critical Theory. They are also the Hannah Arendt Chair at the European Graduate School.

New Statesman

New Statesman

The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London. Founded as a weekly review of politics and literature on 12 April 1913, it was at first connected with Sidney and Beatrice Webb and other leading members of the socialist Fabian Society, such as George Bernard Shaw, who was a founding director.

Rejection of term by gender-critical feminists

Feminist people labeled as TERFs generally object to the term and may refer to themselves as gender critical.[6][11][35] In 2017, British columnist Sarah Ditum wrote that "the bar to being called a 'terf' is remarkably low", citing PinkNews's criticism of Woman's Hour presenter Jenni Murray and a Medium writer's blog entry about Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.[36]

In a 2015 article, American feminist scholar Bonnie J. Morris argued that TERF was initially a legitimate analytical term, but quickly developed into a defamatory word associated with sexist insults. She described the word as "emblematic of the unresolved tensions between our LGBT community's L and T factions" and called on scholars and journalists to stop using it.[37]

British journalist Catherine Bennett has described the word as "a bullying tool", which had "already succeeded in repressing speech – and maybe even research".[8][38] In 2017, British feminist author Claire Heuchan argued that the word was often used alongside "violent rhetoric",[9][39] and that this violent language was used to "dehumanise women who are critical of gender as part of a political system", often lesbians.[9] British clinical psychologist and medical sociologist David Pilgrim says that phrases like "Kill a TERF!" or "Punch a TERF!" are also posted by trolls online, and that there had been other depictions of violence aimed at women labeled as TERFs.[40]

The 2018 United Kingdom All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Hate Crime received several submissions that indicated a high degree of tension between trans activists and feminist groups opposed to transgender rights legislation, with both sides detailing incidents of extreme or abusive language. The report noted that some women had submitted reports which argued that "women who object to the inclusion of trans women as female are being attacked both online and, in the street, with the term 'trans-exclusionary radical feminist' or 'TERF' being used as a term of abuse."[41]

Some people who have been called trans-exclusionary radical feminists say that trans-exclusionary is an inaccurate label, as they are inclusive of transgender men, who have a female sex assignment.[42] Peter Cava notes that when these feminists are inclusive of trans men, they often gender them as women.[43] Linguists Christopher Davis and Elin McCready view this "purported support" of trans men as a denial of their agency and self-determination, and suggest it is trans-exclusionary "because it excludes the very category of 'trans man'".[31]

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Sarah Ditum

Sarah Ditum

Sarah Ditum is an English opinion columnist and freelance writer whose work has appeared in publications including The Guardian, New Statesman, The Times, and UnHerd. She is based in Bath. Ditum's writing has covered issues including violence against women, gender identity, parenting, British parliamentary politics and cancel culture. She also writes regular book reviews. In 2021, Fleet acquired Ditum's book Upskirt Decade: Women, Fame and The Noughties, which is scheduled to be released in 2023.

PinkNews

PinkNews

PinkNews is a UK-based online newspaper marketed to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community (LGBT) in the UK and worldwide. It was founded by Benjamin Cohen in July 2005.

Woman's Hour

Woman's Hour

Woman's Hour is a radio magazine programme broadcast in the United Kingdom on the BBC Light Programme, BBC Radio 2, and later BBC Radio 4. It has been on the air since 1946.

Jenni Murray

Jenni Murray

Dame Jennifer Susan Murray, is an English journalist and broadcaster, best known for presenting BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour from 1987 to 2020.

Medium (website)

Medium (website)

Medium is an American online publishing platform developed by Evan Williams and launched in August 2012. It is owned by A Medium Corporation. The platform is an example of social journalism, having a hybrid collection of amateur and professional people and publications, or exclusive blogs or publishers on Medium, and is regularly regarded as a blog host.

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is situated between the Sahel to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south in the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 923,769 square kilometres (356,669 sq mi), and with a population of over 225 million, it is the most populous country in Africa, and the world's sixth-most populous country. Nigeria borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the second-largest in Africa.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is a Nigerian writer whose works include novels, short stories and nonfiction. She was described in The Times Literary Supplement as "the most prominent" of a "procession of critically acclaimed young anglophone authors [which] is succeeding in attracting a new generation of readers to African literature", particularly in her second home, the United States.

Bonnie J. Morris

Bonnie J. Morris

Bonnie J. Morris is an American scholar of women's studies. She completed a PhD in women's history at Binghamton University in 1989 and has taught at various universities including Georgetown University, George Washington University, and University of California, Berkeley.

Catherine Bennett (journalist)

Catherine Bennett (journalist)

Catherine Dorothea Bennett is a British journalist.

All-party parliamentary group

All-party parliamentary group

An all-party parliamentary group (APPG) is a grouping in the Parliament of the United Kingdom that is composed of members of parliament from all political parties, but have no official status within Parliament.

Sex assignment

Sex assignment

Sex assignment is the discernment of an infant's sex at or before birth. A relative, midwife, nurse or physician inspects the external genitalia when the baby is delivered and, in more than 99.95% of births, sex is assigned without ambiguity. Assignment may also be done prior to birth through prenatal sex discernment.

Elin McCready

Elin McCready

Elin McCready is an American linguist and professor in the Department of English Language and Literature at Aoyama Gakuin University. She researches semantics, pragmatics, and philosophy of language, focusing in particular on phenomena like evidentials, honorifics, and slurs. She is also co-director of Aoyama Gakuin University's Singularity Research Institute.

Source: "TERF", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TERF.

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References
  1. ^ a b Stryker, Susan; Bettcher, Talia M. (1 May 2016). "Introduction". TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 3 (1–2): 5–14. doi:10.1215/23289252-3334127.
  2. ^ a b c Lewis, Sophie (7 February 2019). "Opinion | How British Feminism Became Anti-Trans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019. If the idea that transphobic harassment could be "feminist" bewilders you, you are not alone. ... With time, the term TERF has become a catchall for all anti-trans feminists, radical or not.
  3. ^ a b c d Miller, Edie (5 November 2018). "Why Is British Media So Transphobic?". The Outline. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019. The truth is, while the British conservative right would almost certainly be more than happy to whip up a frenzy of transphobia, they simply haven't needed to, because some sections of the left over here are doing their hate-peddling for them. The most vocal source of this hatred has emerged, sadly, from within circles of radical feminists. British feminism has an increasingly notorious TERF problem. ... The application of the term has shifted somewhat over time to encompass most people espousing trans-exclusionary politics that follow a particular "TERF logic," regardless of their involvement with radical feminism.
  4. ^ "TERF". 15 January 2023. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  5. ^ a b "TERF". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. June 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  6. ^ a b c Vasquez, Tina (17 February 2014). "It's Time to End the Long History of Feminism Failing Transgender Women". Bitch. Bitch Media. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019. [Cathy] Brennan, fellow attorney Elizabeth Hungerford, and other modern-day feminists continue to actively question the inclusion of trans people in women's spaces. These feminists refer to themselves as "radical feminists" or "gender critical feminists." In 2008, trans women and trans advocates started referring to this group as "trans-exclusionary radical feminists" or TERFs, a term Brennan considers a slur.
  7. ^ Gutzwa, Justin A. (2021). "Trans-Exclusionary Radical Feminists (TERFs)". Encyclopedia of Queer Studies in Education. pp. 695–698. doi:10.1163/9789004506725_137. ISBN 978-90-04-50672-5. S2CID 246690677. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  8. ^ a b Bennett, Catherine (19 November 2017). "Bullies everywhere delight in coming up with new insults". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2019. the advance of terf, as a bullying tool, has already succeeded in repressing speech – and maybe even research ... ugly terf, fucking terf scum
  9. ^ a b c Heuchan, Claire (6 October 2017). "If feminist Linda Bellos is seen as a risk, progressive politics has lost its way". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2019. Terf stands for trans-exclusionary radical feminist. Online, it often it [sic] appears alongside violent rhetoric: punch a Terf, stab a Terf, kill a Terf. This language is used to dehumanise women who are critical of gender as part of a political system.
  10. ^ a b c Allen, Sophie R.; Finneron-Burns, Elizabeth; Leng, Mary; Lawford-Smith, Holly; Jones, Jane Clare; Reilly-Cooper, Rebecca; Simpson, R. J. (24 September 2018). "On an Alleged Case of Propaganda: Reply to McKinnon". Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022. representative examples of derogatory uses of the term: 'kill all TERFs'; 'shoot a terf today'; 'all TERFs deserve to be shot in the head'; 'somebody slap this TERF c*nt across the face'; 'literally kill all TERFs' ... To summarize, we've considered three specific accounts of slurs, Anderson and Lepore's account which appeals to whether those targeted by the term take it to be a slur, Nunberg's account on which slurs signal in-group membership, and Swanson's account on which slurs cue harmful ideologies. We've argued that 'TERF' is a slur on all three of the specific accounts surveyed.
  11. ^ a b c d e Flaherty, Colleen (29 August 2018). "'TERF' War – Philosophers object to a journal's publication 'TERF,' in reference to some feminists. Is it really a slur?". Inside Higher Ed. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019. While the term has become controversial over time, especially with its often hateful deployment on social media, it originally described a subgroup of feminists who believe that the interests of cisgender women (those who are born with vaginas) don't necessarily intersect with those of transgender women (primarily those born with penises) ... TERF 'is widely used across online platforms as a way to denigrate and dismiss the women (and some men) who disagree with the dominant narrative on trans issues' ... Targeted groups include 'lesbians who merely maintain that same-sex attraction is not equivalent to transphobia,' and 'women who believe that women's oppression is sex-based, and are concerned about erasing the political importance of female bodies' ...
  12. ^ a b c McKinnon, Rachel (7 March 2018). "The Epistemology of Propaganda". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 96 (2): 483–489. doi:10.1111/phpr.12429. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022. many contemporary TERFs accuse trans women of coining the phrase/term—and, ludicrously, claim that 'TERF' is a misogynistic slur. ... The idea—it seems to be—is that 'TERF' is a term used to denigrate women, and so it is a slur. However, this is an absurd, nonsensical view of the nature of slurs.
  13. ^ a b c Smythe, Viv (28 November 2018). "I'm credited with having coined the word 'Terf'. Here's how it happened". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2019. Due to a short series of blogposts from 2008, I have retrospectively been credited as the coiner of the acronym "Terf" (Trans Exclusionary Radical Feminists) ... a shorthand to describe one cohort of feminists who self-identify as radical and are unwilling to recognise trans women as sisters, unlike those of us who do.
  14. ^ Dastagir, Alia (16 March 2017). "A feminist glossary because we didn't all major in gender studies". USA Today. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019. TERF: The acronym for 'trans exclusionary radical feminists,' referring to feminists who are transphobic.
  15. ^ Bollinger, Alex (19 December 2018). "Famous lesbian site taken over by anti-trans 'feminists'. Now lesbian media is standing up". www.lgbtqnation.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  16. ^ a b Burns, Katelyn (5 September 2019). "The rise of anti-trans "radical" feminists, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2022. "I don't think American women are buying it," she said, pointing out that nearly every major US feminist advocacy group is vocally pro-trans rights and inclusion.
  17. ^ O'Connell, Jennifer (26 January 2019). "Transgender for beginners: Trans, terf, cis and safe spaces". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  18. ^ "Viv Smythe". abc.net.au. ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  19. ^ Williams, Cristan (1 May 2016). "Radical Inclusion". TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly. 3 (1–2): 254–258. doi:10.1215/23289252-3334463.
  20. ^ "TERF: what it means and where it came from". TransAdvocate.com. 15 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  21. ^ Hines, Sally (17 February 2019). "The feminist frontier: on trans and feminism". Journal of Gender Studies. 28 (2): 145–157. doi:10.1080/09589236.2017.1411791. S2CID 149145967.
  22. ^ Wilson, Lena (16 August 2018). "Do I Have to Give Up Lesbian History to Participate in Queer Culture?". Slate. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2019. TERF, as an insult, has become so far removed from its original activist intentions (rightly criticizing trans exclusion in feminism) that, at this point, it's also a word for anything that queer millennials deem uncool. Things I've seen called "TERFy" on Twitter and Tumblr include tampon ads, the word "female," the non-word "womxn," Janelle Monae's "Pynk," the Venus symbol, bangs, Jill Stein, Cardi B, and ... trans women.
  23. ^ ""Terf", "pangender" and "vaxxer" included in the OED new words list". New Statesman. 22 June 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  24. ^ Compton, Julie (14 January 2019). "'Pro-lesbian' or 'trans-exclusionary'? Old animosities boil into public view". NBC News. Archived from the original on 19 June 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  25. ^ Goldberg, Michelle (4 August 2014). "What Is a Woman?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2015. TERF stands for 'trans-exclusionary radical feminist.' The term can be useful for making a distinction with radical feminists who do not share the same position, but those at whom it is directed consider it a slur.
  26. ^ "Transgender identities: a series of invited essays". The Economist. 29 June 2018. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2019. In the interests of fostering open debate we have set ground rules, both for essays and reader comments: use the pronouns people want you to use, and avoid all slurs, including TERF (trans-exclusionary radical feminist), which may have started as a descriptive term but is now used to try to silence a vast swathe of opinions on trans issues, and sometimes to incite violence against women.
  27. ^ Stanley, Jason (7 March 2018). "Replies". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 96 (2): 497–511. doi:10.1111/phpr.12427.
  28. ^ Weinberg, Justin (27 August 2018). "Derogatory Language in Philosophy Journal Risks Increased Hostility and Diminished Discussion". Daily Nous. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  29. ^ Chu, Andrea Long (Winter 2018). "On Liking Women". n+1. No. 30. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2019. They also don't much like the name TERF, which they take to be a slur—a grievance that would be beneath contempt if it weren't also true, in the sense that all bywords for bigots are intended to be defamatory.
  30. ^ Magowan, Alistair (18 December 2018). "Transgender women in sport: Are they really a 'threat' to female sport?". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  31. ^ a b Davis, Christopher; McCready, Elin (4 March 2020). "The Instability of Slurs". Grazer Philosophische Studien. Brill Publishers. 97: 63–85. doi:10.1163/18756735-09701005. S2CID 216218536.
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  33. ^ Bettcher, Talia Mae (November 2017). "Trans Feminism: Recent Philosophical Developments". Philosophy Compass. 12 (17): 7. doi:10.1111/phc3.12438. Part of the issue, however, concerns whether the expression continues to be used as a mere abbreviation for a description of a position (i.e., Trans-Exclusive Radical Feminist) as it was originally coined or whether it has also acquired a derogatory use. The issues here are delicate ... it seems that caution should at least be deployed in case one wants to have a conversation across deep difference. This seems particularly important since much of trans politics is deeply committed to the importance of self-naming and respect for self-identities.
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  36. ^ Ditum, Sarah (29 September 2017). "What is a Terf? How an internet buzzword became a mainstream slur". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019. On the other hand, if you are a feminist, the bar to being called a 'terf' is remarkably low. Woman's Hour presenter Jenni Murray achieved it by writing an article in which she pointed out that someone born and raised male will not have the same experiences of sexism as a woman; novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie likewise made the grade by answering 'transwomen are transwomen' when asked whether she believed that 'transwomen are women'.
  37. ^ Morris, Bonnie J. (July–August 2015). "The Hijacking of Lesbian History". The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide. Vol. 22, no. 4. pp. 13–15. TERF is an important new slur, emblematic of the unresolved tensions between our LGBT community's L and T factions. ... It began as a legitimate means of isolating and critiquing the work of a very few controversial feminist authors, namely Janice Raymond and Sheila Jeffreys ... TERF is a unique new insult for non-transgender lesbians by other LGBT activists, and it bears monitoring. Those women relegated to the TERF bin of bad feminism are now being subjected to traditional sexist canards, including charges of unattractiveness, mental instability, and penis envy. ... My charge to every responsible editor, journalist, feminist scholar, and LGBT historian is to please stop recycling the acronym TERF; it is defamatory. p. 13 Archived 7 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine, p. 14 Archived 7 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine, p. 15 Archived 7 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Bennett, Catherine (29 April 2018). "Violent misogyny is unfortunately not confined to the internet's 'incels'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019. Photographs of one vitrine, featuring a red bespattered T-shirt reading: "I punch terfs!" (trans-exclusionary radical feminists/women who disagree with me), may have struck a chord with anyone following the current UK debate about the government's self-ID proposals. To date, threats, from one side, which echo, inescapably, some of those in the pro-Rodger playbook ("die in a fire terf scum") have yet to generate comparably widespread concern, even after a woman was punched. Her assailant had earlier expressed the wish to "fuck up some terfs".
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  41. ^ All Party Parliamentary Group on Hate Crime (2019). "How Do We Build Community Cohesion When Hate Crime Is On The Rise?" (PDF). House of Commons of the United Kingdom. pp. 25–26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  42. ^ Flaherty, Colleen (29 August 2018). "'TERF' War – Philosophers object to a journal's publication 'TERF,' in reference to some feminists. Is it really a slur?". Inside Higher Ed. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019. Allen objected ... 'most radical feminists who are apparently described' by the term TERF are inclusive of trans men, and so are not 'trans-exclusionary' anyway, she said.
  43. ^ Cava, Peter (12 May 2014). "Activism, Politics, and Organizing". In Erickson-Schroth, Laura (ed.). Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: A Resource for the Transgender Community. Oxford University Press. pp. 568–569. ISBN 978-0199325351. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2019. Some feminists have perceived transmasculine people as traitors—that is, as women who identify politically with men. When inclusive of trans men, these feminists have often gendered them as women. Conversely, these feminists have tended to perceive transfeminine people as infiltrators of womanhood and women's space. Many commentators refer to feminists who think in these ways as 'trans-exclusionary radical feminists' (TERFs).
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