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Sukhoi Su-30MKI

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Su-30MKI
SU-30MKI-g4sp - edit 2(clipped).jpg
An Indian Air Force Su-30MKI
Role Multirole fighter, air superiority fighter
National origin Russia / India
Manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Design group Sukhoi
First flight Su-30МК: 1 July 1997; 25 years ago (1997-07-01)
Su-30MKI: 2000; 22 years ago (2000)
Introduction 27 September 2002
Status In service
Primary user Indian Air Force
Produced Su-30MKI: 2000–present
Number built 272 as of March 2020[1][2]
Developed from Sukhoi Su-30
Variants Sukhoi Su-30MKM

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI[a] (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter.

Development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets.[3] The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was accepted into the Indian Air Force in 2002,[4] while the first Su-30MKI assembled in India entered service with the IAF in 2004.[5] The IAF has nearly 260 Su-30MKIs in inventory as of January 2020.[6] The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond.[7]

The aircraft is tailor-made for Indian specifications and integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as French and Israeli sub-systems.[8] It has abilities similar to the Sukhoi Su-35 with which it shares many features and components.[b][9]

Discover more about Sukhoi Su-30MKI related topics

NATO reporting name

NATO reporting name

NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc. They provide unambiguous and easily understood English words in a uniform manner in place of the original designations, which either may have been unknown to the Western world at the time or easily confused codes. For example, the Russian bomber jet Tupolev Tu-160 is simply called "Blackjack".

Twinjet

Twinjet

A twinjet or twin-engine jet is a jet aircraft powered by two engines. A twinjet is able to fly well enough to land with a single working engine, making it safer than a single-engine aircraft in the event of failure of an engine. Fuel efficiency of a twinjet is better than that of aircraft with more engines. These considerations have led to the widespread use of aircraft of all types with twin engines, including airliners, fixed-wing military aircraft, and others.

Multirole combat aircraft

Multirole combat aircraft

A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat. These roles can include air to air combat, air support, aerial bombing, reconnaissance, electronic warfare, and suppression of air defenses.

Air superiority fighter

Air superiority fighter

An air superiority fighter is a fighter aircraft designed to seize control of enemy airspace by establishing tactical dominance over the opposing air force. Air-superiority fighters are primarily tasked to perform aerial combat against agile, lightly armed aircraft and eliminate any challenge over control of the airspace, although some may have a secondary role for air-to-surface attacks.

Sukhoi

Sukhoi

The JSC Sukhoi Company is a Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, that designs both civilian and military aircraft. It was founded in the Soviet Union by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau. During February 2006, the Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Bangalore, India. Established on 23 December 1940, HAL is one of the oldest and largest aerospace and defence manufacturers in the world today. HAL began aircraft manufacturing as early as 1942 with licensed production of Harlow PC-5, Curtiss P-36 Hawk and Vultee A-31 Vengeance for the Indian Air Force. HAL currently has 11 dedicated Research and development (R&D) centers and 21 manufacturing divisions under 4 production units spread across India. HAL is managed by a Board of Directors appointed by the President of India through the Ministry of Defence, Government of India. HAL is currently involved in designing and manufacturing of fighter jets, helicopters, jet engine and marine gas turbine engine, avionics, software development, spares supply, overhauling and upgrading of Indian military aircraft.

Indian Air Force

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force (IAF) is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks third amongst the air forces of the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honoured India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix Royal. After India gained independence from United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India. With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix Royal was removed.

Sukhoi Su-30

Sukhoi Su-30

The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a multirole fighter for all-weather, air-to-air and air interdiction missions.

Sukhoi Su-35

Sukhoi Su-35

The Sukhoi Su-35 is the designation for two improved derivatives of the Su-27 air-defence fighter. They are single-seat, twin-engine, supermaneuverable aircraft, designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau and built by Sukhoi.

Development

Origins and acquisition

The Su-30MKI was designed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation beginning in 1995 and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).[10][11] The Su-30MKI is derived from the Sukhoi Su-27 and has a fusion of technology from the Su-37 demonstrator and Su-30 program,[12] being more advanced than the Su-30MK and the Chinese Su-30MKK/MK2.[12] Russia's Defence Ministry was impressed with the type's performance envelope and ordered 30 Su-30SMs, a localised Su-30MKI, for the Russian Air Force.[13] It features state of the art avionics developed by Russia, India and Israel for display, navigation, targeting and electronic warfare; France and South Africa provided other avionics.[14][15]

After two years of evaluation and negotiations, on 30 November 1996, India signed a US$1.462 billion deal with Sukhoi for 50 Russian-produced Su-30MKIs in five batches. The first batch were eight Su-30MKs, the basic version of Su-30. The second batch were to be 10 Su-30MKIs with French and Israeli avionics. The third batch were to be 10 Su-30MKIs featuring canard foreplanes. The fourth batch of 12 Su-30MKIs and final batch of 10 Su-30MKIs were to have the AL-31FP turbofans.

In October 2000, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed for Indian licence-production of 140 Su-30MKIs; in December 2000, a deal was sealed at Russia's Irkutsk aircraft plant for full technology transfer. The Indian Air Force (IAF) has ordered 272 aircraft, of which 50 were to be delivered by Russia in 2002-2004 and 2007. The rest of 222 planes are to be produced under license at HAL's Indian facilities in 2004.[16] The first Nasik-built Su-30MKIs were to be delivered by 2004, with staggered production until 2017–18. In November 2002, the delivery schedule was expedited with production to be completed by 2015.[17] An estimated 920 AL-31FP turbofans are to be manufactured at HAL's Koraput Division, while the mainframe and other accessories are to be manufactured at HAL's Lucknow and Hyderabad divisions. Final integration and test flights of the aircraft are carried out at HAL's Nasik Division.[18] Four manufacturing phases were outlined with progressively increasing Indian content: Phase I, II, III and IV. In phase I, HAL manufactured the Su-30MKIs from knocked-down kits, transitioning to semi knocked-down kits in phase II and III; in phase IV, HAL produced aircraft from scratch from 2013 onwards.[19][20]

IAF Su-30MKI
IAF Su-30MKI

In 2007, another order of 40 Su-30MKIs was placed. In 2009, the planned fleet strength was to be 230 aircraft.[21] In 2008, Samtel HAL Display Systems (SHDS), a joint venture between Samtel Display Systems and HAL, won a contract to develop and manufacture multi-function avionics displays for the MKI.[22] A helmet mounted display, Topsight-I, based on technology from Thales and developed by SHDS will be integrated on the Su-30MKI in the next upgrade. In March 2010, it was reported that India and Russia were discussing a contract for 42 more Su-30MKIs.[23] In June 2010, it was reported that the Cabinet Committee on Security had cleared the 15,000 crore (US$1.9 billion) deal and that the 42 aircraft would be in service by 2018.[24][25]

By August 2010, the cost increased to $4.3 billion or $102 million each.[26] This increased unit cost compared to the previous unit cost of $40 million in 2007, has led to the rumours that these latest order of 42 Su-30MKIs are for the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) and these aircraft will be optimised and hardwired for nuclear weapons delivery. The SFC had previously submitted a proposal to the Indian Defence Ministry for setting up two dedicated squadrons of fighters consisting of 40 aircraft capable of delivering nuclear weapons.[27]

HAL expected that indigenisation of the Su-30MKI programme would be completed by 2010; V. Balakrishnan, general manager of the Aircraft Manufacturing Division stated that "HAL will achieve 100 per cent indigenisation of the Sukhoi aircraft – from the production of raw materials to the final plane assembly".[28] As of 2017, HAL manufactures more than 80% of the aircraft.[29] On 11 October 2012, the Indian Government confirmed plans to buy another 42 Su-30MKI aircraft.[30] On 24 December 2012, India ordered assembly kits for 42 Su-30MKIs by signing a deal during President Putin's visit to India.[31] This increases India's order total to 272 Su-30MKIs.[30]

In June 2018, India has reportedly decided not to order any further Su-30s as they feel its cost of maintenance is very high compared to Western aircraft.[32]

In June 2020, India decided to place an order for 12 more Su-30MKI aircraft along with 21 MiG-29s. The Su-30MKI order is to compensate for losses due to crashes to maintain the sanctioned strength of 272 Su-30MKIs. The MiG-29 order was placed to form a fourth MiG-29 squadron to bolster depleted IAF strength. The MiGs were ordered despite being an older platform since they were deliverable within a 2-3-year timeframe, because they were built for an order that was previously canceled and since they were very reasonably priced compared to newer aircraft.[33]

Upgrades

IAF Su-30MKI firing Brahmos-ER
IAF Su-30MKI firing Brahmos-ER

In 2004, India signed a deal with Russia to domestically produce the Novator K-100 missile, designed to shoot down airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) and C4ISTAR aircraft, for the Su-30MKI.[34] Although not initially designed to carry nuclear or strategic weapons, India has considered integrating an air-launched version of the nuclear-capable Nirbhay.[35]

In May 2010, India Today reported that Russia had won a contract to upgrade 40 Su-30MKIs with new radars, onboard computers, electronic warfare systems and the ability to carry the BrahMos cruise missile. The first two prototypes with the "Super-30" upgrade will be delivered to the IAF in 2012, after which the upgrades will be performed on the last batch of 40 production aircraft.[36][37] The Brahmos missile integrated on the Su-30MKI will provide the capability to attack ground targets from stand-off ranges of around 300 km.[38] On 25 June 2016, HAL conducted the first test flight of a Su-30MKI fitted with a BrahMos-A missile from Nashik, India. The first air launch of BrahMos from a Su-30MKI was successfully carried out on 22 November 2017.[39][40]

India is planning to upgrade its Su-30MKI fighters with Russian Phazotron Zhuk-AE Active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars. The X band radar can track 30 aerial targets in the track-while-scan mode and engage six targets simultaneously in attack mode. AESA technology offers improved performance and reliability compared with traditional mechanically scanned array radars.[41] On 18 August 2010, India's Minister of Defence A K Antony stated the current estimated cost for the upgrade was 10,920 crore (US$1 billion) and the aircraft are likely to be upgraded in phases beginning in 2012.[42]

The Indian Defence Ministry proposed several upgrades for the Su-30MKI to the Indian Parliament, including the fitting of Russian Phazotron Zhuk-AE AESA radars starting in 2012.[43] During MMRCA trials the Zhuk-AE AESA radar demonstrated significant capabilities, including ground-mapping modes and the ability to detect and track aerial targets.[44] At the 2011 MAKS air-show, Irkut chairman Alexy Fedorov offered an upgrade package with an improved radar, and reduced radar signature to the Indian fleet to make them "Super Sukhois".[45][46]

In 2012, upgrades of the earlier 80 Su-30MKIs involves equipping them with stand-off missiles with a range of 300 km; a request for information (ROI) was issued for such weapons.[47] In 2011, India issued a request for information to MBDA for the integration of the Brimstone ground attack missile and the long-range Meteor air-to-air missile.[48]

In February 2017, it was reported that the planes would be upgraded with AL-41F turbofan engines, same as the ones on Sukhoi Su-35. In August 2017, the Indian government cleared a proposal of 30,000 crore (US$4 billion) to equip the planes with new reconnaissance pods.[49]

India is planning to increase Su-30MKIs BVR engagement capability by arming its entire fleet with the indigenous Astra BVR missile[50] having a range of 110 km[51] and Israeli Derby after it was found that the R-77 active-radar homing BVR missile has inadequate performance.[52] In September 2019, the Astra was in multiple user-trials by Indian Air Force to validate its lethality for the Su-30MKI.[53]

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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Bangalore, India. Established on 23 December 1940, HAL is one of the oldest and largest aerospace and defence manufacturers in the world today. HAL began aircraft manufacturing as early as 1942 with licensed production of Harlow PC-5, Curtiss P-36 Hawk and Vultee A-31 Vengeance for the Indian Air Force. HAL currently has 11 dedicated Research and development (R&D) centers and 21 manufacturing divisions under 4 production units spread across India. HAL is managed by a Board of Directors appointed by the President of India through the Ministry of Defence, Government of India. HAL is currently involved in designing and manufacturing of fighter jets, helicopters, jet engine and marine gas turbine engine, avionics, software development, spares supply, overhauling and upgrading of Indian military aircraft.

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation is the governing body of the Russian Armed Forces.

Russian Air Force

Russian Air Force

The Russian Air Force is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merging of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The modern VVS was originally established on 7 May 1992 following Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence. However, the Russian Federation's air force can trace its lineage and traditions back to the Imperial Russian Air Service (1912–1917) and the Soviet Air Forces (1918–1991).

Canard (aeronautics)

Canard (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a canard is a wing configuration in which a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft or a weapon. The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configuration, or the foreplane. Canard wings are also extensively used in guided missiles and smart bombs.

Memorandum of understanding

Memorandum of understanding

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used either in cases where parties do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement. It is a more formal alternative to a gentlemen's agreement.

Avionics

Avionics

Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft. Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems, and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to perform individual functions. These can be as simple as a searchlight for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.

Cabinet Committee on Security

Cabinet Committee on Security

The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) of the Government of India discusses, debates and is the final decision-making body on senior appointments in the national security apparatus, defence policy and expenditure, and generally all matters of India's national security.

Strategic Forces Command

Strategic Forces Command

The Strategic Forces Command (SFC), sometimes called Strategic Nuclear Command, forms part of India's Nuclear Command Authority (NCA). It is responsible for the management and administration of the country's tactical and strategic nuclear weapons stockpile. It was created on 4 January 2003 by the Vajpayee Government. Air Marshal Teja Mohan Asthana became its first commander-in-chief.

Airborne early warning and control

Airborne early warning and control

An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar system designed to detect aircraft, ships, vehicles, missiles, and other incoming projectiles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes. AEW&C units are also used to carry out surveillance, including over ground targets and frequently perform battle management command and control (BMC2). When used at altitude, the radar on the aircraft allows the operators to detect and track targets and distinguish between friendly and hostile aircraft much farther away than a similar ground-based radar. Like a ground-based radar, it can be detected by opposing forces, but because of its mobility and extended sensor range, it is much less vulnerable to counter-attacks.

Nirbhay

Nirbhay

Nirbhay is a long range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile designed and developed in India by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) which is under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The missile can be launched from multiple platforms and is capable of carrying conventional and nuclear warheads. It is currently deployed in limited numbers in Line of Actual Control (LAC) during standoff with China.

India Today

India Today

India Today is a weekly Indian English-language news magazine published by Living Media India Limited. It is the most widely circulated magazine in India, with a readership of close to 8 million. In 2014, India Today launched a new online opinion-orientated site called the DailyO.

Radar

Radar

Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (ranging), angle, and radial velocity of objects relative to the site. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the objects. Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the objects and return to the receiver, giving information about the objects' locations and speeds.

Design

Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear leg
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
Two Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvre
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
OLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylon
Su-30MKI's canards and thrust vectoring nozzles are two prominent features over the basic MK variant.[54]Nosewheel of a Su-30MKI; note the externally mounted drag brace is fixed to the fuselage instead of the gear legTwo Su-30MKIs during a Thach Weave manoeuvreN011M Bars radarOLS optical detection pod used on Sukhoi aircraft.Elta EL/M-8222 Self-Protection Pod mounted on Under wing pylonTail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles
Tail section of a Su-30MKI. Note the thrust vectoring of the engine nozzles

Characteristics

The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine intake ramps and nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and the brake parachute container. The fuselage head is of semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments and the avionics bay.

Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is a longitudinal triplane with relaxed stability. The canard increases the aircraft lift ability and deflects automatically to allow high angle of attack (AoA) flights allowing it to perform Pugachev's Cobra. The integral aerodynamic configuration combined with thrust vectoring results in extremely capable manoeuvrability, taking off and landing characteristics. This high agility allows rapid deployment of weapons in any direction as desired by the crew. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles-of-attack and bringing it to a level flight condition. The aircraft has a fly-by-wire (FBW) with quadruple redundancy. Dependent on flight conditions, signals from the control stick position transmitter or the FCS may be coupled to remote control amplifiers and combined with feedback signals from acceleration sensors and rate gyros. The resultant control signals are coupled to the high-speed electro-hydraulic actuators of the elevators, rudders and the canard. The output signals are compared and, if the difference is significant, the faulty channel is disconnected. FBW is based on a stall warning and barrier mechanism which prevents stalls through dramatic increases of control stick pressure, allowing a pilot to effectively control the aircraft without exceeding the angle of attack and acceleration limitations. Although the maximum angle of attack is limited by the canards, the FBW acts as an additional safety mechanism.

The Su-30MKI has a range of 3,000 km with internal fuel which ensures a 3.75 hour combat mission. Also, it has an in-flight refueling (IFR) probe that retracts beside the cockpit during normal operation. The air refueling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 3,000 km combat radius.[55] Su-30MKIs can also use the Cobham 754 buddy refueling pods.[56][57]

The Su-30MKI's radar cross-section (RCS) is reportedly from 4 to 20 square metres.[58][59]

Cockpit

The displays include a customised version of the Israeli Elbit Su 967 head-up display (HUD) consisting of bi-cubic phase conjugated holographic displays and seven multifunction liquid-crystal displays, six 127 mm × 127 mm and one 152 mm × 152 mm. Flight information is displayed on four LCD displays which include one for piloting and navigation, a tactical situation indicator, and two for display systems information including operating modes and overall status. Variants of this HUD have also been chosen for the IAF's Mikoyan MiG-27 and SEPECAT Jaguar upgrades for standardisation. The rear cockpit has a larger monochrome display for air-to-surface missile guidance.

The Su-30MKI on-board health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) monitors almost every aircraft system and sub-system, and can also act as an engineering data recorder. From 2010, indigenously designed and built HUDs and Multi-Function Displays (MFD) were produced by the Delhi-based Samtel Group Display Systems.[60]

The crew are provided with zero-zero NPP Zvezda K-36DM ejection seats. The rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit is provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and extra oxygen bottles. The K-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30°, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat.

Avionics

The forward-facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated passive electronically scanned array radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar.[61] The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. N011M has a 400 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere.[62] The radar can track 15 air targets and engage 4 simultaneously.[62] These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su-30MKI can function as a mini-AWACS as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least four other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 40–50 km.[62] The Bars radar will be replaced by Zhuk-AESA in all Su-30MKI aircraft.[63]

OLS-30 laser-optical Infra-red search and track includes a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broad waveband sensor. Detection range is up to 90 km, while the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar. Israeli LITENING targeting pod is used to target laser guided munitions. The original Litening pod includes a long range FLIR, a TV camera, laser spot tracker to pick up target designated by other aircraft or ground forces, and an electro-optical point and inertial tracker, which enables engagement of the target even when partly obscured by clouds or countermeasures; it also integrates a laser range-finder and flash-lamp powered laser designator for the delivery of laser-guided bombs, cluster and general-purpose bomb.

The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weather, day and night. The navigation complex includes the high accuracy SAGEM Sigma-95 integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system. Phase 3 of further development of the MKI, will integrate avionic systems being developed for the Indo-Russian Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft programme.[64]

Sukhoi Su-30MKI has electronic counter-measure systems. The RWR system is of Indian design, developed by India's DRDO, called Tarang, (Wave in English). It has direction finding capability and is known to have a programmable threat library. The RWR is derived from work done on an earlier system for India's MiG-23BNs known as the Tranquil, which is now superseded by the more advanced Tarang series. Elta EL/M-8222 a self-protection jammer developed by Israel Aircraft Industries is the MKI's standard EW pod, which the Israeli Air Force uses on its F-15s. The ELTA El/M-8222 Self Protection Pod is a power-managed jammer, air-cooled system with an ESM receiver integrated into the pod. The pod contains an antenna on the forward and aft ends, which receive the hostile RF signal and after processing deliver the appropriate response.

Propulsion

The Su-30MKI is powered by two Lyulka-Saturn AL-31FP turbofans, each rated at 12,500 kgf (27,550 lbf) of full after-burning thrust, which enable speeds of up to Mach 2 in horizontal flight and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The mean time between overhaul is reportedly 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours; the titanium nozzle has a mean time between overhaul of 500 hours. In early 2015, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar stated before Parliament that the AL-31FP had suffered numerous failures, between the end of 2012 and early 2015, a total of 69 Su-30MKI engine-related failures had occurred; commons causes were bearing failures due to metal fatigue and low oil pressure, in response several engine modifications were made to improve lubrication, as well as the use of higher quality oil and adjustments to the fitting of bearings.[65]

The Su-30MKI's AL-31FP powerplant built on the earlier AL-31FU, adding two-plane thrust vectoring nozzles are mounted 32 degrees outward to longitudinal engine axis (i.e. in the horizontal plane) and can be deflected ±15 degrees in one plane. The canting allows the aircraft to produce both roll and yaw by vectoring each engine nozzle differently; this allows the aircraft to create thrust vectoring moments about all three rotational axes, pitch, yaw and roll. Engine thrust is adjusted via a conventional engine throttle lever as opposed to a strain-gauge engine control stick. The aircraft is controlled by a standard control stick. The pilot can activate a switch for performing difficult maneuvers; while this is enabled, the computer automatically determines the deflection angles of the swiveling nozzles and aerodynamic surfaces.[66]

Discover more about Design related topics

Canard (aeronautics)

Canard (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a canard is a wing configuration in which a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft or a weapon. The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configuration, or the foreplane. Canard wings are also extensively used in guided missiles and smart bombs.

Bars radar

Bars radar

The Bars (Leopard) is a family of Russian all-weather multimode airborne radars developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design for multi-role combat aircraft such as the Su-27 and the MiG-29.

Aluminium alloy

Aluminium alloy

An aluminium alloy is an alloy in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin, nickel and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled plate, foils and extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si, where the high levels of silicon (4–13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required.

Intake ramp

Intake ramp

An intake ramp is a rectangular, plate-like device within the air intake of a jet engine, designed to generate a number of shock waves to aid the inlet compression process at supersonic speeds. The ramp sits at an acute angle to deflect the intake air from the longitudinal direction. At supersonic flight speeds, the deflection of the air stream creates a number of oblique shock waves at each change of gradient along at the ramp. Air crossing each shock wave suddenly slows to a lower Mach number, thus increasing pressure.

Aircraft fairing

Aircraft fairing

An aircraft fairing is a structure whose primary function is to produce a smooth outline and reduce drag.

Empennage

Empennage

The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow. The term derives from the French language verb empenner which means "to feather an arrow". Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilising surfaces which stabilise the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch, as well as housing control surfaces.

Drogue parachute

Drogue parachute

A drogue parachute is a parachute designed for deployment from a rapidly-moving object. It can be used for various purposes, such as to decrease speed, to provide control and stability, or as a pilot parachute to deploy a larger parachute. Vehicles that have used drogue parachutes include multi-stage parachutes, aircraft, and spacecraft recovery systems.

Fuselage

Fuselage

The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, or cargo. In single-engine aircraft, it will usually contain an engine as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position the control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.

Monocoque

Monocoque

Monocoque, also called structural skin, is a structural system in which loads are supported by an object's external skin, in a manner similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell".

Cockpit

Cockpit

A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.

Avionics

Avionics

Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft. Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems, and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to perform individual functions. These can be as simple as a searchlight for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.

Lift (force)

Lift (force)

A fluid flowing around an object exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow.

Operational history

IAF Su-30MKIs deployed to the Nellis Air Force Base to participate in the Red Flag 08-4 air combat exercise
IAF Su-30MKIs deployed to the Nellis Air Force Base to participate in the Red Flag 08-4 air combat exercise

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s.[67] The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral air exercises. India exercised its Su-30MKIs against the Royal Air Force's Tornado ADVs in October 2006.[68] This was the first large-scale bilateral aerial exercise with any foreign air force during which the IAF used its Su-30MKIs extensively. This exercise was also the first in 43 years with the RAF. During the exercise, the RAF Air Chief Marshal Glenn Torpy was given permission by the IAF to fly the MKI.[69] RAF's Air Vice Marshal, Christopher Harper, praised the MKI's dogfight ability, calling it "absolutely masterful in dogfights".[70]

Su-30 MKI doing in-flight refueling from Ilyushin Il-78 during Konkan Shakti 21
Su-30 MKI doing in-flight refueling from Ilyushin Il-78 during Konkan Shakti 21

In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the Su-30MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon. This was the first time that the two fighters took part in such an exercise.[71][72] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars radar system.[73] Also in the exercise were RAF Tornado F3s and a Hawk. RAF Tornado pilots were candid in their admission of the Su-30MKI's superior manoeuvring in the air, and the IAF pilots were impressed by the Typhoon's agility.[74]

In 2004, India sent Su-30MKs, an earlier variant of the Su-30MKI, to take part in war games with the United States Air Force (USAF) during Cope India 04. The results have been widely publicised, with the Indians winning "90% of the mock combat missions" against the USAF's F-15C. The parameters of the exercise heavily favored the IAF; none of the six 3rd Wing F-15Cs were equipped with the newer long-range, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars and, at India's request, the U.S. agreed to mock combat at 3-to-1 odds and without the use of simulated long-range, radar-guided AIM-120 AMRAAMs for beyond-visual-range kills.[75][76] In Cope India 05, the Su-30MKIs reportedly beat the USAF's F-16s.[77]

In July 2008, the IAF sent 6 Su-30MKIs and 2 Il-78MKI aerial-refueling tankers, to participate in the Red Flag exercise.[78] The IAF again did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars. In October 2008, a video surfaced on the internet which featured a USAF colonel, Terrence Fornof, criticising Su-30MKI's performance against the F-15C, engine serviceability issues, and high friendly kill rate during the Red Flag exercise.[79][80] Several of his claims were later rebutted by the Indian side and the USAF also distanced itself from his remarks.[81][82]

In June 2010, India and France began the fourth round of their joint air exercises, "Garuda", at the Istres Air Base in France. During Garuda, the IAF and the French Air Force were engaged in various missions ranging from close combat engagement of large forces, slow mover protection, protecting and engaging high value aerial assets. This exercise marked the first time the Su-30MKI took part in a military exercise in France.[83]

The Indian Air Force first took part in the United States Air Force's Red Flag exercise in 2008. Participating in Red Flag costs the IAF 100 crore (US$17.5 million) each time. To reduce costs, the IAF decided to take part once every five years. The IAF is taking part in the Red Flag exercise in July 2013, at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, United States. For the exercise, it is dispatching eight Su-30MKIs, two Lockheed C-130J Hercules tactical aircraft, two Ilyushin Il-78 (NATO reporting name "Midas") mid-air refueling tankers, one Ilyushin Il-76 (NATO reporting name "Candid") heavy-lift aircraft, and over 150 personnel.[84]

The IAF again fielded its MKIs in the Garuda-V exercise with France in June 2014, where they manoeuvred in mixed groups with other IAF aircraft and French Rafales.[85][86]

RAF Typhoon and Su-30MKI during Indradhanush 2015.
RAF Typhoon and Su-30MKI during Indradhanush 2015.

On 21 July 2015, India and UK began the bilateral exercise named Indradhanush with aircraft operating from three Royal Air Force bases. The exercises included both Beyond Visual Range (BVR) and Within Visual Range (WVR) exercises between the Su-30MKI and Eurofighter Typhoon. Indian media reported the results were in favour of the IAF with a score of 12–0 at WVR engagements. They also claim that the IAF Su-30MKIs held an edge over the Typhoons in BVR engagements though not in as dominating a manner.[87] The RAF issued a statement that the results being reported by the Indian media did not reflect the results of the exercise.[88] According to Aviation International News In close combat, thrust vector control on the Flankers more than compensated for the greater thrust-to-weight ratio of the Typhoon.[89]

On 26 February 2019, four Sukhoi Su-30MKIs escorted Mirage 2000s into the Pakistani airspace for the Balakot airstrike on an alleged Jaish-e-Mohammed camp.[90][91][92] The following day, two Su-30MKIs on combat air patrol were reportedly attacked by multiple Pakistani F-16s using AMRAAM missiles. The missiles were successfully dodged according to India.[93][94] The debris of an AMRAAM missile was later recovered and displayed by the IAF to disprove the Pakistani claim of not using the F-16.[95] Pakistani media claimed that PAF had downed an Indian Sukhoi Su-30MKI in the aerial skirmish.[96] The Indian Air Force stated that all dispatched Sukhoi aircraft returned safely with the only confirmed loss was a MiG-21.[97][98][99] On 8 October 2019, during the Indian Air Force Day celebrations, the IAF reportedly flew the Su-30MKI that Pakistan claimed to have shot down.[100][101]

On 18 March 2022, it was reported that India ordered 12 Su-30MKIs.[102] In May 2022, the Indian government suspended the Su-30MKI order due to concerns over Moscow's ability to deliver parts to Hindustan Aeronautics and issues related to payment transfers.[103]

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Military simulation

Military simulation

Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. Military simulations are seen as a useful way to develop tactical, strategical and doctrinal solutions, but critics argue that the conclusions drawn from such models are inherently flawed, due to the approximate nature of the models used. Many professional analysts object to the term wargames as this is generally taken to be referring to the civilian hobby, thus the preference for the term simulation.

Royal Air Force

Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's air and space force. It was formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). Following the Allied victory over the Central Powers in 1918, the RAF emerged as the largest air force in the world at the time. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain.

Panavia Tornado ADV

Panavia Tornado ADV

The Panavia Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) was a long-range, twin-engine interceptor version of the swing-wing Panavia Tornado. The aircraft's first flight was on 27 October 1979, and it entered service with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in 1986. It was also operated by the Italian Air Force (AMI) and the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF).

Ilyushin Il-78

Ilyushin Il-78

The Ilyushin Il-78 is a Soviet/Russian four-engined aerial refueling tanker based on the Il-76 strategic airlifter.

Eurofighter Typhoon

Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a European multinational twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter. The Typhoon was designed originally as an air superiority fighter and is manufactured by a consortium of Airbus, BAE Systems and Leonardo that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH. The NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency, representing the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain, manages the project and is the prime customer.

Bars radar

Bars radar

The Bars (Leopard) is a family of Russian all-weather multimode airborne radars developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design for multi-role combat aircraft such as the Su-27 and the MiG-29.

Cope India

Cope India

Cope India Exercise are a series of international Air Force exercises between the Indian Air Force and the United States Air Force conducted on and over Indian soil. The first such exercise, which required many months of preparation, was conducted at the air force station in Gwalior from February 16 through February 27, 2004, with the US Air Force withdrawing troops and aircraft on February 27. The exercise included flight tests, practice and demonstrations as well as lectures on subjects related to aviation. There were also media functions and social interactions among troops of the two countries. After the event was over, the Indian Air Force indicated that "[t]he mutual respect and bonhomie that developed between members of the two sides have cemented a firm foundation for moving ahead towards higher bilateralism." According to press reports, representatives of the United States found it a "positive experience" that led to the re-evaluation of some assumptions about US air tactics. The exercise was repeated in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2018.

Exercise Red Flag

Exercise Red Flag

Exercise Red Flag is a two-week advanced aerial combat training exercise held several times a year by the United States Air Force. It aims to offer realistic air-combat training for military pilots and other flight crew members from the United States and allied countries.

Nellis Air Force Base

Nellis Air Force Base

Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation in southern Nevada. Nellis hosts air combat exercises such as Exercise Red Flag and close air support exercises such as Green Flag-West flown in "Military Operations Area (MOA) airspace", associated with the nearby Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). The base also has the Combined Air and Space Operations Center-Nellis.

Nevada

Nevada

Nevada is a state in the Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th-most extensive, the 32nd-most populous, and the 9th-least densely populated of the U.S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area, including three of the state's four largest incorporated cities. Nevada's capital is Carson City. Las Vegas is the largest city in the state.

United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or informally America, is a country in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. It is the third-largest country by both land and total area. The United States shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. It has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 331 million, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

NATO reporting name

NATO reporting name

NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia, China, and historically, the Eastern Bloc. They provide unambiguous and easily understood English words in a uniform manner in place of the original designations, which either may have been unknown to the Western world at the time or easily confused codes. For example, the Russian bomber jet Tupolev Tu-160 is simply called "Blackjack".

Operators

Indian Air Force Su-30MKI
Indian Air Force Su-30MKI
A Sukhoi Su-30MKI of the No. 102 Squadron IAF flying over Lengeri village, Assam, India.
 India

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No. 102 Squadron IAF

No. 102 Squadron IAF

No. 102 Squadron (Trisonics) is a fighter squadron and is equipped with Su-30MKI and based at Chabua Air Force Station.

Assam

Assam

Assam is a state in northeastern India, south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assamese and Boro are the official languages of Assam, while Bengali is an additional official language in the Barak Valley.

Indian Air Force

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force (IAF) is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks third amongst the air forces of the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honoured India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix Royal. After India gained independence from United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India. With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix Royal was removed.

Bareilly Airport

Bareilly Airport

Bareilly Airport is a domestic airport serving Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India at Indian Air Force's Trishul Air Base in Izzatnagar, located 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) north from the city centre.

No. 24 Squadron IAF

No. 24 Squadron IAF

No. 24 Squadron (Hawks) IAF is an Air Defence squadron of the Indian Air Force, operating from Bareilly AFS.

Chabua Air Force Station

Chabua Air Force Station

Chabua Air Force Station is an Indian Air Force base located at Chabua of Dibrugarh district in the state of Assam, India.

Halwara Air Force Station

Halwara Air Force Station

Halwara Air Force Station is an Indian Air Force (IAF) base near Halwara town in Punjab, India. It is one of the oldest frontline airbases of the IAF and was actively involved in both, 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak conflicts because of its strategic location. It is home to the 220 Squadron known as "Desert Tigers" and 221 Squadron known as "Valiants" flying the Sukhoi Su-30MKI.

No. 220 Squadron IAF

No. 220 Squadron IAF

No. 220 Squadron is a fighter squadron and is equipped with Su-30 MKIs and based at Halwara Air Force Station.

No. 221 Squadron IAF

No. 221 Squadron IAF

No. 221 Squadron (Valiants) is an Indian Air Force fighter squadron and is equipped with Su-30MKI and based at Halwara Air Force Station.

Jodhpur Airport

Jodhpur Airport

Jodhpur Airport is a civil enclave airport in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. It is operated by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and shares its airside with the Jodhpur Airforce Station of the Indian Air Force (IAF).

No. 20 Squadron IAF

No. 20 Squadron IAF

No. 20 Squadron (Lightnings) is a fighter squadron. It is equipped with Sukhoi Su-30MKI and based at Lohegaon Air Force Station, Pune.

No. 15 Squadron IAF

No. 15 Squadron IAF

No. 15 Squadron is a fighter squadron of the Indian Air Force. It was formed on 20 August 1951, and currently operates the Sukhoi Su-30MKI from Sirsa AFS.

Accidents and incidents

As of August 2019, eleven Su-30MKIs had been lost to crashes since the introduction of aircraft in 2000.[114][115][116][117][118][119]

Specifications (Su-30MKI)

BrahMos missile under Su-30MKI model at MAKS-2009
BrahMos missile under Su-30MKI model at MAKS-2009

Data from Irkut,[120] Sukhoi,[121] deagel.com:[122]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 21.935 m (72 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 6.36 m (20 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 62 m2 (670 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 18,400 kg (40,565 lb)
  • Gross weight: 26,090 kg (57,519 lb) (typical mission weight)[120]
  • Max takeoff weight: 38,800 kg (85,539 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Lyulka AL-31FP afterburning turbofan engines, 123 kN (28,000 lbf) with afterburner

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 2,120 km/h (1,320 mph, 1,140 kn) / Mach2.0 at high altitude
1,350 km/h (840 mph; 730 kn) / M1.09 at low altitude
  • Range: 3,000 km (1,900 mi, 1,600 nmi) at high altitude
1,270 km (790 mi; 690 nmi) at low altitude
  • Ferry range: 8,000 km (5,000 mi, 4,300 nmi) with two in-flight refuellings[121]
  • Service ceiling: 17,300 m (56,800 ft)
  • g limits: +9
  • Rate of climb: 300 m/s (59,000 ft/min) +
  • Wing loading: 401 kg/m2 (82 lb/sq ft)

Armament

Other

Avionics

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BrahMos

BrahMos

The BrahMos is a medium-range stealth ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, airplanes or land, notably being the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world at the time of introducing. It is a joint-venture between the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya, who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace. It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks supersonic anti-ship cruise missile. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.

Mach number

Mach number

Mach number is a dimensionless quantity in fluid dynamics representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound. It is named after the Moravian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach.

30 mm caliber

30 mm caliber

30 mm caliber is a specific size of popular autocannon ammunition. Such ammunition includes NATO standard 30×113mmB and 30×173mm, Soviet 30×155mmB, 30×165mm, and 30×210mmB, Yugoslav 30×192mm, Anglo-Swiss 30×170mm, and Czechoslovak 30×210mm rounds which are widely used around the world.

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 is a 30 mm autocannon designed for use on Soviet and later Russian military aircraft, entering service in the early 1980s. Its current manufacturer is the Russian company JSC Izhmash. The name GSH-30-1 is formed from the surnames of the designers Gryazev (Грязев) and Shipunov (Шипунов), the caliber of 30 mm and the single-barrel design of the gun itself.

Autocannon

Autocannon

An autocannon, automatic cannon or machine cannon is a fully automatic gun that is capable of rapid-firing large-caliber armour-piercing, explosive or incendiary shells, as opposed to the smaller-caliber kinetic projectiles (bullets) fired by a machine gun. Autocannons have a longer effective range and greater terminal performance than machine guns, due to the use of larger/heavier munitions, but are usually smaller than tank guns, howitzers, field guns or other artillery. When used on its own, the word "autocannon" typically indicates a non-rotary weapon with a single barrel. When multiple rotating barrels are involved, such a weapon is referred to as a "rotary autocannon" or occasionally "rotary cannon", for short.

Hardpoint

Hardpoint

A hardpoint is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal load. This includes a station on the wing or fuselage of a civilian aircraft or military aircraft where external jet engine, ordnance, countermeasures, gun pods, targeting pods, or drop tanks can be mounted.

Nacelle

Nacelle

A nacelle is a "streamlined body sized according to what it contains", such as an engine, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft. When attached by a pylon entirely outside the airframe, it is sometimes called a pod, in which case it is attached with a pylon or strut and the engine is known as a podded engine. In some cases—for instance in the typical "Farman" type "pusher" aircraft, or the World War II-era P-38 Lightning—an aircraft cockpit may also be housed in a nacelle, rather than in a conventional fuselage.

Air-to-air missile

Air-to-air missile

An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fueled but sometimes liquid fueled. Ramjet engines, as used on the Meteor, are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope.

R-77

R-77

The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. It is also known by its export designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.

Astra (missile)

Astra (missile)

Astra is an Indian family of all weather beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The missile is capable of engaging targets at varying ranges from a distance of 500 m (0.31 mi) up to 110 km (68 mi). Astra Mk-1 has been integrated with Indian Air Force's Sukhoi Su-30MKI and will be integrated with Dassault Mirage 2000, HAL Tejas and Mikoyan MiG-29 in the future. Limited series production of Astra Mk-1 missiles began in 2017.

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

The Vympel R-27 is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.

R-73 (missile)

R-73 (missile)

The R-73 is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel NPO that entered service in 1984.

Source: "Sukhoi Su-30MKI", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukhoi_Su-30MKI.

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See also

Related development

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ MKI stands for Russian Модернизированный Коммерческий Индийский, transliteration Modernizirovannyy Kommercheskiy Indiyskiy, meaning "Modernised Commercial for India".
  2. ^ A close cousin of the Su-30MKI is the Malaysian version, the Su-30MKM.

Citations

  1. ^ a b "India completes production of Su-30MKI fighters". airrecognition.com. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b "India's Aviation Behemoth HAL Expects More Orders as It Completes Production of Su-30MKI". defenceaviationpost.com. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  3. ^ "India to build Russian fighters." Archived 25 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 28 December 2000. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  4. ^ "Indian air force first to field multi-role Sukhois." Archived 12 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Access my library, 17 September 2002. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  5. ^ "HAL rolls out first indigenously built Sukhoi-30." Archived 2013-02-24 at the Wayback Machine High beam, 28 November 2004. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  6. ^ "How Sukhoi-30 fighter jets will help check Chinese footprint in Indian Ocean". Hindustan Times. 20 January 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  7. ^ Pandit, Rajat. "Russia conducts first test of fifth generation Sukhoi." Archived 2 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Times of India, 30 January 2010.
  8. ^ "Special Report: The year of the MiG-29: in 2001, RAC MiG had its best year in the post-Soviet era. Prospects for Sukhoi are improving, too." Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine High beam, 1 March 2002. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  9. ^ "Su-35/Su-37 Super Flanker Multirole Fighter." Archived 21 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Military factory, 16 October 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  10. ^ "Su-30МК – Historical background." Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Sukhoi Company (JSC). Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  11. ^ "Orders For Su-30MKI Fighters Top $5 Billions." Archived 8 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine RTAF, 4 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  12. ^ a b Kopp, Dr. Carlo (1 April 2012). "Sukhoi Flankers The Shifting Balance of Regional Air Power". Air Power Australia. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Sukhoi Su-30SM An Indian Gift to Russia's Air Force". RIA Novosti. 23 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  14. ^ Malhotra, Jyoti. "Delhi tightrope on Israel red carpet." Archived 2013-02-24 at the Wayback Machine The Indian Express, 20 August 2003. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  15. ^ "PIB Press Release." Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine NIC. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  16. ^ "India Wants to Make Russia's Su-30MKI Air Superiority Fighter Great Again". 10 November 2019.
  17. ^ "Day after crash, IAF grounds Sukhoi fleet for checks." Archived 5 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine The Times of India, 2 December 2009.
  18. ^ "Sukhoi Su-30 MKI (Flanker)." Archived 10 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Bharat-rakshak. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  19. ^ Asthana, Mansij (22 March 2021). "HAL Meets 'Full-Production Target' Of 140 Sukhoi Su-30MKI Fighter Jets at Nashik Facility". The Eurasian Times. Retrieved 27 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "HAL completes production of 140 raw material stage Su-30MKI aircraft". airforce-technology.com. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  21. ^ "House testimony." Archived 3 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Indian Government, 7 August 2009.
  22. ^ "Samtel to produce Avionics display systems for HAL's star programmes." Archived 4 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Indiaaviation.aero, 15 July 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  23. ^ "India set to buy 42 more Russian Su-30 fighter jets." Archived 3 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine RIA Novosti. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  24. ^ Joseph, Josy. "Rs 15,000 crore Sukhoi deal cleared." Archived 28 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Times of India, 26 June 2010.
  25. ^ "Sukhoi jets." Archived 15 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Mid-day.com. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  26. ^ Sharma, Suman. "Aircraft deals with friend Russia costing dear." Archived 20 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine Dnaindia.com, 17 August 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  27. ^ "Strategic Command to acquire 40 nuclear capable fighters." Archived 17 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine Hindustan Times, 12 September 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  28. ^ Radyuhin, Vladimir. "HAL: total indigenisation of Sukhoi fighter next year." Archived 3 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu (Chennai, India), 20 August 2009.
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Bibliography

  • Eden, Paul, ed. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  • Gordon, Yefim (1999). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-029-7.
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