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Sugar industry

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Sugar Prices 1962-2022  USD per pound
Sugar Prices 1962-2022
USD per pound

The sugar industry subsumes the production, processing and marketing of sugars (mostly sucrose and fructose). Globally, most sugar is extracted from sugar cane (~80% predominantly in the tropics) and sugar beet (~ 20%, mostly in temperate climate, like in the U.S. or Europe).

Sugar beets awaiting processing at the Holly Sugar Corporation plant near Brawley, California. Photograph by Environmental Protection Agency. (12/02/1970)
Sugar beets awaiting processing at the Holly Sugar Corporation plant near Brawley, California. Photograph by Environmental Protection Agency. (12/02/1970)

Sugar is used for soft drinks, sweetened beverages, convenience foods, fast food, candy, confectionery, baked products, and other sweetened foods. Sugarcane is used in the distillation of rum.

Sugar subsidies have driven market costs for sugar well below the cost of production. As of 2018, 3/4 of world sugar production was not traded on the open market. The global market for sugar and sweeteners was some $77.5 billion in 2012, with sugar comprising an almost 85% share, growing at a compound annual growth rate of 4.6%.[1]

Globally in 2018, around 185 million tons of sugar was produced, led by India with 35.9 million tons, followed by Brazil and Thailand.[2] There are more than 123 sugar-producing countries, but only 30% of the produce is traded on the international market.

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Sugar refinery

Sugar refinery

A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar from cane or beets into white refined sugar.

Sucrose

Sucrose

Sucrose, a disaccharide, is a sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits. It is produced naturally in plants and is the main constituent of white sugar. It has the molecular formula C12H22O11.

Fructose

Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed by the gut directly into the blood of the portal vein during digestion. The liver then converts both fructose and galactose into glucose, so that dissolved glucose, known as blood sugar, is the only monosaccharide present in circulating blood.

Sugar beet

Sugar beet

A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding, it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet. Together with other beet cultivars, such as beetroot and chard, it belongs to the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris. Its closest wild relative is the sea beet.

Soft drink

Soft drink

A soft drink is a drink that usually contains water, a sweetener, and a natural and/or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and/or other ingredients.

Convenience food

Convenience food

Convenience food, also called tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared to optimise ease of consumption. Such food is usually ready to eat without further preparation. It may also be easily portable, have a long shelf life, or offer a combination of such convenient traits. Although restaurant meals meet this definition, the term is seldom applied to them. Convenience foods include ready-to-eat dry products, frozen foods such as TV dinners, shelf-stable foods, prepared mixes such as cake mix, and snack foods.

Fast food

Fast food

Fast food is a type of mass-produced food designed for commercial resale, with a strong priority placed on speed of service. It is a commercial term, limited to food sold in a restaurant or store with frozen, preheated or precooked ingredients and served in packaging for take-out/take-away. Fast food was created as a commercial strategy to accommodate large numbers of busy commuters, travelers and wage workers. In 2018, the fast food industry was worth an estimated $570 billion globally.

Candy

Candy

Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied.

Confectionery

Confectionery

Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, however, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories: bakers' confections and sugar confections. The occupation of confectioner encompasses the categories of cooking performed by both the French patissier and the confiseur.

Rum

Rum

Rum is a liquor made by fermenting and then distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels. Rum is produced in nearly every sugar-producing region of the world, such as the Philippines, where Tanduay is the largest producer of rum globally.

Sugar

Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Compound sugars, also called disaccharides or double sugars, are molecules made of two bonded monosaccharides; common examples are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. White sugar is a refined form of sucrose. In the body, compound sugars are hydrolysed into simple sugars.

Compound annual growth rate

Compound annual growth rate

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry or sector.

Market

Sugar subsidies have driven market costs for sugar well below the cost of production. As of 2019, 3/4 of world sugar production is never traded on the open market. Brazil controls half the global market, paying the most ($2.5 billion per year) in subsidies to its sugar industry.[3]

The US sugar system is complex, using price supports, domestic marketing allotments, and tariff-rate quotas.[4] It directly supports sugar processors rather than farmers growing sugar crops.[4][3] The US government also uses tariffs to keep the US domestic price of sugar 64% to 92% higher than the world market price, costing American consumers $3.7 billion per year.[4] A 2018 policy proposal to eliminate sugar tariffs, called "Zero-for-Zero", is currently (March 2018) before the US Congress.[3][5] Previous reform attempts have failed.[6]

The European Union (EU) is a leading sugar exporter. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU used to set maximum quotas for production and exports, and a subsidized sugar sales with an EU-guaranteed minimum price.[7][8] Large import tariffs were also used to protect the market.[7] In 2004, the EU was spending €3.30 in subsidies to export €1 worth of sugar, and some sugar processors, like British Sugar, had a 25% profit margin.[9]

A 2004 Oxfam report called EU sugar subsidies "dumping" and said they harm the world's poor.[9] A WTO ruling against the EU quota and subsidy system in 2005-2006[10] forced the EU to cut its minimum price and quotas, and stop doing intervention buying.[7] The EU abolished some quotas in 2015,[11][12] but minimum prices remain.[11][13][14] Tariffs also persist for most countries.[14] In 2009, the EU granted Least Developed Countries (LDCs) zero-tariff access to the EU market[7] as part of the Everything but Arms initiative.[8]

As of 2018, India, Thailand, and Mexico also subsidize sugar.[3]

Glucose syrups produced from wheat and corn (maize) compete with the traditional dry sugar market.

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Price support

Price support

In economics, a price support may be either a subsidy, a production quota, or a price control, each with the intended effect of keeping the market price of a good higher than the competitive equilibrium level.

Import quota

Import quota

An import quota is a type of trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time. Quotas, like other trade restrictions, are typically used to benefit the producers of a good in that economy (protectionism).

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

Common Agricultural Policy

Common Agricultural Policy

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union. It implements a system of agricultural subsidies and other programmes. It was introduced in 1962 and has since then undergone several changes to reduce the EEC budget cost and consider rural development in its aims. It has, however, been criticised on the grounds of its cost and its environmental and humanitarian effects.

Tariff

Tariff

A tariff is a tax imposed by the government of a country or by a supranational union on imports or exports of goods. Besides being a source of revenue for the government, import duties can also be a form of regulation of foreign trade and policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or safeguard domestic industry. Protective tariffs are among the most widely used instruments of protectionism, along with import quotas and export quotas and other non-tariff barriers to trade.

British Sugar

British Sugar

British Sugar plc is a subsidiary of Associated British Foods and the sole British producer of sugar from sugar beet, as well as medicinal cannabis.

Profit margin

Profit margin

Profit margin is a measure of profitability. It is calculated by finding the profit as a percentage of the revenue.

Oxfam

Oxfam

Oxfam is a British-founded confederation of 21 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.

Everything but Arms

Everything but Arms

Everything but Arms (EBA) is an initiative of the European Union under which all imports to the EU from the Least Developed Countries are duty-free and quota-free, with the exception of armaments. EBA entered into force on 5 March 2001. There were transitional arrangements for bananas, sugar and rice until January 2006, July 2009 and September 2009 respectively. The EBA is part of the EU Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). The up-to-date list of all countries benefiting from such preferential treatment is given in Annex IV of the consolidated text of Regulation (EU) 978/2012.

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand, historically known as Siam and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of the Indochinese Peninsula, spanning 513,120 square kilometres (198,120 sq mi), with a population of almost 70 million. The country is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar. Thailand also shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the southeast, and Indonesia and India to the southwest. Bangkok is the nation's capital and largest city.

Glucose syrup

Glucose syrup

Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize (corn) is commonly used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called "corn syrup", but glucose syrup is also made from potatoes and wheat, and less often from barley, rice and cassava.p. 21

Global players

The top 10 sugar-producing companies based on production in 2010:[15]

Rank Company 2010/11 Output [Mt] Country
1. Südzucker AG 4.2 Germany
2. Cosan SA Industria & Comercio 4.1 Brazil
3. British Sugar Plc 3.9 UK
4. Tereos Internacional SA 3.6 France
5. Mitr Phol Sugar Corp. 2.7 Thailand
6. Nordzucker Gmbh & Co KG 2.5 Germany
7. Louis Dreyfus 1.8 Netherlands
8. Wilmar International Ltd. 1.5 Singapore
9. Thai Roong Ruang Sugar Group 1.5 Thailand
10. Turkiye Seker Fabrikalari 1.34 Turkey

The global sugar industry has a low market share concentration. The top four sugar producers account for less than 20.0% of the market.[16]

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Südzucker

Südzucker

Südzucker AG is a German company, the largest sugar producer in the world, with an annual production of around 4.8 million tonnes.

Cosan

Cosan

Cosan is a public listed company, a Brazilian conglomerate producer of bioethanol, sugar and energy. The company operates in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia. They also operate in the United Kingdom under the brand name Moove, manufacturing and supplying Lubricants, Greases, Cutting Fluids, Coolants and Aerosols.

British Sugar

British Sugar

British Sugar plc is a subsidiary of Associated British Foods and the sole British producer of sugar from sugar beet, as well as medicinal cannabis.

Nordzucker

Nordzucker

Nordzucker AG, headquartered in Braunschweig, Germany, is Europe’s second largest sugar manufacturer. The production of sugar, liquid sugars and other specialities for the application in the nutrition, beverage and sweets industry as well as other sugar specialities like refined sugar, icing sugar, lump sugar, preserving sugar, tea sugars, organic sugar and flavoured sugars for consumers are the core business of the company. In addition to that, Nordzucker produces animal feed and bioethanol from sugar beet. In the 2020/2021 financial year, the company produced 2.7 million tons of sugar from sugar beet and 0.7 million tons of sugar from sugar cane. Sales added up to EUR 1.67 billion and net income came to EUR 66 million.

Louis Dreyfus Company

Louis Dreyfus Company

Louis Dreyfus Company B.V. (LDC), also called the Louis-Dreyfus Group, is a French merchant firm that is involved in agriculture, food processing, international shipping, and finance. The company owns and manages hedge funds, ocean vessels, develops and operates telecommunications infrastructures, and it is also involved in real estate development, management and ownership. Along with Archer Daniels Midland, Bunge, and Cargill, the Louis-Dreyfus Group is one of the four "ABCD" companies that dominate world agricultural commodity trading.

Wilmar International

Wilmar International

Wilmar International Limited is a Singaporean food processing and investment holding company with more than 300 subsidiary companies. Founded in 1991, it is one of Asia's leading agribusiness groups alongside the COFCO Group. It ranks amongst the largest listed companies by market capitalisation on the Singapore Exchange (SGX), being the second largest as of September 2010. It was ranked 211th in the Fortune Global 500 list in 2020. It was ranked 3rd in the World's Most Admired Company by Fortune in 2019.

Thai Roong Ruang

Thai Roong Ruang

The Thai Roong Ruang Sugar Group is Thailand's and Asia's second-largest sugar producer.

Market share

Market share

Market share is the percentage of the total revenue or sales in a market that a company's business makes up. For example, if there are 50,000 units sold per year in a given industry, a company whose sales were 5,000 of those units would have a 10 percent share in that market.

Products

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Molasses

Molasses

Molasses or black treacle is a viscous substance resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies in the amount of sugar, method of extraction and age of the plant. Sugarcane molasses is primarily used to sweeten and flavour foods. Molasses is a major constituent of fine commercial brown sugar. It is also one of the primary ingredients used to distil rum.

Sugar alcohol

Sugar alcohol

Sugar alcohols are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing one hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to each carbon atom. They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur naturally or be produced industrially by hydrogenation of sugars. Since they contain multiple –OH groups, they are classified as polyols.

Brown sugar

Brown sugar

Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content, or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.

Powdered sugar

Powdered sugar

Powdered sugar, also called confectioners' sugar, or icing sugar, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar into a powdered state. It usually contains between 2% and 5% of an anti-caking agent – such as corn starch, potato starch or tricalcium phosphate – to absorb moisture, prevent clumping, and improve flow. Although most often produced in a factory, a proxy for powdered sugar can be made by processing ordinary granulated sugar in a coffee grinder, or by crushing it by hand in a mortar and pestle.

Lobbying and marketing

The sugar industry engages in sugar marketing and lobbying, minimizing the adverse health effects of sugar—obesity and tooth decay—and influencing medical research and public health recommendations.[17][18][19][20]

Organizations

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Sugar marketing

Sugar marketing

Sugar is heavily marketed both by sugar producers and the producers of sugary drinks and foods. Apart from direct marketing methods such as messaging on packaging, television ads, advergames, and product placement in setting like blogs, industry has worked to steer coverage of sugar-related health information in popular media, including news media and social media.

Lobbying

Lobbying

In politics, lobbying, persuasion or interest representation is the act of lawfully attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying, which usually involves direct, face-to-face contact, is done by many types of people, associations and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, corporations, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district; they may engage in lobbying as a business. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can also lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments often define "lobbying" for legal purposes, and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential.

Obesity

Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition, sometimes considered a disease, in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may negatively affect health. People are classified as obese when their body mass index (BMI)—a person's weight divided by the square of the person's height—is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values to calculate obesity. Obesity is a major cause of disability and is correlated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Tooth decay

Tooth decay

Tooth decay, also known as cavities or caries, is the breakdown of teeth due to acids produced by bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating. Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth, tooth loss and infection or abscess formation.

Public health

Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the determinants of health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health. The public can be as small as a handful of people or as large as a village or an entire city; in the case of a pandemic it may encompass several continents. The concept of health takes into account physical, psychological, and social well-being.

International Sugar Organization

International Sugar Organization

The International Sugar Organization is an intergovernmental organization, based in London, which was established by the International Sugar Agreement of 1968, as the body responsible for administering the Agreement. Unlike its predecessors under pre-1968 versions of the International Sugar Agreement, it does not have the power to regulate the international sugar trade by price-setting or export quotas but seeks to promote the trade in and consumption of sugar by gathering and publishing information on the sugar market, research into new uses for sugar and related products and as a forum for intergovernmental discussions on sugar. As of June 2017, its membership consisted of 87 countries.

Sugar Association

Sugar Association

The Sugar Association is a trade association for the sugar industry of the United States. Its members include nearly 142,000 growers, processors and refiners of sugar beet and sugarcane plants.

European Association of Sugar Manufacturers

European Association of Sugar Manufacturers

The European Association of Sugar Manufacturers, founded in 1953 and now headquartered in Brussels, is a European sugar industry association. CEFS members are national sugar-producing companies. CEFS is structured into a permanent secretariat, the CEFS Decision-making bodies and CEFS Working Bodies.

Sugar Nutrition UK

Sugar Nutrition UK

Sugar Nutrition UK formerly the British Sugar Bureau was a lobby group for the British sugar industry.

Indian Sugar Mills Association

Indian Sugar Mills Association

Indian Sugar Mills Association is premier sugar organization in India. It establish connection between Government and Sugar industry in the country. Prime objective is to ensure that functioning of both private and public sugar mills in country are done through government policies.

Global Energy Balance Network

Global Energy Balance Network

The Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN) was a US-based nonprofit organization claiming to fund research into causes of obesity, but was primarily known for promoting the idea that lack of physical exercise, not bad diet, was primarily responsible for the obesity epidemic. It has been characterised as an astroturfing organisation. It received substantial funding from Coca-Cola. It has been criticised by nutrition experts for downplaying the role of junk food in obesity. Critics have also accused the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) of supporting GEBN. The ACSM claims it had no affiliation with GEBN.

History of the sugar industry

Source: "Sugar industry", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar_industry.

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References
  1. ^ "Global Sugar, Sweeteners Market to Hit $97 Billion by 2017". Natural Products Insider. 18 April 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Sugar: World Markets and Trade" (PDF). Foreign Agricultural Service, US Department of Agriculture. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Phillips, Judson (16 March 2018). "Sugar, steel subsidies are anything but sweet". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b c "Sugar and sweeteners: Policy". US Department of Agriculture. 20 August 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  5. ^ Romano, Robert (2017-01-17). "Yoho Zero for Zero sugar policy is a trade win-win for everyone | Congressman Ted Yoho". yoho.house.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-01-19. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  6. ^ Edwards, Chris (2007-06-20). "Why Congress Should Repeal Sugar Subsidy | Cato Institute". Cato.org. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ a b c d "Business | Q&A: Sugar subsidies". BBC News. 2005-09-19. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  8. ^ a b "Food, Farming, Fisheries | European Commission" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. October 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  9. ^ a b "Dumping on the world - How EU sugar policies hurt poor countries" (PDF). oxfam.org. March 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-05-07. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  10. ^ "Brazil Claims Victory After WTO Ruling on EU Sugar Subsidies". ictsd.org. 6 August 2004. Archived from the original on 2018-08-20. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  11. ^ a b "Sugar | European Commission". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  12. ^ Burrell, Alison; Himics, Mihaly; Van Doorslaer, Benjamin; Ciaian, Pavel; Shrestha, Shailesh (2014). "EU sugar policy : a sweet transition after 2015". publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu. Publications Office of the European Union. doi:10.2791/68116. ISBN 978-92-79-35567-7. ISSN 1831-9424. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ Viljoen, Willemien (8 May 2014). "The end of the EU sugar quota and the implication for African producers". tralac.org. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ a b Roberts, Dan (27 March 2017). "Sweet Brexit: what sugar tells us about Britain's future outside the EU". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ Chanjaroen, Chanyaporn (November 4, 2011). "Suedzucker Leads the Top 10 Sugar-Producing Companies". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ "Global Sugar Manufacturing: Market Research Report". IBISWorld. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ Sifferlin, Alexandra (10 October 2016). "Soda Companies Fund 96 Health Groups In the U.S." Time. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  18. ^ Mozaffarian, Dariush (2 May 2017). "Conflict of Interest and the Role of the Food Industry in Nutrition Research". JAMA. 317 (17): 1755–1756. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3456. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 28464165.
  19. ^ Schillinger, Dean; Tran, Jessica; Mangurian, Christina; Kearns, Cristin (20 December 2016). "Do Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Cause Obesity and Diabetes? Industry and the Manufacture of Scientific Controversy" (PDF). Annals of Internal Medicine. 165 (12): 895–897. doi:10.7326/L16-0534. ISSN 0003-4819. PMC 7883900. PMID 27802504. Retrieved 2018-03-21.(original url, paywalled: Author's conflict of interest disclosure forms)
  20. ^ O’Connor, Anahad (31 October 2016). "Studies Linked to Soda Industry Mask Health Risks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
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