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Striosome

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The striosomes (also referred to as striatal patches) are one of two complementary chemical compartments within the striatum (the other compartment is known as the matrix) that can be visualized by staining for immunocytochemical markers such as mu opioid receptors[1], acetylcholinesterase,[2] enkephalin, substance P, limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP),[3] AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluR1),[4] dopamine receptor subunits, and calcium binding proteins.[5] Striosomal abnormalities have been associated with neurological disorders, such as mood dysfunction in Huntington's disease,[6] though their precise function remains unknown. Recently studies have identified the presence of "exo-patch" neurons that are biochemically and genetically the same as striosomal neurons, but reside in the matrix compartment. [7] This study also characterized the different input and output connections of the striosome and matrix compartments, revealing that both regions have direct inputs to dopamine neurons (though the striosome inputs are somatic whereas the matrix targets distal dendrites). The authors also revealed unique inputs to the striosome from subcortical limbic structures like the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

Striosomes (a.k.a striatal "patches") were discovered by Candace Pert in 1976 based on mu opioid receptor autoradiography and Ann Graybiel in 1978 using acetylcholinesterase histochemistry.

Matrix and Striosome Compartments: Fluorescence microscopy image of a coronal mouse brain section, cut through the striatum (caudate putamen, CP). The matrix/striosome division is here revealed by dual immunohistochemical (calbindin, CALB; green) and transgenic (red fluorescent protein, RFP; red) labeling of the matrix compartment, using the matrix-specific Cre-mouse line Gpr101-Cre.[8] Unlabeled patches constitute striosomes.
Matrix and Striosome Compartments: Fluorescence microscopy image of a coronal mouse brain section, cut through the striatum (caudate putamen, CP). The matrix/striosome division is here revealed by dual immunohistochemical (calbindin, CALB; green) and transgenic (red fluorescent protein, RFP; red) labeling of the matrix compartment, using the matrix-specific Cre-mouse line Gpr101-Cre.[8] Unlabeled patches constitute striosomes.

Discover more about Striosome related topics

Striatum

Striatum

The striatum, or corpus striatum, is a nucleus in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain. The striatum is a critical component of the motor and reward systems; receives glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs from different sources; and serves as the primary input to the rest of the basal ganglia.

Acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol ACHE; EC 3.1.1.7; systematic name acetylcholine acetylhydrolase), also known as AChE, AChase or acetylhydrolase, is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters:acetylcholine + H2O = choline + acetate

Enkephalin

Enkephalin

An enkephalin is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body. The enkephalins are termed endogenous ligands, as they are internally derived and bind to the body's opioid receptors. Discovered in 1975, two forms of enkephalin have been found, one containing leucine ("leu"), and the other containing methionine ("met"). Both are products of the proenkephalin gene.Met-enkephalin is Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met. Leu-enkephalin has Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu.

Substance P

Substance P

Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide and a member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows:Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met (RPKPQQFFGLM)

Limbic system-associated membrane protein

Limbic system-associated membrane protein

Limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 64- to 68-kDa heavily glycosylated protein found in neurons, specifically it is distributed in cortical and subcortical regions of the limbic system. LAMP protein is expressed on the surface of somata and proximal dendrites of neurons where it integrates via glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Despite the name, LAMP is not expressed only in the limbic-associated areas, but also less intensely in the midbrain and hindbrain regions.

GRIA1

GRIA1

Glutamate receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIA1 gene.

Dopamine receptor

Dopamine receptor

Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Dopamine receptors activate different effectors through not only G-protein coupling, but also signaling through different protein interactions. The neurotransmitter dopamine is the primary endogenous ligand for dopamine receptors.

Mood (psychology)

Mood (psychology)

In psychology, a mood is an affective state. In contrast to emotions or feelings, moods are less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked or instantiated by a particular stimulus or event. Moods are typically described as having either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people usually talk about being in a good mood or a bad mood. There are many different factors that influence mood, and these can lead to positive or negative effects on mood.

Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is a neurodegenerative disease that is mostly inherited. The earliest symptoms are often subtle problems with mood or mental abilities. A general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait often follow. It is also a basal ganglia disease causing a hyperkinetic movement disorder known as chorea. As the disease advances, uncoordinated, involuntary body movements of chorea become more apparent. Physical abilities gradually worsen until coordinated movement becomes difficult and the person is unable to talk. Mental abilities generally decline into dementia. The specific symptoms vary somewhat between people. Symptoms usually begin between 30 and 50 years of age but can start at any age. The disease may develop earlier in each successive generation. About eight percent of cases start before the age of 20 years, and are known as juvenile HD, which typically present with the slow movement symptoms of Parkinson's disease rather than those of chorea.

Amygdala

Amygdala

The amygdala is one of two almond-shaped clusters of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain's cerebrum in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision making, and emotional responses, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system. The term "amygdala" was first introduced by Karl Friedrich Burdach in 1822.

Ann Graybiel

Ann Graybiel

Ann Martin Graybiel is an Institute Professor and a faculty member in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is also an investigator at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research. She is an expert on the basal ganglia and the neurophysiology of habit formation, implicit learning, and her work is relevant to Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, obsessive–compulsive disorder, substance abuse and other disorders that affect the basal ganglia.

Source: "Striosome", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striosome.

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References
  1. ^ Pert CB, Kuhar MJ, Snyder SH (Oct 1976). "Opiate receptor: autoradiographic localization in rat brain". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 73 (10): 3792–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.73.10.3729. PMC 431193. PMID 185626.
  2. ^ Graybiel AM, Ragsdale CW Jr (Nov 1978). "Histochemically distinct compartments in the striatum of human, monkeys, and cat demonstrated by acetylthiocholinesterase staining". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 75 (11): 5723–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.11.5723. PMC 393041. PMID 103101.
  3. ^ Prensa L, Giménez-Amaya JM, Parent A (Nov 1999). "Chemical heterogeneity of the striosomal compartment in the human striatum". J Comp Neurol. 413 (4): 603–18. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19991101)413:43.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10495446.
  4. ^ Martin LJ, Blackstone CD, Huganir RL, Price DL (Feb 1993). "The striatal mosaic in primates: striosomes and matrix are differentially enriched in ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits". J. Neurosci. 13 (2): 782–92. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.13-02-00782.1993. PMC 6576641. PMID 7678861.
  5. ^ O'Kusky JR, Nasir J, Cicchetti F, Parent A, Hayden MR (Feb 1999). "Neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia and loss of pallido-subthalamic synapses in mice with targeted disruption of the Huntington's disease gene". Brain Res. 818 (2): 468–79. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(98)01312-2. PMID 10082833. S2CID 45823601.
  6. ^ Tippett LJ, Waldvogel HJ, Thomas SJ, Hogg VM, van Roon-Mom W, Synek BJ, Graybiel AM, Faull RL (Jan 2007). "Striosomes and mood dysfunction in Huntington's disease". Brain. 130 (1): 206–21. doi:10.1093/brain/awl243. PMID 17040921.
  7. ^ Smith JB, Klug JR, Ross DL, Howard CD, Hollon NG, Ko VI, Hoffman H, Callaway EM, Gerfen CR, Jin X (Sep 2016). "Genetic-Based Dissection Unveils the Inputs and Outputs of Striatal Patch and Matrix Compartments". Neuron. 91 (5): 1069–84. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.07.046. PMID 27568516.
  8. ^ Reinius B; et al. (March 27, 2015). "Conditional targeting of medium spiny neurons in the striatal matrix". Front. Behav. Neurosci. 9: 71. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00071. PMC 4375991. PMID 25870547.
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