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St Mary's Church, Eccleston

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St Mary's Church, Eccleston
StMarysEccleston.JPG
St Mary's Church, Eccleston, from the south
St Mary's Church, Eccleston is located in Cheshire
St Mary's Church, Eccleston
St Mary's Church, Eccleston
Coordinates: 53°09′27″N 2°52′46″W / 53.1576°N 2.8794°W / 53.1576; -2.8794
OS grid referenceSJ 412 626
LocationEccleston, Cheshire
CountryEngland
DenominationAnglican
WebsiteSt Mary's Church, Eccleston
History
StatusParish church
Architecture
Functional statusActive
Heritage designationGrade I
Designated1 June 1967
Architect(s)G. F. Bodley
Architectural typeChurch
StyleGothic revival
Completed1899
Construction cost£40,000
Specifications
MaterialsRed sandstone
Administration
ProvinceYork
DioceseChester
ArchdeaconryChester
DeaneryChester
ParishEccleston and Pulford
Clergy
RectorRev'd Canon Roger Clarke

St Mary's Church is in the village of Eccleston, Cheshire, England, on the estate of the Duke of Westminster south of Chester. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building.[1] It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Chester. Its benefice is combined with that of St Mary, Pulford.[2] The Dukes of Westminster are buried in the adjacent Old Churchyard.

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Eccleston, Cheshire

Eccleston, Cheshire

Eccleston is a village and former civil parish, now in the parish of Eaton and Eccleston, in the borough of Cheshire West, in the county of Cheshire, England. The village is approximately 2.7 miles (4.3 km) to the south of the city of Chester, near to the River Dee. The village is situated on the estate of the Duke of Westminster who maintains his ancestral home at nearby Eaton Hall.

Cheshire

Cheshire

Cheshire is a ceremonial and historic county in northwest England, bordered by Wales to the west, Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, and Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south. Cheshire's county town is the cathedral city of Chester, while its largest town by population is Warrington. Other towns in the county include Alsager, Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Frodsham, Knutsford, Macclesfield, Middlewich, Nantwich, Neston, Northwich, Poynton, Runcorn, Sandbach, Widnes, Wilmslow, and Winsford.

Duke of Westminster

Duke of Westminster

Duke of Westminster is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Hugh Grosvenor, 3rd Marquess of Westminster. It is the most recent dukedom conferred on someone not related to the British royal family.

Chester

Chester

Chester is a cathedral city and the county town of Cheshire, England. It is located on the River Dee, close to the English–Welsh border. With a population of 79,645 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester and serves as its administrative headquarters. It is also the historic county town of Cheshire and the second-largest settlement in Cheshire after Warrington.

National Heritage List for England

National Heritage List for England

The National Heritage List for England (NHLE) is England's official database of protected heritage assets. It includes details of all English listed buildings, scheduled monuments, register of historic parks and gardens, protected shipwrecks, and registered battlefields. It is maintained by Historic England, a government body, and brings together these different designations as a single resource even though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to them. Although not designated by Historic England, World Heritage Sites also appear on the NHLE; conservation areas do not appear since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority.

Parish church

Parish church

A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world, especially in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The church building reflects this status, and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented.

Diocese of Chester

Diocese of Chester

The Diocese of Chester is a Church of England diocese in the Province of York covering the pre-1974 county of Cheshire and therefore including the Wirral and parts of Stockport, Trafford and Tameside.

Benefice

Benefice

A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The Roman Empire used the Latin term beneficium as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered. Its use was adopted by the Western Church in the Carolingian Era as a benefit bestowed by the crown or church officials. A benefice specifically from a church is called a precaria, such as a stipend, and one from a monarch or nobleman is usually called a fief. A benefice is distinct from an allod, in that an allod is property owned outright, not bestowed by a higher authority.

St Mary's Church, Pulford

St Mary's Church, Pulford

St Mary's Church is in the village of Pulford, Cheshire, England. The church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Chester. Its benefice is combined with that of St Mary, Eccleston.

History

St Mary's Church as it appears today is a red sandstone building which dates from the 19th century. It was built between 1897 and 1899 to a design by G. F. Bodley for the 1st Duke of Westminster at a cost of £40,000 (£4.79 million today).[3][4] The new church was consecrated on Ascension Day 1900.[5]

The present building is the third parish church to have been built in Eccleston.[5] It stands some 100 metres (330 ft) southwest of the site occupied by its predecessors, which stood in what is known today as the Old Churchyard. A church was certainly in existence in Eccleston in 1188, and in the late 18th century a print was made of a dilapidated medieval church which dates back to the 14th century. The medieval church was entirely replaced in 1809 by one of similar size, built on the site by William Porden for the Earls Grosvenor. A chancel was added in 1853, but by the end of the 19th century the 1st Duke of Westminster decided to replace Porden's church with an entirely new structure. After the new church had been completed, Porden's church was demolished, although the south wall of its nave was retained as a "picturesque feature"[6] and remains in the Old Churchyard.[7]

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Sandstone

Sandstone

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized silicate grains. Sandstones comprise about 20–25% of all sedimentary rocks.

George Frederick Bodley

George Frederick Bodley

George Frederick Bodley was an English Gothic Revival architect. He was a pupil of Sir George Gilbert Scott, and worked in partnership with Thomas Garner for much of his career. He was one of the founders of Watts & Co.

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster,, styled Viscount Belgrave between 1831 and 1845, Earl Grosvenor between 1845 and 1869, and known as The Marquess of Westminster between 1869 and 1874, was an English landowner, politician and racehorse owner. He inherited the estate of Eaton Hall in Cheshire and land in Mayfair and Belgravia, London, and spent much of his fortune in developing these properties. Although he was a member of parliament from the age of 22, and then a member of the House of Lords, his main interests were not in politics, but rather in his estates, in horse racing, and in country pursuits. He developed the stud at Eaton Hall and achieved success in racing his horses, winning the Derby on four occasions. Grosvenor also took an interest in a range of charities. At his death he was considered to be the richest man in Britain.

England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork. The Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents were built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, and the fighting lasted for many decades, eventually establishing Wessex as the most powerful kingdom and promoting the growth of an English identity. Despite repeated crises of succession and a Danish seizure of power at the start of the 11th century, it can also be argued that by the 1060s England was a powerful, centralised state with a strong military and successful economy.

William Porden

William Porden

William Porden was a versatile English architect who worked for the 1st Earl Grosvenor and the Prince Regent.

Architecture

Exterior

The church is built in red ashlar sandstone. Its plan consists of a west tower, a continuous six-bay nave, a chancel with a clerestory, north and south aisles, and north and south porches.[1] A long vestry block projects to the north. The tower has long bell-openings, irregular buttresses and an embattled top. Canopied niches above the south door contain statues.[6] The church is considered to be an example of Bodley's mature style anticipating features of Liverpool Cathedral.[1]

Interior

St Mary's has a nave with north and south aisles and a South porch. Under the tower in the West is the baptistery with a font.

North aisle and chapel

The east end of the north aisle houses the organ loft and the vestry. There is also a large brass plaque listing those members of the Grosvenor family who were buried in the vault once part of Porden's old church. Their resting place in the northeast part of the Old Churchyard is now marked with a simple memorial and surrounded by a low wall with crosses in the corners.

The organ was built in 1899 by Gray & Davison. It was modified around 1910 by Henry Poyser and further modified in 1984.[8]

South aisle and Grosvenor Chapel

The east end of the south aisle, next to the church's chancel, is occupied by the Grosvenor Chapel. Above its altar are the carved figures of Jesus, Saint Augustine and Saint Paulinus.[9]

Separating the Grosvenor Chapel from the church's chancel is a monument to the memory of the 1st Duke of Westminster dated 1901, which consists of a tomb-chest and canopy designed by Bodley with an effigy by Farmer and Brindley, sculpted by Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud.[6] Opposite, on the Grosvenor Chapel's south wall, is a bronze bust to the 2nd Duke as well as a memorials to Captain Lord Hugh William Grosvenor, who was killed in the First World War, the 3rd, 4th and 5th Dukes of Westminster.[9] The Grosvenor Chapel has two accesses: a door to the churchyard and a grille leading into the south aisle.

Tower and baptistry

In the tower there is a ring of eight bells which were cast by John Taylor & Co in 1899.[10]

Under the tower is the baptistry with a font. The font is made from Thessaly marble, and has a lifting oak cover decorated with the carvings of eight saints.

In the baptistry is part of a memorial to the Grosvenor family dated 1624 that has been moved from the old church.

Other features

The authors of the Buildings of England series were impressed by the furnishings of the church, in particular the reredoses by Farmer and Brindley, the chancel screens, the organ case and the bench ends. All the stained glass is by Burlison and Grylls.[6]

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Ashlar

Ashlar

Ashlar is finely dressed stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared, or a structure built from such stones. Ashlar is the finest stone masonry unit, generally rectangular cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less frequently trapezoidal. Precisely cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of very thin joints between blocks, and the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect.

Bay (architecture)

Bay (architecture)

In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. The term bay comes from Old French baie, meaning an opening or hole.

Chancel

Chancel

In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar, including the choir and the sanctuary, at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building. It may terminate in an apse.

Clerestory

Clerestory

In architecture, a clerestory is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. Its purpose is to admit light, fresh air, or both.

Aisle

Aisle

An aisle is, in general, a space for walking with rows of non-walking spaces on both sides. Aisles with seating on both sides can be seen in airplanes, certain types of buildings, such as churches, cathedrals, synagogues, meeting halls, parliaments and legislatures, courtrooms, theatres, and in certain types of passenger vehicles. Their floors may be flat or, as in theatres, stepped upwards from a stage.

Buttress

Buttress

A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall. Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing.

Battlement

Battlement

A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet, in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences. These gaps are termed "crenels", and a wall or building with them is called crenellated; alternative (older) terms are castellated and embattled. The act of adding crenels to a previously unbroken parapet is termed crenellation.

Canopy (building)

Canopy (building)

A canopy is an overhead roof or else a structure over which a fabric or metal covering is attached, able to provide shade or shelter from weather conditions such as sun, hail, snow and rain. A canopy can also be a tent, generally without a floor. The word comes from the ancient Greek κωνώπειον, from κώνωψ, which is a bahuvrihi compound meaning "mosquito". The first 'o' changing into 'a' may be due to influence from the place name Canopus, Egypt thought of as a place of luxuries.

Liverpool Cathedral

Liverpool Cathedral

Liverpool Cathedral is the Cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Liverpool, built on St James's Mount in Liverpool, and the seat of the Bishop of Liverpool. It may be referred to as the Cathedral Church of Christ in Liverpool or the Cathedral Church of the Risen Christ, Liverpool, being dedicated to Christ 'in especial remembrance of His most glorious Resurrection'. Liverpool Cathedral is the largest cathedral and religious building in Britain, and the eighth largest church in the world.

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster,, styled Viscount Belgrave between 1831 and 1845, Earl Grosvenor between 1845 and 1869, and known as The Marquess of Westminster between 1869 and 1874, was an English landowner, politician and racehorse owner. He inherited the estate of Eaton Hall in Cheshire and land in Mayfair and Belgravia, London, and spent much of his fortune in developing these properties. Although he was a member of parliament from the age of 22, and then a member of the House of Lords, his main interests were not in politics, but rather in his estates, in horse racing, and in country pursuits. He developed the stud at Eaton Hall and achieved success in racing his horses, winning the Derby on four occasions. Grosvenor also took an interest in a range of charities. At his death he was considered to be the richest man in Britain.

Augustine of Canterbury

Augustine of Canterbury

Augustine of Canterbury was a monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church.

Effigy

Effigy

An effigy is an often life-size sculptural representation of a specific person, or a prototypical figure. The term is mostly used for the makeshift dummies used for symbolic punishment in political protests and for the figures burned in certain traditions around New Year, Carnival and Easter. In European cultures, effigies were in the past also used for punishment in formal justice, when the perpetrator could not be apprehended, and in popular justice practices of social shaming and exclusion. Additionally, "effigy" is used for certain traditional forms of sculpture, namely tomb effigies, funeral effigies and coin effigies.

Precincts

Wrought-iron gates on Church Road
Wrought-iron gates on Church Road
The 'new' churchyard at St Mary's
The 'new' churchyard at St Mary's

St Mary's Church is accessed from Church Road through a set of wrought-iron gates bearing the Duke of Westminster's coat of arms. These gates date from the early 18th century and were originally at Emral Hall, Flintshire. They were made by the Davies Bros. An avenue of lime trees leads from these gates to the south entrance of the church. Most of the enclosure around St Mary's Church is covered by lawns, although the section immediately east of the church and north of the Rectory is used as parish cemetery.

A footpath leads from St Mary's Church past the Old Coaching House to the Old Churchyard, which is about 100 metres (330 ft) northeast of the church. The walls and gates between Old Church Lane and the Old Churchyard are Grade II listed.[11]

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Old Churchyard

Description

View of the Old Churchyard
View of the Old Churchyard
Remaining wall of Eccleston's old parish church and graves of the Grosvenor family, Dukes of Westminster
Remaining wall of Eccleston's old parish church and graves of the Grosvenor family, Dukes of Westminster
Grosvenor family graves: Hugh Frederick (1927–1947), his mother Doris (1902–1975) and his father Robin (1895–1953), a grandson of the 1st Duke of Westminster
Grosvenor family graves: Hugh Frederick (1927–1947), his mother Doris (1902–1975) and his father Robin (1895–1953), a grandson of the 1st Duke of Westminster
Eccleston's old parish church with the graves of the 5th Duke, the 4th Duke and the latter's wife Sally
Eccleston's old parish church with the graves of the 5th Duke, the 4th Duke and the latter's wife Sally

With its many tall trees, the Old Churchyard has features of a woodland. In its centre are the remains of Porden's old parish church, which consist of a sandstone wall with the lower parts of two windows measuring about 60 feet (18 m) long by 18 feet (5 m) high. It is designated as a Grade II listed building.[7]

Along the south side of the remaining wall of Porden's old church are the graves of the Dukes of Westminster, other members of the Grosvenor family and their relatives. A square enclosure in the northeast part of the Old Churchyard, now covered with gravel and surrounded by a low wall with crosses in the corners, marks the spot where the Grosvenor family vault was located within Porden's church. The names of those ancestors of the Dukes of Westminster who are interred here are recorded on a brass plaque inside the present church building. The grave of Edward George Hugh, Earl Grosvenor (1904–1909), by Detmar Blow and Fernand Billerey, sculpted by Emile Madeline, is a Grade II listed building.[12]

The churchyard contains ten CWGC registered war graves. Of these, seven are from World War I and three from World War II.[13] There is also the grave of a Victoria Cross recipient, Alfred Ernest Ind.[14]

Burials and monuments

Westminster plot along old wall

Site of old Grosvenor family vault

The enclosure which marks the site of the old Grosvenor family vault within the old parish church.
The enclosure which marks the site of the old Grosvenor family vault within the old parish church.

Many ancestors of the Dukes of Westminster, including:

A stone tablet in the enclosure (see here) bears the arms of the Grosvenor baronets with the dates 1599 and 1894 and the inscription: "This stone marks the resting place of those members of the Grosvenor family who were buried in a vault under the old church which was demolished in 1900 and who were reinterred in this plot and their names are recorded on the memorial tablet in Eccleston church." As the inscription indicates, the names of those family members buried here are listed on a large brass wall plaque in the north aisle of the church (see here).

Elsewhere in the Old Churchyard

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Duke of Westminster

Duke of Westminster

Duke of Westminster is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Hugh Grosvenor, 3rd Marquess of Westminster. It is the most recent dukedom conferred on someone not related to the British royal family.

Robert Grosvenor (aviator)

Robert Grosvenor (aviator)

Captain Robert Arthur "Robin" Grosvenor was a World War I flying ace credited with 16 aerial victories.

Robert Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster

Robert Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster

Lieutenant-Colonel Robert George Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, was a British soldier, landowner, businessman and politician. In the 1970s he was the richest man in Britain.

Gerald Grosvenor, 4th Duke of Westminster

Gerald Grosvenor, 4th Duke of Westminster

Colonel Gerald Hugh Grosvenor, 4th Duke of Westminster was a British landowner and aristocrat.

Sally Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster

Sally Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster

Sally Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster was the wife of Gerald Grosvenor, 4th Duke of Westminster.

Monument to Hugh, Earl Grosvenor

Monument to Hugh, Earl Grosvenor

The Monument to Hugh, Earl Grosvenor, is in the graveyard of St Mary's Church, Eccleston, Cheshire, England. It commemorates the brief life of the only son of Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster, who died at the age of four. The monument consists of an enclosure in bronze around his grave, and incorporates three bronze figures. It was designed by Detmar Blow, possibly assisted by Fernand Billerey, and the sculptor was Emile Madeline. The monument is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.

Detmar Blow

Detmar Blow

Detmar Jellings Blow was a British architect of the early 20th century, who designed principally in the arts and crafts style. His clients belonged chiefly to the British aristocracy, and later he became estates manager to the Duke of Westminster.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission

Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars. The commission is also responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during the Second World War. The commission was founded by Sir Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 as the Imperial War Graves Commission. The change to the present name took place in 1960.

Alfred Ernest Ind

Alfred Ernest Ind

Alfred Ernest Ind VC was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Richard Grosvenor, 1st Baron Stalbridge

Richard Grosvenor, 1st Baron Stalbridge

Richard de Aquila Grosvenor, 1st Baron Stalbridge,, styled Lord Richard Grosvenor between 1845 and 1886, was a British politician and businessman. Initially a Liberal, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household between 1872 and 1874 and as Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury between 1880 and 1885. However, he broke with Gladstone over Irish Home Rule in 1886 and joined the Liberal Unionists.

George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland

George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland

George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland, KG, styled Viscount Trentham until 1803, Earl Gower between 1803 and 1833 and Marquess of Stafford in 1833, was a British Whig MP and peer from the Leveson-Gower family.

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster

Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster,, styled Viscount Belgrave between 1831 and 1845, Earl Grosvenor between 1845 and 1869, and known as The Marquess of Westminster between 1869 and 1874, was an English landowner, politician and racehorse owner. He inherited the estate of Eaton Hall in Cheshire and land in Mayfair and Belgravia, London, and spent much of his fortune in developing these properties. Although he was a member of parliament from the age of 22, and then a member of the House of Lords, his main interests were not in politics, but rather in his estates, in horse racing, and in country pursuits. He developed the stud at Eaton Hall and achieved success in racing his horses, winning the Derby on four occasions. Grosvenor also took an interest in a range of charities. At his death he was considered to be the richest man in Britain.

Source: "St Mary's Church, Eccleston", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mary's_Church,_Eccleston.

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See also
References
  1. ^ a b c Historic England, "Church of St Mary, Eccleston (1138410)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 13 May 2012
  2. ^ Eccleston, St Mary, Church of England, retrieved 21 April 2011
  3. ^ Salter, Mark (1995), The Old Parish Churches of Cheshire, Malvern: Folly Publications, p. 35, ISBN 1-871731-23-2
  4. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth, retrieved 11 June 2022
  5. ^ a b Revd Ian M. Thomas, Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin Eccleston: A Short History (online), access date 24 August 2015
  6. ^ a b c d Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew; Hubbard, Edward; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2011) [1971], Cheshire, The Buildings of England, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 352–353, ISBN 978-0-300-17043-6
  7. ^ a b Historic England, "Remains of former Church of St Mary, Eccleston (1138376)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 13 May 2012
  8. ^ "NPOR [D08363]", National Pipe Organ Register, British Institute of Organ Studies, retrieved 30 June 2020
  9. ^ a b Anon. (1977), A Guide to the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Eccleston, Chester, Eccleston, Cheshire: St Mary's Church, Eccleston
  10. ^ Eccleston S Mary, Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers, retrieved 14 August 2008
  11. ^ Historic England, "Walls and gates between Old Church Lane and the old churchyard, Eccleston (1138375)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 13 May 2012
  12. ^ Historic England, "Tomb of Edward George Hugh, Earl Grosvenor (Grade II) (1330222)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 4 July 2017
  13. ^ Eccleston (St Mary) Churchyard, Chester, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, retrieved 14 September 2012
  14. ^ a b Grave location for the holders of the Victoria Cross in the County of Cheshire, archived from the original on 27 May 2012, retrieved 14 September 2012
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