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St. Martin's Island

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Saint Martin Island
Native name:
সেন্টমার্টিন দ্বীপ
নারিকেল জিঞ্জিরা (Narikel jinjira)
দারুচিনি দ্বীপ (Daruchini Dwip)
Sunset at Saint Martin.jpg
Geography
LocationBay of Bengal
Coordinates20°36′47″N 92°19′36″E / 20.61306°N 92.32667°E / 20.61306; 92.32667Coordinates: 20°36′47″N 92°19′36″E / 20.61306°N 92.32667°E / 20.61306; 92.32667
Area3 km2 (1.2 sq mi)
Length9 km (5.6 mi)
Width0.5 km (0.31 mi)
Administration
DistrictCox's Bazar District
Demographics
Population4,000
Saint Martin Island Lighthouse
Narikel Jinjira Edit this at Wikidata
Foundationconcrete base
Constructionmetal skeletal tower[1]
Height35 m (115 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Shapesquare pyramidal skeletal tower with balcony and lantern[1]
Markingswhite and red horizontal bands, white and red horizontal daymark on the top[1][2]
OperatorBangladesh Department of Shipping[1]
RaconEdit this on Wikidata
Focal height39 m (128 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Range20 nmi (37 km; 23 mi) Edit this on Wikidata
CharacteristicFl W 37s Edit this on Wikidata

Saint Martin Island (Bengali: সেন্টমার্টিন দ্বীপ) is a small island (area only 3 km2) in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, about 9 km south of the tip of the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf peninsula, and forming the southernmost part of Bangladesh. There is a small adjoining island that is separated at high tide, called Chera Dwip. It is about 8 kilometres (5 miles) west of the northwest coast of Myanmar, at the mouth of the Naf River.

Discover more about St. Martin's Island related topics

Bengali language

Bengali language

Bengali, generally known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Bengal region of South Asia. It is the official, national, and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and the second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India. With approximately 300 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers, Bengali is the fifth most-spoken native language and the seventh most spoken language by a total number of speakers in the world. Bengali is the fifth most spoken Indo-European language.

Bay of Bengal

Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sangaman Kanda, Sri Lanka, and the north westernmost point of Sumatra, Indonesia. It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia. During the existence of British India, it was named the Bay of Bengal after the historic Bengal region. At the time, the Port of Kolkata served as the gateway to the Crown rule in India. Cox's Bazar, the longest sea beach in the world and Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest and the natural habitat of the Bengal tiger, are located along the bay.

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar is a city, fishing port, tourism centre, and district headquarters in Southeastern Bangladesh. It is located 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Chittagong. Cox's Bazar is also known by the name Panowa, which translates literally as "yellow flower". Another old name was "Palongkee".

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Myanmar

Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is the largest country by area in Mainland Southeast Asia, and has a population of about 54 million as of 2017. It is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. The country's capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).

Naf River

Naf River

The Naf River is an international river marking the border of southeastern Bangladesh and northwestern Myanmar.

History and description

Millennia ago, the island used to be an extension of the Teknaf peninsula, but at a later time some portion of this peninsula got submerged and thus the southernmost part of the aforementioned peninsula became an island, and was disconnected from the Bangladesh mainland. The first settlement started 250 years ago, in 18th century, by Arabian merchants who named the island 'Jazira'. During British occupation the island was named after the then Deputy Commissioner of Chittagong Mr. Martin as St. Martin Island. Likely because one or more of the Arabs were Saint and whose name could not be identified. Local names of the island are "Narikel jinjira"[3] which means 'Coconut Island', and "Daruchini Dwip" which means "Cinnamon island". It is the only coral island in Bangladesh.

Administration

The island makes up the Saint Martin's Union Parishad. It has 9 villages/areas:

UP complex of Saint Martin Island
UP complex of Saint Martin Island
  • Paschim Para (Western Neighbourhood)
  • Deil Para
  • Uttar Para (Northern Neighbourhood)
  • Majher Para (Middle Neighbourhood)
  • Purba Para (Eastern Neighbourhood)
  • Konar Para (Edge Neighbourhood)
  • Nazrul Para (Neighbourhood of Nazrul)
  • Golachipa (literally "narrow neck")
  • Dakkhin Para (Southern Neighbourhood)

Inhabitants

Coral in St. Martin's Island .
Coral in St. Martin's Island .

Most of the island's approximately 3,700[4] inhabitants live primarily from fishing. The other staple crops are rice and coconut. Being very common on the island, algae are collected, dried, and exported to Myanmar. Between October and April, the fishermen from neighboring areas bring their caught fishes to the island's temporary wholesale market. However, imports of chicken, meat and other foods come in from the mainland Bangladesh and Myanmar. As the centre and the south are mainly farmland and makeshift huts, most of the permanent structures are around the far north.

During the rainy season, because of the dangerous conditions on the Bay of Bengal, the inhabitants have no scope to go to the mainland (Teknaf) and their life can become dangerous. There is a hospital on the island, but in the past there has often been no doctor.

Biological diversity and bioprospecting potential

Research by the Bangladesh Department of Environment (DoE), with the assistance of the UNDP, demonstrates that the island has a number of ecosystems, including coral-rich areas, mangroves, lagoons and stony areas. The island is a safe haven to various species of fauna. The presence of 153 species of sea weeds, 66 species of coral, 187 species of oysters, 240 species of fish, 120 species of birds, 29 species of reptiles and 29 species of mammals were recorded at the St Martin's Island in 2010.[5][6][7][8] The area in vicinity has been declared as a Marine Protected Area in 2022.[9][10]

S.I. Paul et al. (2021)[8] collected 9 species of marine sponges (phylum: Porifera) from the Saint Martin's Island. These are: Niphates erecta, Mycale macilenta, Plakortis dariae, Cliona celata, Cliona carteri, Cliona viridis, Haliclona rosea, Haliclona oculata, and Hemimycale columella.[8] Marine sponges and their associated microbes produce an enormous array of antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antibiotic and other bioactive molecules.[8][11][12]

S.I. Paul et al. (2021)[8] explored a total of 15 bacterial genera comprising 31 different bacterial species from the 9 collected marine sponges of the island. Among them Bacillus subtilis strains WS1A and YBS29 have great probiotic potential.[8][13][14] It can produce antimicrobial compounds and prevent motile Aeromonas septicemia disease (a major fish disease in Bangladesh) of Rohu (Labeo rohita).[8][13] Bacillus subtilis strains WS1A and YBS29 produce different types of antimicrobial peptides.[8][13][14] Fish (Labeo rohita) fed with extracellular products of Bacillus subtilis strains WS1A and YBS29 develop complete disease resistance.[8][13][14] The metabolites and bioactive compounds derived from marine sponges and sponge microbes also afford abundant potential for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.[12]

Transportation

M.V. Bangali. (32191488734)
M.V. Bangali. (32191488734)

The only way to reach Saint Martin Island is by water transportation: boats and ships (mostly for tourists) from Cox Bazar and Teknaf. It is the southernmost union of Bangladesh situated in 120 km away from the Cox’s Bazar city.[15] The only internal transport for island is non motorized van (pulled by man.) The roads are made of concrete, and their condition are decent. All most hotels run generators until 11 PM which are not allowed afterwards, so they then rely on solar power, which is popular throughout the island. There is no electricity supply from the national grid since a hurricane in 1991.

Tourism

A resort hotel on St. Martin's Island
A resort hotel on St. Martin's Island

Saint Martin Island has become a tourist spot, and Eight shipping liners run daily trips to the island. Nowadays, tourist has become friendly to Eco tourism. Consequently, eco friendly resort- Josnaloy Beach Resort has become popular to them. Tourists can book their trip either from Chittagong or from Cox's Bazar. The surrounding coral reef has an extension named Chera Dwip. A small bush is there, which is the only green part. People do not live on this part, so it is advisable for the tourists to go there early and come back by afternoon.

A number of efforts have been proposed to preserve the several endangered species of turtles that nest on the island, as well as the corals, some of which are found only on Narikel Jinjira. Pieces of the coral reef are being removed to be sold to tourists.[16] Nesting turtles are sometimes taken for food, and their hatchlings are often distracted by the twinkling lights along the beach. Fish, a few recently discovered, are being overfished. Every year the fishermen must venture further out to sea to get their catch. Most of them use motorless boats.

It is possible to walk around the island in a day because it measures only 8 km2 (3 sq. mile), shrinking to about 5 km2 (2 sq. mi) during high tide. The island exists only because of its coral base, so removal of that coral risks erosion of the beach.

Saint Martin lost 70% of its coral reef between 1980 and 2018 due to anthropogenic factors.[17]

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Chittagong

Chittagong

Chittagong, officially Chattogram, is the second-largest city in Bangladesh after Dhaka and third largest city in Bengal region. It is the administrative seat of the eponymous division and district. It hosts the busiest seaport on the Bay of Bengal. The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. The Greater Chittagong Area had a population of more than 5.2 million in 2022. In 2020, the city area had a population of more than 3.9 million.

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar is a city, fishing port, tourism centre, and district headquarters in Southeastern Bangladesh. It is located 150 km (93 mi) south of the city of Chittagong. Cox's Bazar is also known by the name Panowa, which translates literally as "yellow flower". Another old name was "Palongkee".

Turtle

Turtle

Turtles are an order of reptiles known as Testudines, characterized by a special shell developed mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the Pleurodira and Cryptodira, which differ in the way the head retracts. There are 360 living and recently extinct species of turtles, including land-dwelling tortoises and freshwater terrapins. They are found on most continents, some islands and, in the case of sea turtles, much of the ocean. Like other amniotes they breathe air and do not lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water.

Coral

Coral

Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They typically form compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Coral species include the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.

Overfishing

Overfishing

Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate greater than that the species can replenish its population naturally, resulting in the species becoming increasingly underpopulated in that area. Overfishing can occur in water bodies of any sizes, such as ponds, wetlands, rivers, lakes or oceans, and can result in resource depletion, reduced biological growth rates and low biomass levels. Sustained overfishing can lead to critical depensation, where the fish population is no longer able to sustain itself. Some forms of overfishing, such as the overfishing of sharks, has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems. Types of overfishing include: growth overfishing, recruitment overfishing, ecosystem overfishing.

Sovereignty dispute and shootings of St. Martin's fishermen

Fishing is one of largest professional activities of St. Martin's Island's 5,500 residents; however, territorial disputes between Myanmar and Bangladesh have resulted in a state of tension between the countries that can erupt into violence, often targeting unarmed Bangladeshi fishermen. Below is a brief summary of shooting incidents against St. Martin's fishermen:

  • On October 7, 1998, between three and five Bangladeshi fishermen were killed by Burmese Navy forces just off the coast of St. Martin's Island.[18]
  • On September 8, 1999, one Bangladeshi fisherman was shot and killed by Burmese Navy forces near Saint Martin Island. Nine crewmen from the victim's fishing boat abandoned it, swam for their lives, and were rescued by Bangladeshi forces. The Bangladeshi government lodged a formal protest note to Myanmar.[19]
  • On August 20, 2000, the Bangladeshi police reported that Burmese border guards had shot and killed four Bangladeshi fishermen off the coast of St. Martin's Island.[20]
  • In 2011 pirates attacked fishermen 5 km off the coast of Saint Martin Island and killed four of them.[21]
  • On 6 October 2018, the Government of Myanmar updated its 2015-2018 map of Myanmar Information Management Unit showing St. Martin as a part of their sovereign territory and spread the maps in two global websites. Following the event, the Myanmar Ambassador in Dhaka was summoned by the Government of Bangladesh on 6 October 2018. Rear Admiral (retd) M Khurshed Alam, maritime affairs secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Bangladesh handed over a strongly worded protest note to him. The Myanmar envoy said it was a “mistake” to show the Saint Martin Island as part of his country's territory.[22]

Discover more about Sovereignty dispute and shootings of St. Martin's fishermen related topics

Myanmar

Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is the largest country by area in Mainland Southeast Asia, and has a population of about 54 million as of 2017. It is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. The country's capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Md Khurshed Alam

Md Khurshed Alam

Rear Admiral (retd.) Md. Khurshed Alam Mphil., ndc, psc, BN is the incumbent Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bangladesh. He is a former two star Admiral of Bangladesh Navy. He also the chairperson of the IOC Regional Committee for the Central Indian Ocean (IOCINDIO). He also served as the President of the International Seabed Authority (ISA) Council.

Climate and weather

The best weather is usually between November and February; this is the major tourist season. Between March and July, cyclones can strike. The island was devastated by a cyclone in 1991 but has fully recovered, and was untouched by the 2004 tsunami. March to July is off-season for tourists.

Gallery

Source: "St. Martin's Island", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Martin's_Island.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of Bangladesh". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  2. ^ List of Lights, Pub. 112: Western Pacific and Indian Oceans Including the Persian Gulf and Red Sea (PDF). List of Lights. United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2016.
  3. ^ "Saint Martin Island Bangladesh". Abdul Aouwal. May 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
  4. ^ Chowdhury, Sifatul Quader (2012). "St Martin's Island". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  5. ^ Zinnat, Mohammad Ali; Roy, Pinaki (2015-10-16). "Biodiversity of St Martin's under threat". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  6. ^ "St. Martin's Island and its unique biodiversity face serious threats". IUCN. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2021-09-16.
  7. ^ Alam, O; Deng, TL; Uddin, MN; Alamgir, M (2015-08-24). "Application of Environmental Ethics for Sustainable Development and Conservation of Saint Martin's Island in Bangladesh". Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources. 8 (1): 19–27. doi:10.3329/jesnr.v8i1.24628. ISSN 2408-8633.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul, Sulav Indra; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Salam, Mohammad Abdus; Khan, Md. Arifur Rahman; Islam, Md. Tofazzal (December 2021). "Identification of marine sponge-associated bacteria of the Saint Martin's island of the Bay of Bengal emphasizing on the prevention of motile Aeromonas septicemia in Labeo rohita". Aquaculture. 545: 737156. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2021.737156. ISSN 0044-8486.
  9. ^ Wildlife Conservation Society, 2022, A New Marine Protected Area to Protect Biodiversity and Coral Habitat Around Saint Martin’s Island in Bangladesh
  10. ^ The Business Standard, 2021, High-powered team suggested for supervision of marine protected areas
  11. ^ Hentschel, Ute; Piel, Jörn; Degnan, Sandie M.; Taylor, Michael W. (2012-07-30). "Genomic insights into the marine sponge microbiome". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 10 (9): 641–654. doi:10.1038/nrmicro2839. ISSN 1740-1526. PMID 22842661. S2CID 16172507.
  12. ^ a b Souza, Danilo T.; Genuário, Diego B.; Silva, Fabio Sérgio P.; Pansa, Camila C.; Kavamura, Vanessa N.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Taketani, Rodrigo G.; Melo, Itamar S. (2016-10-03). "Analysis of bacterial composition in marine sponges reveals the influence of host phylogeny and environment". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 93 (1): fiw204. doi:10.1093/femsec/fiw204. ISSN 1574-6941. PMID 27702764.
  13. ^ a b c d Rahman, M. Mahbubur; Paul, Sulav Indra; Akter, Tasmina; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Foysal, M. Javed; Islam, M. Tofazzal (2020-09-24). "Whole-Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis WS1A, a Promising Fish Probiotic Strain Isolated from Marine Sponge of the Bay of Bengal". Microbiology Resource Announcements. 9 (39). doi:10.1128/mra.00641-20. ISSN 2576-098X. PMC 7516141. PMID 32972930.
  14. ^ a b c Paul, Sulav Indra; Rahman, M. Mahbubur (2022-09-26). Gill, Steven R. (ed.). "Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis YBS29, a Potential Fish Probiotic That Prevents Motile Aeromonas Septicemia in Labeo rohita". Microbiology Resource Announcements. 11 (10): e00915–22. doi:10.1128/mra.00915-22. ISSN 2576-098X. PMC 9583808. PMID 36154193.
  15. ^ "Saint Martin Bangladesh: A Little Heaven". Incredible Asia. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  16. ^ "Tourists discover Saint Martin island". eTurbo News. February 19, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  17. ^ Gazi, Md. Yousuf; Mowsumi, Tahrim Jannat; Ahmed, Md. Kawser (September 2020). "Detection of Coral Reefs Degradation using Geospatial Techniques around Saint Martin's Island, Bay of Bengal". Ocean Science Journal. 55 (3): 429. doi:10.1007/s12601-020-0029-3. S2CID 221494916.
  18. ^ Myanmar Guards Kill Two Bangladeshis, October 8, 1998, Reuters
  19. ^ Myanmar border guards kill Bangladeshi fisherman, September 8, 1999, Reuters
  20. ^ Reuters, August 20, 2000
  21. ^ "Four fishermen shot dead by pirates in bay". New Age. August 29, 2011. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013.
  22. ^ Md. Azhar Uddin Bhuiyan (16 October 2018). "Legal implication of Myanmar's claim over Saint Martin". The Daily Star. Bangladesh. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
Sources
  • Islam, M. Z. 2001. First Reef Check Survey in Bangladesh. Reef Check Newsletter, Volume-6, Issue 2, August 2006.
  • Islam, M. Z. 2005. St. Martin Pilot Project, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) Implementation Project-1, Final Report, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, 2001, 119 pp.
  • Marinelife Alliance, 2016. Final Report: Conservation of Sea Turtle along Bangladesh Coastal & Marine Territory, under Strengthening Regional Protection for Wildlife Protection Project (SRCWPP), Bangladesh Forest Department, Project ID-W2-06, 2013. 2016 Dec, 112 Pg.
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