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Slovenská televízia

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Slovenská televízia
TypeBroadcast television
Country
Availabilityterrestrial, cable, satellite
HeadquartersBratislava
OwnerGovernment of Slovakia
Launch date
1991 (by law)
1993 (de facto)
Dissolved1 January 2011[1] (merged into RTVS)
Replaced byRozhlas a televízia Slovenska (RTVS)

Slovenská televízia (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈslɔʋenskaː ˈteleʋiːzɪɐ]; "Slovak Television"; STV) was a state-owned public television organisation in Slovakia. It was created in 1991 as the Slovak part of the former Czechoslovak Television and was headquartered in Bratislava. It was funded from a combination of television licence fees, advertising, and government funding.[2] It ceased to existed on 1 January 2011, when it was merged with the state-owned public radio organisation Slovenský rozhlas ("Slovak Radio") to create Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska ("Radio and Television of Slovakia").[1]

STV was a regular member of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Slovakia

Slovakia

Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the southwest, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's mostly mountainous territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi), with a population of over 5.4 million. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, while the second largest city is Košice.

Czechoslovak Television

Czechoslovak Television

Czechoslovak Television (ČST) was the state television broadcaster of Czechoslovakia. Founded on 1 May 1953, it was known by three names over its lifetime: Czech: Československá televize, Slovak: Československá televízia and Česko-slovenská televízia. ČST ended its broadcast with the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, with two public television stations established in its place: Česká televize and Slovenská televízia, both successors of ČST.

Bratislava

Bratislava

Bratislava is the capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 475,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 — approximately 140% of the official figures. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia at the foot of the Little Carpathians, occupying both banks of the River Danube and the left bank of the River Morava. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two sovereign states.

Television licence

Television licence

A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid. The fee is sometimes also required to own a radio or receive radio broadcasts. A TV licence is therefore effectively a hypothecated tax for the purpose of funding public broadcasting, thus allowing public broadcasters to transmit television programmes without, or with only supplemental funding from radio and television advertisements. However, in some cases, the balance between public funding and advertisements is the opposite – the Polish broadcaster TVP receives more funds from advertisements than from its TV tax.

Slovenský rozhlas

Slovenský rozhlas

Slovenský rozhlas or SRo was a state-owned nationwide public-service radio broadcaster in Slovakia. It was headquartered in Bratislava in a building shaped like an inverted pyramid.

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia or RTVS is a nationwide public broadcasting, state-funded organisation in Slovakia. It is headquartered in Bratislava and led by Ľuboš Machaj.

European Broadcasting Union

European Broadcasting Union

The European Broadcasting Union is an alliance of public service media organisations whose countries are within the European Broadcasting Area or who are members of the Council of Europe. As of 2022, it is made up of 112 member organizations from 54 countries, and 31 associate members from a further 20 countries. It was established in 1950, and had its administrative headquarters in Geneva and technical office in Brussels.

History

The STV Tower, Slovak TV's headquarters in Bratislava
The STV Tower, Slovak TV's headquarters in Bratislava
STV logo in 1992
STV logo in 1992
STV outside broadcasting van at Main Street, Košice (2010)
STV outside broadcasting van at Main Street, Košice (2010)

The establishment of STV as an independent institution happened on 1 July 1991, after a law by the Slovak National Council related to the independence of Slovakia from Czechoslovakia. However, its history dates back to November 1956, when Czechoslovak Television, then under socialist regime, established a television studio in Bratislava as a test transmission. Regular broadcasts began on 3 November 1957, broadcasting every day, except on Mondays (as it was customary in Eastern Bloc television broadcasts). After the fall of communism in the Czechoslovakian Republic, programming began to be relaunched, and the Bratislava studio was renamed as Slovenská televízia in preparation for the Slovakian independence. In September 1990, as part of a massive reorganisation of the CST channels, the second program was repositioned as a separate service for the Slovakian side of the country, under the S1 name (the Czech side received its own separate service, ČTV). A third channel, OK 3, focusing on international satellite programming, launched on May of the same year, but it was replaced by a similarly-focused Slovakia-specific service, TA 3, in July 1991.

After Slovakian independence, on 1 January 1993, the management and operations of the Slovakian television were fully separated from the Czech Television, and the newly-formed Slovenská televízia began operating two channels. Still, the complex social and political issues that hampered Slovakia after independence, as well as heavy turnover of management, a lack of clear identification between both programs, and heavy bias toward the towards the People's Party – Movement for a Democratic Slovakia during the Vladimír Mečiar government, caused the broadcaster to rapidly lose most of its audience, as well as its credibility.[3][4] The arrival of commercial channels Markíza and TV JOJ, which offered more attractive programming, worsened the decline.

In 2003, founding TV JOJ director Richard Rybníček was elected by the STV Board of Governors as the broadcaster's director general. He swiftly began a transformation process to make public television more competitive with private broadcasters. On the evening of 1 January 2004, STV relaunched both channels with new programming and new brand identities, after a massive promotional campaign anticipating a "new beginning" for public broadcasting. STV1, now renamed as Jednotka, was repositioned as a generalist and mass audience channel, with a focus on light entertainment and increased news programming. STV2 (renamed Dvojka) became a niche-focused service, with most cultural, sports and minority/regional programming moved to this channel.[5] The entire Slovak TV brand was renewed, with new logos, graphic packages and a new look for STV's news programmes, including a new virtual studio. Moreover, the DOGs of both channels moved to the top-right corner of the screen (as opposed to the top-left corner, standardised for most Slovak TV channels), and in-vision continuity was dropped in favour of shorter and snappier promos.

Soon, however, critics began to worry about the quality of most new programming, and many were hampered by the oversaturation of more commercially focused programmes. Adaptations of international franchises, like Pop Idol and C'è posta per te, became heavily criticised due to its high production costs and led to heavy accusations of dumbing down;[6][7] additionally, internally-produced programming was limited during the Rybníček directorate, and the majority of international TV shows and films (mostly American) were broadcast with Czech dubbing. The few exports broadcast with Slovak dubbing were produced by external studios and were of poor quality, resulting on backlash; by 2007, the Slovak government (then under Robert Fico) duly approved a new law regulating Slovak dubbing on imports.[8] Since then, most Slovak dubbing has been handled by STV's internal dubbing studio.

Even with the heavy drift on the programming concept of Slovak television, the changes were initially successful. During the first days of the relaunch, audiences for both channels did increase to a combined 30.2 percent share,[9] and soon, Jednotka had engaged in three-way race with Markíza and a resurgent TV JOJ, which had strengthened its programming concept. Alongside the record ratings, STV had successfully reduced part of its heavy debts. However, Rybníček's sudden resignation in 2006 to pursue a political career led to more turnover at the director general position and caused fortunes to be reversed; additionally, the commercially focused programmes introduced under Rybníček moved to its commercial rivals.

Nevertheless, STV embraced the launch of digital television, and, by 2007, some of the programmes broadcast on Jednotka and Dvojka were already broadcast in 16:9, specially imports and many live events; it even launched a third channel dedicated exclusively to sports, Trojka, on 8 August 2008.[10] The launch coincided with the beginning of the 2008 Summer Olympics, and caused all sports programming to move exclusively to this channel, exclusive to digital television.

However, the transition to digital broadcasting and the launch of the third channel, as well as the continuing turnover of management, resulted on heavily increasing debts, which worsened the crisis at the public broadcaster. As a parliamentary response to these debts, STV was eventually forced to merge with its radio counterpart, Slovenský rozhlas, to form the new Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS).[1] The merger was completed on 1 January 2011, and, although both companies legally ceased to exist, STV continued broadcasting both channels under the pre-merger brand until a massive relaunch in June, when Trojka ceased to exist and both Jednotka and Dvojka relaunched under the new RTVS brand.

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Bratislava

Bratislava

Bratislava is the capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 475,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 — approximately 140% of the official figures. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia at the foot of the Little Carpathians, occupying both banks of the River Danube and the left bank of the River Morava. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two sovereign states.

Košice

Košice

Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia. It is situated on the river Hornád at the eastern reaches of the Slovak Ore Mountains, near the border with Hungary. With a population of approximately 230,000, Košice is the second-largest city in Slovakia, after the capital Bratislava.

National Council (Slovakia)

National Council (Slovakia)

The National Council of the Slovak Republic, abbreviated to NR SR, is the national parliament of Slovakia. It is unicameral and consists of 150 members, who are elected by universal suffrage under proportional representation with seats distributed via Hagenbach-Bischoff quota every four years.

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe, created in 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary. In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, the Sudetenland became part of Germany, while the country lost further territories to Hungary and Poland. Between 1939 and 1945 the state ceased to exist, as Slovakia proclaimed its independence and the remaining territories in the east became part of Hungary, while in the remainder of the Czech Lands the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was proclaimed. In 1939, after the outbreak of World War II, former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš formed a government-in-exile and sought recognition from the Allies.

Czechoslovak Television

Czechoslovak Television

Czechoslovak Television (ČST) was the state television broadcaster of Czechoslovakia. Founded on 1 May 1953, it was known by three names over its lifetime: Czech: Československá televize, Slovak: Československá televízia and Česko-slovenská televízia. ČST ended its broadcast with the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, with two public television stations established in its place: Česká televize and Slovenská televízia, both successors of ČST.

Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America under the influence of the Soviet Union that existed during the Cold War (1947–1991). These states followed the ideology of Marxism–Leninism, in opposition to the capitalist Western Bloc. The Eastern Bloc was often called the Second World, whereas the term "First World" referred to the Western Bloc and "Third World" referred to the non-aligned countries that were mainly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America but notably also included former pre-1948 Soviet ally SFR Yugoslavia, which was located in Europe.

People's Party – Movement for a Democratic Slovakia

People's Party – Movement for a Democratic Slovakia

The Movement for a Democratic Slovakia was a national-populist political party in Slovakia. The party is commonly considered as authoritarian and illiberal.

Markíza

Markíza

Markíza is a Slovak television channel launched on August 31, 1996. The channel was founded by a later politician Pavol Rusko, and is now part of the Central European Media Enterprises (CME). It also operates television channels Doma, Dajto, Markíza International and Markíza KRIMI.

Dumbing down

Dumbing down

Dumbing down is the deliberate oversimplification of intellectual content in education, literature, and cinema, news, video games, and culture. Originated in 1933, the term "dumbing down" was movie-business slang, used by screenplay writers, meaning: "[to] revise so as to appeal to those of little education or intelligence". Dumbing-down varies according to subject matter, and usually involves the diminishment of critical thought by undermining standard language and learning standards, thus trivializing academic standards, culture, and meaningful information, as in the case of popular culture.

Robert Fico

Robert Fico

Robert Fico is a Slovak politician who served as the prime minister of Slovakia from 2006 to 2010 and from 2012 to 2018. He has been the first leader of the Direction – Social Democracy (SMER-SD) party since 1999. First elected to Parliament in 1992, he was later appointed to the Council of Europe. Following his party's victory in the 2006 parliamentary election, he formed the first Fico Cabinet.

Slovenský rozhlas

Slovenský rozhlas

Slovenský rozhlas or SRo was a state-owned nationwide public-service radio broadcaster in Slovakia. It was headquartered in Bratislava in a building shaped like an inverted pyramid.

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia or RTVS is a nationwide public broadcasting, state-funded organisation in Slovakia. It is headquartered in Bratislava and led by Ľuboš Machaj.

Television channels

STV operated three channels during its existence.[11] They were named Jednotka (One), Dvojka (Two) (called STV1 and STV2 before a name change in 2004), and Trojka (Three), a sports channel launched in 2008.

TA3 was a TV channel previously broadcast on the 3rd broadcasting circuit in the Slovak Republic from 6 July 1991 to 30 September 1992. The channel was created in order to replace the federal channel OK 3.

Trojka ceased broadcasting on 30 June 2011, while the other two channels continued to operate as a part of Rozhlas a televízia Slovenska.[12] The three channels covered the entire territory of Slovakia

Broadcasting was on a 24-hour basis. Between 1987 and 1994, it was limited from 06:00 to 01:30.

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Source: "Slovenská televízia", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovenská_televízia.

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References
  1. ^ a b c "Merger of SRo and STV 'on target'". The Slovak Spectator. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  2. ^ Javurek, Peter (December 2009). "Footprint of Financial Crisis in the Media" (PDF). Open Society Institute. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  3. ^ "History and Tv in Slovakia | E-Story" (in Italian). Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  4. ^ "Taká malá propaganda". www.csfd.cz. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  5. ^ a.s, Media Marketing Services. "Zmeny na obrazovke STV od januára 2004 | RadioTV" (in Czech). Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  6. ^ "STV: nový začiatok zatiaľ nenadchol". Pravda.sk (in Slovak). 3 January 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  7. ^ a.s, Petit Press. "STV kúpila licencie na SuperStar a Svadbu snov za 4,7 milióna Sk". www.sme.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  8. ^ "Horší slovenský dabing". medialne.trend.sk (in Slovak). 20 February 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  9. ^ a.s, Petit Press. "Nový začiatok STV sledovalo 40 percent ľudí". www.sme.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  10. ^ Azet.sk (6 August 2008). "Všetko o STV Trojka: Andrej Miklánek bol online!". Nový Čas (in Slovak). Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  11. ^ Školkay, Andrej (2011). Media law in Slovakia. Kluwer Law International. p. 22. ISBN 978-90-411-3439-4. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  12. ^ Katolo, Andrew. "Slovak Public Television Switched Off Analogue Broadcast". IHS Technology. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
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