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Side-scrolling video game

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Secret Maryo Chronicles, a side-scrolling video game
Secret Maryo Chronicles, a side-scrolling video game

A side-scrolling video game (alternatively side-scroller), is a game viewed from a side-view camera angle where the screen follows the player as they move left or right. The jump from single-screen or flip-screen graphics to scrolling graphics during the golden age of arcade games was a pivotal leap in game design, comparable to the move to 3D graphics during the fifth generation.[1]

Hardware support of smooth scrolling backgrounds is built into many arcade games and some game consoles and home computers, including 8-bit consoles like the Atari 8-bit family and Nintendo Entertainment System, and 16-bit consoles such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Sega Genesis added multiple layers which can be scrolled independently for a parallax scrolling effect.

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Game

Game

A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for entertainment or fun, and sometimes used as an educational tool. Many games are also considered to be work or art.

Player character

Player character

A player character is a fictional character in a video game or tabletop role-playing game whose actions are controlled by a player rather than the rules of the game. The characters that are not controlled by a player are called non-player characters (NPCs). The actions of non-player characters are typically handled by the game itself in video games, or according to rules followed by a gamemaster refereeing tabletop role-playing games. The player character functions as a fictional, alternate body for the player controlling the character.

3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics, sometimes called CGI, 3D-CGI or three-dimensional computer graphics are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering digital images, usually 2D images but sometimes 3D images. The resulting images may be stored for viewing later or displayed in real time.

Fifth generation of video game consoles

Fifth generation of video game consoles

The fifth generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately February 20, 1993 to March 23, 2006. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the Sony PlayStation, followed by the Nintendo 64, and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSone, which was launched on July 7, 2000.

Arcade game

Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily games of skill and include arcade video games, Pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers.

8-bit computing

8-bit computing

In computer architecture, 8-bit integers or other data units are those that are 8 bits wide. Also, 8-bit central processing unit (CPU) and arithmetic logic unit (ALU) architectures are those that are based on registers or data buses of that size. Memory addresses for 8-bit CPUs are generally larger than 8-bit, usually 16-bit. 8-bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 8-bit microprocessors.

Atari 8-bit family

Atari 8-bit family

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 as the Atari 400 and Atari 800. The series was successively upgraded to Atari 1200XL, Atari 600XL, Atari 800XL, Atari 65XE, Atari 130XE, Atari 800XE, and Atari XEGS, the last discontinued in 1992. They differ primarily in packaging, each based on the MOS Technology 6502 CPU at 1.79 MHz and the same custom coprocessor chips. As the first home computer architecture with coprocessors, it has graphics and sound more advanced than most contemporary machines. Video games were a major draw, and first-person space combat simulator Star Raiders is considered the platform's killer app. The plug-and-play peripherals use the Atari SIO serial bus, with one developer eventually also co-patenting USB.

Nintendo Entertainment System

Nintendo Entertainment System

The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) is an 8-bit third-generation home video game console produced by Nintendo. It was first released in Japan in 1983 as the Family Computer (FC), commonly known as the Famicom. The NES, a redesigned version, was released in American test markets on October 18, 1985, before becoming widely available in North America and other countries.

16-bit computing

16-bit computing

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits wide. Also, 16-bit central processing unit (CPU) and arithmetic logic unit (ALU) architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 16-bit microprocessors.

Super Nintendo Entertainment System

Super Nintendo Entertainment System

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), commonly shortened to Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Oceania, and 1993 in South America. In Japan, it is called the Super Famicom (SFC). In South Korea, it is called the Super Comboy and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. The system was released in Brazil on August 30, 1993, by Playtronic. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent cartridges for one version from being used in other versions.

Parallax scrolling

Parallax scrolling

Parallax scrolling is a technique in computer graphics where background images move past the camera more slowly than foreground images, creating an illusion of depth in a 2D scene of distance. The technique grew out of the multiplane camera technique used in traditional animation since the 1930s.

Use of side-scrolling

A common use of the side-scrolling format is in platform games. Super Mario Bros. (1985) is considered to be one of the most famous side-scroller games.[2]

The side-scrolling format is also popular among beat 'em ups, such as the Battletoads series. Often in beat 'em ups, the screen will lock into place until the enemies on screen have been defeated.

Another popular use of the side-scrolling format is in the shooter genre, such as in games like Gradius and R-type. In this game style, the player usually starts with a basic ship that flies from left to right, acquiring Power-ups which allow them to face an ever-increasing horde of enemies. This genre traces its roots back to fast-paced games such as Defender.

With video games that use side-scrolling, often the screen will scroll forward or backward following the speed and direction of the player character. In other games or stages, the screen will follow the player character but only scroll forward, not backward, so once something has passed off the back of the screen, it can no longer be visited. Some games have stages in which the screen scrolls forward by itself at a steady pace, requiring the player to keep up in order to survive; this is generally referred to as auto-scrolling. The screen in shoot 'em ups, such as in R-type, often side-scrolls by itself. The Mario series has used all three types of side-scrolling.

Typically, the screen of a side-scrolling video game follows the player character and tries to keep it near the center of the screen. Other games generally adjust the camera with the character's movement, making the character off-center in the opposite direction of its movement, showing more space in front of the character than behind.

A game can use the side-scrolling mechanic without being considered a side-scrolling video game. One such game is Awesomenauts, where a side-scrolling mechanic is used, but since the objective is not simply met by scrolling to the side, it is not considered a side-scroller game.

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Super Mario Bros.

Super Mario Bros.

Super Mario Bros. is a platform game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The successor to the 1983 arcade game Mario Bros. and the first game in the Super Mario series, it was first released in 1985 for the Famicom in Japan. Following a limited US release for the NES, it was ported to international arcades for the Nintendo VS. System in early 1986. The NES version received a wide release in North America that year and in PAL regions in 1987.

Beat 'em up

Beat 'em up

The beat 'em up is a Video game genre featuring hand-to-hand combat against a large number of opponents. Traditional beat 'em ups take place in scrolling, two-dimensional (2D) levels, while a number of modern games feature more open three-dimensional (3D) environments with yet larger numbers of enemies. The gameplay tends to follow arcade genre conventions, such as being simple to learn but difficult to master, and the combat system tends to be more highly developed than other side-scrolling action games. Two-player cooperative gameplay and multiple player characters are also hallmarks of the genre. Most of these games take place in urban settings and feature crime-fighting and revenge-based plots, though some games may employ historical, science fiction or fantasy themes.

Battletoads

Battletoads

Battletoads is a video game media franchise by Rare that began with the original beat 'em up game Battletoads in 1991. Starring three anthropomorphic toads named after skin conditions, Rash, Zitz, and Pimple, the series was created to rival the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles games series. The original Battletoads game for the NES was renowned for its extreme difficulty, but still received a cult following, spawning sequels for various platforms including a crossover with the Double Dragon series and a modern reboot after a 25 year gap in releases. In each of the games, the objective is to defeat the toads' nemesis the Dark Queen and her army of space mutants.

Shooter game

Shooter game

Shooter video games or shooters are a subgenre of action video games where the focus is almost entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using the weapons given to the player. Usually these weapons are firearms or some other long-range weapons, and can be used in combination with other tools such as grenades for indirect offense, armor for additional defense, or accessories such as telescopic sights to modify the behavior of the weapons. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition, armor or health, or upgrades which augment the player character's weapons.

Gradius (video game)

Gradius (video game)

Gradius is a side-scrolling shooter video game developed and published by Konami. The first game in the Gradius series, it was originally released as a coin-operated arcade game in 1985. The player maneuvers a spacecraft known as the Vic Viper that must defend itself from the various alien enemies. The game uses a power-up system called the "power meter", based upon collecting capsules to purchase additional weapons.

Power-up

Power-up

In video games, a power-up is an object that adds temporary benefits or extra abilities to the player character as a game mechanic. This is in contrast to an item, which may or may not have a permanent benefit that can be used at any time chosen by the player. Although often collected directly through touch, power-ups can sometimes only be gained by collecting several related items, such as the floating letters of the word 'EXTEND' in Bubble Bobble. Well known examples of power-ups that have entered popular culture include the power pellets from Pac-Man and the Super Mushroom from Super Mario Bros., which ranked first in UGO Networks' Top 11 Video Game Powerups.

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em ups are a sub-genre of action games. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up; some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement, while others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives.

R-Type

R-Type

R-Type is a horizontally scrolling shooter arcade video game developed and released by Irem in 1987 and the first game in the R-Type series. The player controls a star ship, the R-9 "Arrowhead", in its efforts to destroy the Bydo, a powerful alien race bent on wiping out all of mankind. The R-9 can acquire a glowing orbicular device called a "Force", protecting it from enemy fire and providing additional firepower. The arcade version was distributed by Nintendo in North America; it is the last arcade title Nintendo distributed.

Mario

Mario

Mario is a character created by Japanese video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. He is the title character of the video game franchise of the same name and the mascot of Japanese video game company Nintendo. Mario has appeared in over 200 video games since his creation. Depicted as a short, pudgy, Italian plumber who resides in the Mushroom Kingdom, his adventures generally center on rescuing Princess Peach from the Koopa villain Bowser. Mario has access to a variety of power-ups that give him different abilities. Mario's fraternal twin brother is Luigi.

Awesomenauts

Awesomenauts

Awesomenauts is a multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) video game developed by Dutch video game development company Ronimo Games. The game was released for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles in May 2012, and for Microsoft Windows systems in August 2012. It was later ported to OS X and Linux. Another version of the game, Awesomenauts Assemble!, incorporating all the changes and additions available on Windows, OS X and Linux, was released for the PlayStation 4 in March 2014 and for the Xbox One in September 2016. In May 2017, the PC version of the game transitioned to a free-to-play title, incorporating an in-game currency and reward system to allow players to gain access to new characters and other customization aspects. In September 2019, Ronimo Games announced that development on the game has stopped indefinitely. Despite this, Awesomenauts is still available to play, and the game maintains a consistent player base on Steam.

History

Side-scrolling space/vehicle games (1977–1985)

Sega's Bomber was a side-scrolling shooter video game released for arcades in April 1977.[3][4] Side-scrolling was later popularized by side-scrolling shoot 'em ups in the early 1980's. Defender, demonstrated by Williams Electronics in late 1980 and entering production in early 1981, allowed side-scrolling in both directions in a wrap-around game world, extending the boundaries of the game world, while also including a mini-map radar. Scramble, released by Konami in early 1981, had continuous scrolling in a single direction and was the first side-scroller with multiple distinct levels.[5]

The first scrolling platform game was Jump Bug, a platform-shooter released in 1981. Players control a bouncing car and navigated it to jump on various platforms like buildings, clouds and hills. While it primarily scrolls horizontally, one section includes coarse vertical scrolling.[6] Taito's first attempt at a side-scrolling platformer was the arcade game Jungle King (1982), later altered and renamed to Jungle Hunt due to legal controversy over similarities to Tarzan.[7]

The art of the side-scrolling format was then greatly enhanced by parallax scrolling, which is used to give an illusion of depth. The background images are presented in multiple layers that scroll at different rates, thus objects closer to the horizon scroll slower than objects closer to the viewer.[8] Some parallax scrolling was used in Jump Bug.[9] It used a limited form of parallax scrolling with the main scene scrolling while the starry night sky is fixed and clouds move slowly, adding depth to the scenery. The following year, Irem's Moon Patrol (1982) implemented a full form of parallax scrolling, with three separate background layers scrolling at different speeds, simulating the distance between them.[10] Moon Patrol is often credited with popularizing parallax scrolling.[8] Jungle Hunt also had parallax scrolling,[11] and was released the same month as Moon Patrol in June 1982.[12]

Activision published two side-scrolling racing games for the Atari VCS in 1982: the biplane-based Barnstorming[13] and the top-view Grand Prix. By 1984, there were other racing games played from a side-scrolling view, including Nintendo's Excitebike[14] SNK's Jumping Cross.[15] and Mystic Marathon from Williams Electronics, a footrace between fantasy creatures.[16]

In 1985, Konami's side-scrolling shooter Gradius gave the player greater control over the choice of weaponry, thus introducing another element of strategy.[5] The game also introduced the need for the player to memorize levels in order to achieve any measure of success.[17] Gradius, with its iconic protagonist, defined the side-scrolling shoot 'em up and spawned a series spanning several sequels.[18]

Side-scrolling character action games (1984–1995)

In the mid-1980s, side-scrolling character action games (also called "side-scrolling action games" or side-scrolling "character-driven" games) emerged, combining elements from earlier side-view, single-screen character action games, such as single-screen platformers, with the side-scrolling of space/vehicle games, such as scrolling space shoot 'em ups. These new side-scrolling character-driven action games featured large character sprites in colorful, side-scrolling environments, with the core gameplay consisting of fighting large groups of weaker enemies, using attacks/weapons such as punches, kicks, guns, swords, ninjutsu or magic.[19]

The most notable early example was Irem's Kung-Fu Master (1984),[19] the first and most influential side-scrolling martial arts action game.[20] It adapted combat mechanics similar to single-screen fighting game Karate Champ (1984) for a side-scrolling format,[20] along with adapting elements from two Hong Kong martial arts films, Bruce Lee's Game of Death (1973) and Jackie Chan's Wheels on Meals (1984),[21][22] and had elements such as end-of-level boss battles[23] as well as health meters for the player character and bosses.[19]

The side-scrolling character action game format was popular from the mid-1980s to the 1990s. Popular examples included ninja action games such as Taito's The Legend of Kage (1985) and Sega's Shinobi (1987), beat 'em up games such as Technōs Japan's Renegade (1986) and Double Dragon (1987),[19] and run-and-gun shooters such as Namco's Rolling Thunder (1986)[19] and Treasure's Gunstar Heroes (1993).[24] Legend of Kage[25] notably had levels that extend in all directions, while maintained a side-view format. On home computers, such as the martial arts game Karateka (1984) successfully experimented with adding plot to its fighting game action, and was also the first side-scroller to include cutscenes.

Character action games also include scrolling platformers like Super Mario Bros. (1985),[26] Sonic the Hedgehog (1991)[27] and Bubsy (1993).[28] Super Mario Bros. in particular, released for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) console, had a significant impact on the game industry, establishing the conventions of the scrolling platform genre and helping to reinvigorate the North American home video game market (which had crashed in 1983).[19] It combined the platform gameplay of Donkey Kong (1981) and Mario Bros. (1983) with side-scrolling elements from the racer Excitebike and the beat 'em up Kung-Fu Master,[29][30] and was more expansive than earlier side-scrollers,[19] striking a balance between arcade-like action and longer play sessions suited for home systems.[19]

Beat 'em ups

In 1984, Hong Kong cinema-inspired Kung-Fu Master laid the foundations for side-scrolling beat 'em ups, by simplifying the combat of Karate Champ and introducing numerous enemies along a side-scrolling playfield.[21][31] In 1986, Technōs Japan's Nekketsu Kōha Kunio-kun introduced street brawling to the genre. The Western adaptation Renegade (released the same year) added an underworld revenge plot that proved more popular with gamers than the principled combat sport of other games.[32] Renegade set the standard for future beat 'em up games as it introduced the ability to move both horizontally and vertically.[33]

In 1987, the release of Double Dragon ushered in a "Golden Age" for the beat 'em up genre that lasted nearly 5 years. The game was designed as Technos Japan's spiritual successor to Renegade,[32] but it took the genre to new heights with its detailed set of martial arts attacks and its outstanding two-player cooperative gameplay.[32][34] Double Dragon's success largely resulted in a flood of beat 'em ups that came in the late 1980's,[34] where acclaimed titles such as Golden Axe and Final Fight (both 1989) distinguished themselves from the others.[32] Final Fight was Capcom's intended sequel to Street Fighter (provisionally titled Street Fighter '89),[35] but the company ultimately gave it a new title.[36] Acclaimed as the best game in the genre,[37][38] Final Fight spawned two sequels and was later ported to other systems.[36] Golden Axe was acclaimed for its visceral hack and slash action and cooperative mode and was influential through its selection of multiple protagonists with distinct fighting styles.[39] It is considered one of the strongest beat 'em up titles for its fantasy elements, distinguishing it from the urban settings seen in other beat 'em ups.[40]

Scrolling platformers

In 1984, Pac-Land took the scrolling platformer a step further. It was not only a successful title,[41] but it more closely resembled later scrolling platformers like Wonder Boy and Super Mario Bros. It also has multi-layered parallax scrolling.[42] The same year, Sega released Flicky,[43] a simple platformer with horizontally scrolling levels and first mascot character. Namco followed up Pac-Land with the fantasy-themed Dragon Buster the following year.[44]

Nintendo's platform game Super Mario Bros., designed by Shigeru Miyamoto and released for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, became the archetype for many scrolling platformers to follow. It established many of the conventions of the side-scrolling platform genre, and struck a balance between arcade-like action and longer play sessions suited for home systems, helping to reinvigorate the North American home video game market.[19] Compared to earlier platformers, Super Mario Bros. was more expansive, with the player having to "strategize while scrolling sideways" over long distances across colorful levels aboveground as well as underground. Its side-scrolling elements were influenced by two earlier side-scrollers that Miyamoto's team worked on, the racer Excitebike and the NES port of beat 'em up Kung-Fu Master.[29][30] It used the same game engine as Excitebike, which allowed Mario to accelerate from a walk to a run, rather than move at a constant speed like earlier platformers.[19]

Super Mario Bros. went on to sell over 40 million copies according to the 1999 Guinness Book of World Records. Its success contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation. Sega attempted to emulate this success with their Alex Kidd series, as well as with the Wonder Boy series. The later Wonder Boy games were also notable for combining adventure and role-playing elements with traditional platforming.[45]

Run-and-gun shooters

In 1984, Hover Attack for the Sharp X1 was an early run & gun shooter that freely scrolled in all directions and allowed the player to shoot diagonally as well as straight ahead. 1985 saw the release of Thexder, a breakthrough title for platform shooters.[6]

Run-and-gun shooters became popular during the mid-to-late 1980's, with titles such as Konami's Green Beret (1985)[46] and Namco's Rolling Thunder (1986).[19] 1987's Contra was acclaimed for its multi-directional aiming and two-player cooperative gameplay.[47] However, by the early 1990's and with the popularity of 16-bit consoles, the scrolling shooter genre was overcrowded, with developers struggling to make their games stand out.

IBM PC

Side-scrolling was a well-known phenomenon in arcades, and various home computer and console games of the 1980's, as they often possessed hardware optimized for the task like the Atari 8-bit family[48] and Commodore 64, but IBM compatible PCs did not. Smooth scrolling on IBM PCs in software was a challenge for developers. There were a small number of PC ports of smooth scrolling arcade games in the early 1980's, including Moon Patrol [49] and Defender.[50] The second version of Sopwith, released in 1986, also featured smooth scrolling.

In 1990 John Carmack, then working for Softdisk, developed a smooth scrolling technique known as adaptive tile refresh. The technique was demonstrated in the proof-of-concept game Dangerous Dave in Copyright Infringement, which was a clone of the first level of Super Mario Bros. 3, but with Mario replaced by the character Dangerous Dave of earlier Softdisk games.[51] The success of the demonstration led Carmack and others at Softdisk to resign and form their own company, id Software. Id Software went on to develop Commander Keen that same year, which was the first publicly available PC platform game to feature smoothly-scrolling graphics.[52]

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Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em ups are a sub-genre of action games. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up; some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement, while others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives.

Platform game

Platform game

A platform game is a sub-genre of action video games in which the core objective is to move the player character between points in an environment. Platform games are characterized by levels that consist of uneven terrain and suspended platforms of varying height that require jumping and climbing to traverse. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay, such as swinging from vines or grappling hooks, jumping off walls, air dashing, gliding through the air, being shot from cannons, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines. Games where jumping is automated completely, such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre.

Racing game

Racing game

Racing games are a video game genre in which the player participates in a racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distributed along a spectrum between more realistic racing simulations and more fantastical arcade-style racing games. Kart racing games emerged in the 1990s as a popular sub-genre of the latter. Racing games may also fall under the category of sports video games.

Sega

Sega

Sega Corporation is a Japanese multinational video game and entertainment company headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are headquartered in Irvine, California and London, respectively. Its division for the development of both arcade games and home video games, Sega Games, has existed in its current state since 2020; from 2015 to that point, the two had made up separate entities known as Sega Games and Sega Interactive Co., Ltd. Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings. From 1983 until 2001, Sega also developed video game consoles.

Mini-map

Mini-map

A mini-map or minimap is a miniature map that is often placed at a screen corner in video games to aid players in orienting themselves within the game world. They are often only a small portion of the screen and must be selective in what details they display. Elements usually included on mini-maps vary by video game genre. However, commonly included features are the position of the player character, allied units or structures, enemies, objectives, and surrounding terrain.

Scramble (video game)

Scramble (video game)

Scramble is a side-scrolling shooter game released for arcades in 1981. It was developed by Konami, and manufactured and distributed by Leijac in Japan and Stern in North America. It was the first side-scrolling shooter with forced scrolling and multiple distinct levels, serving as a foundation for later side-scrolling shooters.

Konami

Konami

Konami Group Corporation is a Japanese multinational video game and entertainment company headquartered in Chūō, Tokyo, it also produces and distributes trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, pachinko machines, slot machines, and arcade cabinets. Konami has casinos around the world and operates health and physical fitness clubs across Japan.

Level (video games)

Level (video games)

In video games, a level is any space available to the player during the course of completion of an objective. Video game levels generally have progressively-increasing difficulty to appeal to players with different skill levels. Each level may present new concepts and challenges to keep a player's interest high.

Jump Bug

Jump Bug

Jump Bug is a 1981 scrolling shooter platform game developed by Alpha Denshi under contract for Hoei Corporation. It was distributed in arcades by Sega in Japan and Europe, and by Rock-Ola in North America. It was the first platform game to include horizontal and, in one segment, vertical scrolling. Jump Bug was ported to the Arcadia 2001, Leisure Vision, and PC-98 home systems.

Jungle Hunt

Jungle Hunt

Jungle King, re-released as Jungle Hunt, is a side-scrolling action game developed by Taito and released for arcades in 1982. It was originally distributed as Jungle King, then quickly modified and re-released as Jungle Hunt due to a copyright dispute over the player character's likeness to Tarzan. Jungle King, along with Moon Patrol released a month earlier, is one of the first video games with parallax scrolling.

Parallax scrolling

Parallax scrolling

Parallax scrolling is a technique in computer graphics where background images move past the camera more slowly than foreground images, creating an illusion of depth in a 2D scene of distance. The technique grew out of the multiplane camera technique used in traditional animation since the 1930s.

Irem

Irem

Irem Software Engineering is a Japanese video game console developer and publisher, and formerly a developer and manufacturer of arcade games as well. The company has its headquarters in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Source: "Side-scrolling video game", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Side-scrolling_video_game.

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