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Shoe tossing

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Shoe tossing in Greenpoint, Brooklyn in 2021
Shoe tossing in Greenpoint, Brooklyn in 2021
Shoe-tossing in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain (2013).
Shoe-tossing in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain (2013).

Shoe-tossing, also known as shoefiti, is the act of using footwear as a projectile in a number of folk sports and cultural practices. Shoe-tossing entails throwing a pair of laced shoes onto raised wires, such as telephone wires and power lines, or tree branches, creating "shoe trees".[1][2]

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Projectile

Projectile

A projectile is an object that is propelled by the application of an external force and then moves freely under the influence of gravity and air resistance. Although any objects in motion through space are projectiles, they are commonly found in warfare and sports.

Folklore

Folklore

Folklore is shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. This includes oral traditions such as tales, legends, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles common to the group. Folklore also includes customary lore, taking actions for folk beliefs, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact or traditional cultural expression. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can typically gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration. The academic study of folklore is called folklore studies or folkloristics, and it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. levels.

Sport

Sport

Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain, or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectators. Sports can, through casual or organized participation, improve participants' physical health. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

Shoe tree (decorated plant)

Shoe tree (decorated plant)

A shoe tree is a tree that has been festooned with old shoes, generally through the act of shoe tossing. Shoe trees are generally located alongside a major local thoroughfare, and may have a theme. In 2017 there were at least forty-five such shoe trees in the United States.

Geography

Shoe-tossing occurs throughout North America, Latin America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and South Africa in both rural and urban areas. Often, the shoes are sneakers. Other times, they are leather shoes and boots.[3]

Cultural

Many cultural variations exist and differences abound between socioeconomic areas and age groups. In some cultures, shoes are flung as part of a rite of passage, like to commemorate the end of a school year or a forthcoming marriage.

Some theories suggest the custom originated with members of the military, who are said to have thrown military boots, often painted orange or some other conspicuous color, at overhead wires as a part of a rite of passage after completing basic training or when leaving the service.[4] In the 1997 film Wag the Dog, shoe tossing is an allegedly spontaneous tribute to Sgt. William Schumann, played by Woody Harrelson, who has purportedly been shot down behind enemy lines in Albania.[5]

Shoe-tossing may be a form of bullying, where a bully steals a pair of shoes and tosses them where they are unlikely to be retrieved.[3] Shoe tossing has also been explained as a practical joke played on drunks who wake up to find their shoes missing.

Shoes on a telephone wire are popularly said to be linked to organized crime, signifying the location of gang turf or commemorating the death of a gang member. The shoes are also rumored to mark a spot for drug deals; although, a 2015 study of shoe-tossing data in Chicago rejected this explanation.[6]

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Rite of passage

Rite of passage

A rite of passage is a ceremony or ritual of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. In cultural anthropology the term is the Anglicisation of rite de passage, a French term innovated by the ethnographer Arnold van Gennep in his work Les rites de passage, The Rites of Passage. The term is now fully adopted into anthropology as well as into the literature and popular cultures of many modern languages.

School

School

A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught is commonly called a university college or university.

Marriage

Marriage

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. It is nearly a cultural universal, but the definition of marriage varies between cultures and religions, and over time. Typically, it is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. A marriage ceremony is called a wedding.

Military

Military

A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform. It may consist of one or more military branches such as an army, navy, air force, space force, marines, or coast guard. The main task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats.

Film

Film

A film – also called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, picture, photoplay or (slang) flick – is a work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are generally accompanied by sound and, more rarely, other sensory stimulations. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

Wag the Dog

Wag the Dog

Wag the Dog is a 1997 American political satire black comedy film produced and directed by Barry Levinson and starring Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro. The film centers on a spin doctor and a Hollywood producer who fabricate a war in Albania to distract voters from a presidential sex scandal. The screenplay by Hilary Henkin and David Mamet was loosely adapted from Larry Beinhart's 1993 novel, American Hero.

Woody Harrelson

Woody Harrelson

Woodrow Tracy Harrelson is an American actor and playwright. He is the recipient of various accolades, including a Primetime Emmy Award and two Screen Actors Guild Awards, in addition to nominations for three Academy Awards and four Golden Globe Awards.

Albania

Albania

Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the Mediterranean Sea and shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south. The country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological, and morphological conditions, in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). The landscape ranges from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps and the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus, and Ceraunian Mountains, to the hot and sunny coasts of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas along the Mediterranean. Tirana is its capital and largest city, followed by Durrës, Vlorë, and Shkodër.

Practical joke

Practical joke

A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone, generally causing the victim to experience embarrassment, perplexity, confusion, or discomfort. A person who performs a practical joke is called a "practical joker" or "prankster". Other terms for practical jokes include gag, rib, jape, or shenanigan.

Wedding custom

Shoe-throwing is a wedding superstition in several cultures.[7][8] In Victorian England, people would pelt "a bride and bridegroom with old shoes when they start on their honeymoon."[9] In Charles Dickens' novel David Copperfield (1850), the custom is recorded by the narrator following his marriage to Dora Spenlow:[10]

When we were all in a bustle outside the door, I found that Mr. Peggotty was prepared with an old shoe, which was to be thrown after us for luck, and which he offered to Mrs. Gummidge for that purpose.

In 1887, an article in The New York Times observed that: "[The] custom of throwing one or more old shoes after the bride and groom either when they go to church to be married or when they start on their wedding journey, is so old that the memory of man stretches not back to its beginning."[11]

Peter Ditchfield, writing in Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time (1896), expands: "We also throw old shoes after young married folk in order to express our wishes for their good fortune. Probably this was not the original meaning of the custom. The throwing of a shoe after a bride was a symbol of renunciation of dominion and authority over her by her father or guardian, and this receipt of the shoe by the bridegroom was an omen that the authority was transferred to him. In Kent the shoe is thrown by the principal bridesmaid, and the others run after it. It is supposed that she who gets it will be married first. It is then thrown amongst the men, and he who is hit will be first wedded."[12]

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Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime and, by the 20th century, critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are widely read today.

David Copperfield

David Copperfield

David Copperfield is a novel in the bildungsroman genre by Charles Dickens, narrated by the eponymous David Copperfield, detailing his adventures in his journey from infancy to maturity. It was first published as a serial in 1849 and 1850 and as a book in 1850.

David Copperfield (character)

David Copperfield (character)

David Copperfield is the protagonist after which the 1850 Charles Dickens novel David Copperfield was named. The character is widely thought to be based on Dickens himself, incorporating many elements of his own life.

Dora Spenlow

Dora Spenlow

Dora Spenlow is a character in the 1850 novel David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. She is portrayed as beautiful yet childish. David, who is employed by her father, the lawyer Mr Spenlow, falls in love with Dora at first sight and marries her. She proves unable to cope with the responsibilities of married life and is more interested in playing with her dog, Jip, than in keeping their house. All this has a profound effect on David, but he still loves her. However, a year into their marriage, she suffers a miscarriage and her health steadily declines until she eventually dies.

The New York Times

The New York Times

The New York Times is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2022 to comprise 740,000 paid print subscribers, and 8.6 million paid digital subscribers. It also is a producer of popular podcasts such as The Daily. Founded in 1851, it is published by The New York Times Company. The Times has won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded as a national "newspaper of record". For print, it is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the United States.

Peter Ditchfield

Peter Ditchfield

Rev. Peter Hempson Ditchfield, FSA (1854–1930) was a Church of England priest, an historian and a prolific author. He is notable for having co-edited three Berkshire volumes of the Victoria County History which were published between 1907 and 1924.

Protest

In many Arab cultures, throwing a shoe at someone is considered an insult.

U.S. president George W. Bush ducking a thrown shoe while Iraq prime minister Nouri al-Maliki attempts to catch it.
U.S. president George W. Bush ducking a thrown shoe while Iraq prime minister Nouri al-Maliki attempts to catch it.

In 2008, Iraqi journalist Muntadar al-Zaidi was arrested for throwing two shoes at United States President George W. Bush while the president was visiting Baghdad in protest against the American military invasion and subsequent occupation. Al-Zaidi shouted in Arabic: "This is from the widows, the orphans and those killed in Iraq!"[13] President Bush ducked and was not struck by the shoes.[14]

Shoe throwing as an insult is not limited to the Arab world; other notable incidents have involved celebrities and world leaders including Steve McCarthy, David Beckham, Lily Allen, and Wen Jiabao.[15]

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List of shoe-throwing incidents

List of shoe-throwing incidents

Shoe-throwing, or shoeing, showing the sole of one's shoe or using shoes to insult are forms of protest in many parts of the world. Shoe-throwing as an insult dates back to ancient times, being mentioned in verse 8 of Psalm 60 and the similar verse 9 of Psalm 108 in the Old Testament. Modern incidents where shoes were thrown at political figures have taken place in Australia, India, Ireland, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and most notably the Arab world.

George W. Bush

George W. Bush

George Walker Bush is an American retired politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st president George H. W. Bush, he previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Nouri al-Maliki

Nouri al-Maliki

Nouri Kamil Muhammad-Hasan al-Maliki, also known as Jawad al-Maliki, is secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party and was the prime minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014 and the vice president of Iraq from 2014 to 2015 and 2016 to 2018. Al-Maliki began his political career as a Shia dissident under Saddam Hussein's in the late 1970s and rose to prominence after he fled a death sentence into exile for 24 years. During his time abroad, he became a senior leader of the Islamic Dawa Party, coordinated the activities of anti-Saddam guerrillas and built relationships with Iranian and Syrian officials whose help he sought in overthrowing Saddam. Al-Maliki worked closely with United States and coalition forces in Iraq following their departure by the end of 2011.

Baghdad

Baghdad

Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo. It is located on the Tigris near the ruins of the ancient city of Babylon and the Sassanid Persian capital of Ctesiphon. In 762 CE, Baghdad was chosen as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, and became its most notable major development project. Within a short time, the city evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center of the Muslim world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as a multiethnic and multi-religious environment, garnered it a worldwide reputation as the "Center of Learning".

Celebrity

Celebrity

Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of a person or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. An individual may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth, their participation in sports or the entertainment industry, their position as a political figure, or even from their connection to another celebrity. 'Celebrity' usually implies a favorable public image, as opposed to the neutrals 'famous' or 'notable', or the negatives 'infamous' and 'notorious'.

Steve McCarthy (boxer)

Steve McCarthy (boxer)

Steve McCarthy was a British former boxer who had been British light heavyweight champion in 1990.

David Beckham

David Beckham

David Robert Joseph Beckham is an English former professional footballer, the current president and co-owner of Inter Miami CF and co-owner of Salford City. Known for his range of passing, crossing ability and bending free-kicks as a right winger, Beckham has been hailed as one of the greatest and most recognisable midfielders of his generation, as well as one of the best set-piece specialists of all time. He is the first English player to win league titles in four countries: England, Spain, the United States and France.

Lily Allen

Lily Allen

Lily Rose Beatrice Allen is an English singer-songwriter and actress. She is the daughter of actor Keith Allen and film producer Alison Owen. Her music career began in 2005 when she made some of her vocal recordings public on Myspace and the publicity resulted in airplay on BBC Radio 1 and a contract with Regal Recordings. Her first mainstream single, "Smile", reached number one on the UK Singles Chart in July 2006. Her debut record, Alright, Still, was well received, selling over 2.6 million copies worldwide and bringing Allen nominations at the Grammy Awards, the Brit Awards, and the MTV Video Music Awards.

Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao is a retired Chinese politician who served as the premier of China from 2003 to 2013. In his capacity as head of government, Wen was regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy. From 2002 to 2012, he held membership in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the country's de facto top power organ, where he was ranked third out of nine members and after general secretary Hu Jintao and Wu Bangguo, chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

Sports and games

Wellie wanging, or boot throwing, is a sport in which competitors are required to throw a Wellington boot as far as possible.[16][17] The sport appears to have originated in the West Country of England in the 1970s, and rapidly became a popular activity at village fêtes and fundraising events across Britain.[18][19][20][21][22] The sport is now played in many different countries, including Australia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand and Russia.

Shoes have also been turned into objects for many other group activities and games that involve throwing, but which don't involve throwing shoes over a wire or branch.[23]

One Physical Education game has participants put into two groups. The two groups create two lines by sitting parallel to one another. The participants then take off their shoes and throw them into the middle of the playing area, which is in between the two groups. The game starts when the teacher or referee says so. The goal of the game is for the participants to stand up from their lines and run to the middle to find their shoe. Participants then have to put their shoes back on and sit back in the same order they were sitting. The first group to get everyone back to the line wins.[24]

Another example of a shoe-based game is a smaller group activity that requires the following: two pairs of shoes, two chairs, two plastic bottles, and two participants. The bottles are placed in the center of the gameplay area, and the chairs are positioned on opposite sides of the bottles, so that the game play area forms a line. The two participants start in the middle by the bottles, run to their chair, sit down, take their shoes off, and throw their shoes at the bottles. Whoever hits their bottle over first wins.[25]

Shoe throwing also appears in video games. Half Dead and Half Dead 2 feature shoe throwing as one of the main game mechanics. The game has the player trapped in square rooms with doors on all sides, and it requires them to explore different rooms in order to find the exit and escape. However, most of the rooms have deadly traps in them. The shoe throwing mechanic lets the player identify if a room has a trap in it. The player throws a shoe into a room and it will set off a trap, if there are any.[26]

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Wellie wanging

Wellie wanging

Welly throwing, also known as welly hoying, welly wanging and boot throwing, is a sport in which competitors are required to throw a Wellington boot as far as possible. The sport appears to have originated in the West Country of England in the 1970s, and rapidly became a popular activity at village fêtes and fundraising events across Britain. The sport is now played in many different countries, including Australia, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand and Russia.

Wellington boot

Wellington boot

The Wellington boot was originally a type of leather boot adapted from Hessian boots, a style of military riding boot. They were worn and popularised by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. The "Wellington" boot became a staple of practical foot wear for the British aristocracy and middle class in the early 19th century. The name was subsequently given to waterproof boots made of rubber and they are no longer associated with a particular class. They are now commonly used for a range of agricultural and outdoors pursuits.

West Country

West Country

The West Country is a loosely defined area of South West England, usually taken to include all, some, or parts of the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Bristol, and, less commonly, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. The West Country has a distinctive regional English dialect and accent, and is also home to the Cornish language.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Fête

Fête

In Britain and some of its former colonies, fêtes are traditional public festivals, held outdoors and organised to raise funds for a charity. They typically include entertainment and the sale of goods and refreshments.

Game

Game

A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for entertainment or fun, and sometimes used as an educational tool. Many games are also considered to be work or art.

Physical education

Physical education

Physical education, often abbreviated to Phys Ed. or P.E., is a subject taught in schools around the world. It is usually taught during primary and secondary education, and encourages psychomotor learning by using a play and movement exploration setting to promote health and physical fitness. Activities in P.E. include football, netball, hockey, rounders, cricket, four square, racing, and numerous other children's games. Physical education also teaches nutrition, healthy habits, and individuality of needs.

Video game

Video game

Video games, also known as computer games, are electronic games that involve interaction with a user interface or input device – such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing device – to generate audiovisual feedback. This feedback is most commonly shown on a video display device, such as a TV set, monitor, touchscreen, or virtual reality headset. Some computer games do not always depend on a graphics display; for example, text adventure games and computer chess can be played through teletype printers. Video games are often augmented with audio feedback delivered through speakers or headphones, and sometimes with other types of feedback, including haptic technology.

Game mechanics

Game mechanics

In tabletop games and video games, game mechanics are the rules or ludemes that govern and guide the player's actions, as well as the game's response to them. A rule is an instruction on how to play, a ludeme is an element of play like the L-shaped move of the knight in chess. A game's mechanics thus effectively specify how the game will work for the people who play it.

Decoration

A shoe tree in San Diego, California
A shoe tree in San Diego, California

Shoes are sometimes thrown into a tree to festoon it as a "shoe tree".[27] Occasionally, a powerline pole or other wooden object may be decorated in the same way.[27]

Shoe trees are generally located alongside major local thoroughfares and they may have a theme (such as high-heeled shoes).

Gang messaging

In the United States, shoe-tossing is rumored to be used by gangs for a variety of purposes. For example, shoes may be used to mark a gang's territory, commemorate a fallen member, or to commemorate a non-gang member who lived in the area. However, it is difficult to determine what shoes were placed by gang members for gang-related purposes and what shoes were flung by non-gang members for other purposes. Gangs may use shoes on wires to indicate places to acquire drugs, but police officers in several jurisdictions noted that this is a myth and has yet to be proven.[2]

A 2003 newsletter from former Los Angeles, California mayor James Hahn cited fears of many L.A. residents that "these shoes indicate sites at which drugs are sold or worse yet, gang turf," and that city and utility employees had launched a program to remove the shoes.[4][28] A 2015 study of shoe-tossing data in Chicago found that the rumor and relationship between dangling shoes and drug dealing were correlational, not causal.[29]

Source: "Shoe tossing", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoe_tossing.

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References
  1. ^ "Do Sneakers Hanging from Power Lines Carry a Secret Message?". Snopes.com. 1999-04-09. Retrieved 2021-03-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ a b "Shoes on a Wire: Untangling an Urban Myth". WBEZ Chicago. 2015-08-05. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  3. ^ a b "Shoes on a Wire: Untangling an Urban Myth". WBEZ. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  4. ^ a b Adams Cecil (August 2, 1996). Why do you see pairs of shoes hanging by the laces from power lines? The Straight Dope.
  5. ^ Thanouli, Eleftheria (2013). Wag the Dog: A Study on Film and Reality in the Digital Age. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-1-4411-8936-3.
  6. ^ "Shoes on a Wire: Untangling an Urban Myth". WBEZ. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
  7. ^ Crombie, James E. (September 1895). "Shoe-Throwing at Weddings". Folklore. 6 (3): 258–281. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1895.9720312. JSTOR 1252997.
  8. ^ Lansing, G. (December 1884). "Throwing the Slipper". The Old Testament Student. University of Chicago Press. 4 (4): 182–184. doi:10.1086/469556. JSTOR 3156346.
  9. ^ "Love, marriage … and a barrage of shoes". the Guardian. 2015-08-25. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  10. ^ Tromp, Marlene (2013). ""Throwing the Wedding-Shoe": Foundational Violence, Unhappy Couples, and Murderous Women". Victorian Review. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 39 (2): 39–43. doi:10.1353/vcr.2013.0042. JSTOR 24497062. S2CID 161522499.
  11. ^ "THROWING THE WEDDING SHOE". The New York Times. New York. 11 February 1887. p. 3.
  12. ^ Ditchfield, P.H. (1896). Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time. p. 110.
  13. ^ Ibrahim, Yasmin (2009). "The Art of Shoe-Throwing: Shoes as a Symbol of Protest and Popular Imagination". Media, War & Conflict. 2 (2): 213–226. doi:10.1177/1750635209104655. JSTOR 26000139. S2CID 143803542.
  14. ^ Asser, Martin (December 15, 2008). "Bush shoe-ing worst Arab insult". BBC News. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  15. ^ "Top 5 famous shoe throwing incidents". Metro.
  16. ^ Ziegler, Philip (1978). Crown and People. Harper Collins. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-002-11373-1.
  17. ^ White, Roland (29 April 2001). "Bizarre sporting moments". The Sunday Times. London. p. 5.
  18. ^ Matthews, Rupert (1990). Record Breakers of The Air. Troll Associates. p. 31. ISBN 0816719217.
  19. ^ Phillips, Pearson (14 May 1987). "Pulling the wool with a shade". The Times. London.
  20. ^ White, Roland (4 April 1999). "Country strife". The Sunday Times. London. p. 10.
  21. ^ Prowse, Dave (2011). Straight From the Force's Mouth. Apex Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-907-79299-1.
  22. ^ Evans, Roger (2005). Don't Tell I, Tell 'Ee!. Countryside Books. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-853-06916-1.
  23. ^ "Shoe games". www.youthwork-practice.com. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  24. ^ "Shoe Toss - How Fast? | Elementary PE Games". Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  25. ^ 157844177601650. "Shoe Toss | Games | Ythmin.com". Retrieved 2021-03-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "Half Dead (Video Game)". Dread Central. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  27. ^ a b Shoe Trees. Roadside America.
  28. ^ TeamWork LA (c. 2003). "East Los Angeles NSC Combats Problem of Overhead Shoes on Wires" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-10-07. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
  29. ^ "Shoes on a Wire: Untangling an Urban Myth". WBEZ. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
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