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Shankheshwar Jain Temple

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Shankeshwar Jain Temple
Sankeshwarji.jpg
Shankeshwar Jain Temple
Religion
AffiliationJainism
DeityParshva
FestivalsPosh Dashami,[note 1] Mahavir Janma Kalyanak, Diwali
Location
LocationShankheshwar, Gujarat, India
Shankheshwar Jain Temple is located in Gujarat
Shankheshwar Jain Temple
Location within Gujarat
Geographic coordinates23°30′29.3″N 71°47′15.6″E / 23.508139°N 71.787667°E / 23.508139; 71.787667Coordinates: 23°30′29.3″N 71°47′15.6″E / 23.508139°N 71.787667°E / 23.508139; 71.787667
Architecture
CreatorSajjan Shah
Date established1098 CE
Website
www.shankheshwartemple.org

The Shankheshwar Jain Temple is located in the center of Shankheshwar town of Patan district, Gujarat, India. The temple is dedicated to Parshwanath and is an important place of pilgrimage for the followers of Jainism.[2][3]

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Shankheshwar

Shankheshwar

Shankheshwar is a town in the Patan district of Gujarat state of India. It is an important place of pilgrimage for the followers of Jainism.

Patan district

Patan district

Patan district is one of the 33 districts of Gujarat state in western India. Its main city is Patan. This district is located in northern Gujarat and bounded by Banaskantha district in the north and northeast, Mehsana district in the east and southeast, Surendranagar district in the south and Kutch District and the Kutch nu Nanu Ran in the west. The district occupies an area of 5792 km².

Gujarat

Gujarat

Gujarat is a state along the western coast of India. Its coastline of about 1,600 km (990 mi) is the longest in the country, most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula. Gujarat is the fifth-largest Indian state by area, covering some 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi); and the ninth-most populous state, with a population of 60.4 million. It is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu to the south, Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west. Gujarat's capital city is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. The Gujaratis are indigenous to the state and their language, Gujarati, is the state's official language.

Jainism

Jainism

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four tirthankaras, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

Jain legend

In ancient scriptures, this Tirtha (pilgrimage site) is referred to as Shankhapur.[4] The story is that Ashadhi Shravak became depressed, and began to ask questions about nirvana, liberation, and salvation. Answering all these questions, Damodar Swami, the ninth Tirthankar, said "Parshvanath will be the twenty-third Tirthankar in the Avasarpinikala (the descending half of the wheel of time). You will be his Ganadhar (prime disciple) named Aryaghosha and attain salvation there". Shravak then became fully absorbed in praying to Bhagawan Parshvanath and worshipping his idol, which went on to be worshipped in the worlds of gods, demons, and on earth.

History

In the year 1155 VS (1098 CE), Sajjan Shah built the Shankheshwar Parshwanath Jain Temple on the banks of the Rupen river. In Vikram Samvat 1286 (1229 CE), Vastupala—Tejpal renovated this temple under the instructions of Vardhamansuri. There were 52 idols in the temple. In VS 1302, king Durjansalya, awed by the idol and inspired by Uktasuri, renovated the temple substantially. In the fourteenth century VS, the temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji. In the sixteenth century VS, under the inspiration of Vijaysensuri, a new temple with 52 idols was built. In VS 1760 (1703 CE), the sangha built the new temple and got the idol reinstalled. Besides the original sanctuary, the temple has an open square, a decorated square, a vast square and two assembly halls. The current temple was built in 1811.[5]

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Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat or Bikram Sambat B.S. and also known as the Vikrami calendar, is a Hindu calendar historically used in the Indian subcontinent. Vikram Samvat is generally 57 years ahead of Gregorian Calendar, except during January to April, when it is ahead by 56 years. Alongside Nepal Sambat, it is one of the two official calendars used in Nepal. In India, it is used in several states. The traditional Vikram Samvat calendar, as used in India, uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. The Nepali Bikram Sambel, introduced in 1901, also uses a solar sidereal year.

Vastupala

Vastupala

Vastupāla was a prime minister of the Vāghelā king Vīradhavala and his successor Vīsaladeva, who ruled in present-day Gujarat region of India, in the early 13th century. Although he served in an administrative and military capacity, he was also a patron of art, literature and public works. He, together with his brother Tejapāla, assisted in the restoration of peace in the kingdom, and served in a number of campaigns against Lāṭa, Godraha, Kutch and the Delhi Sultanate. The brothers were instrumental in the construction of the Luniga-vasahi temple on Mount Abu and the Vastupala-vihara on Girnar.

Alauddin Khalji

Alauddin Khalji

Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji, born Ali Gurshasp, was an emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Alauddin instituted a number of significant administrative changes, related to revenues, price controls, and society. He also successfully fended off several Mongol invasions of India.

Sangha (Jainism)

Sangha (Jainism)

In Jainism, Sangha is a term used to refer to the fourfold community of Muni, Aryika / Sadhvi, Śrāvaka (laymen), and Śrāvikā (laywomen).

About temples

The Mulnayak, the main idol, nearly 182 centimetres (72 in) high, is a white-coloured idol of Parshvanatha in the Padmasana posture.[4] In the Shvetambara tradition, idols tend to derive their name from a geographical region, the Shankheshwar Parshvanatha is one of 108 prominent idols of Parshvanath idols.[6] There are dozen of replica temples and icons of Shankheshwar Parshvanatha.[note 2][2] The idol of Bhidbhanjan Parshvanath is in a small temple to the right of the main idol, and the idol of Ajitnatha is in a small temple to the left of the main idol. The idols of Dharanendra, Padmavati, Parshva and Chakreshwari are also in the temple. On the tenth day of the month of Posh, the tenth day of the dark half of the month of Magasar, and during the Diwali days, thousands of pilgrims come to observe a two-day-long fast.

Shankheshwar is considered one of the most important Jain tīrtha.[2][7] Shankheshwar Parshvanath Stavan, a hymn dedicated to Shankheshwar Parshvanath, is one of the most performed Jain prayer.[8] Sankhesvara Stotram is another hymn to Shankheshwar Parshvanatha compiled by Mahopadhyaya Yashovijaya.[9]

At present, the temple complex is under renovation. The doors of the small temples on the passage for going around the temple are being enlarged, and the height of their summits will be raised.

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Parshvanatha

Parshvanatha

Parshvanatha, also Pārśvanātha, Parshva, Pārśva and Parasnath, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism. He is the only Tirthankara who gained the title of Kalīkālkalpataru.

Lotus position

Lotus position

Lotus position or Padmasana is a cross-legged sitting meditation pose from ancient India, in which each foot is placed on the opposite thigh. It is an ancient asana in yoga, predating hatha yoga, and is widely used for meditation in Hindu, Tantra, Jain, and Buddhist traditions.

Dharanendra

Dharanendra

Dharanendra is the Yaksha of Parshvanatha, twenty-third Tirthankara in Jainism. He enjoys an independent religious life and is very popular amongst Jains. According to the Jain tradition, when Lord Parshvanatha was a prince, he saved two snakes that had been trapped in a log in an Kamath’s fire. Later, these snakes were reborn as Dharanendra, the lord of the underworld Naga Kingdom, and Padmavati. They, then sheltered Parshvanatha when he was harassed by Meghalin. Śvētāmbara tradition, however, does not list Padmavati among the main queens of Dharanendra.

Padmavati (Jainism)

Padmavati (Jainism)

Padmāvatī is the protective goddess or śāsana devī (शासनदेवी) of Pārśvanātha, the twenty-third Jain tīrthāṅkara, complimenting Parshwa yaksha in Swetambara and Dharanendra in digambar the shasan deva. She is a yakshini of Parshwanatha.

Diwali

Diwali

Diwali, Dewali, Divali, or Deepavali, also known as the Festival of Lights, related to Jain Diwali, Bandi Chhor Divas, Tihar, Swanti, Sohrai, and Bandna, is a religious celebration in Indian religions. It is one of the most important festivals within Hinduism where it generally lasts five days, and is celebrated during the Hindu lunisolar months of Ashvin and Kartika. It is a post-harvest festival celebrating the bounty following the arrival of the monsoon in the subcontinent.

Tirtha (Jainism)

Tirtha (Jainism)

In Jainism, a tīrtha is used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha. A tirtha provides the inspiration to enable one to cross over from worldly engagement to the side of moksha.

Other Jain temples

Besides this temple, there are several other Jain temples - the Agam Mandir,[10] the modern sprawling complex of 108 Parshvanath and Padmavati (108 Parshwanath Bhaktivihar Tirth), Rajendrasuri Navkar Mandir, Kalapurnam Smriti Mandir, the Gurumandir, and Dadawadi are important.

There is a temple dedicated to Bhaktamara Stotra built by Jain Acharya Surendrasuri.[11] The temple houses 84 yantra.[12]

Shruth tirth is located two kilometres southerly of Sankeshwar on Sankheswar-Viramgam Highway. Further four kilometre south, there is Pavapuri Jalmandir at Ratanpura.

Thus Shankeshwar tirth ranks next only to those on Mount Shatrunjaya in Palitana, (Gujarat) in terms of importance to the Swetambara Jains.

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Dādābadī

Dādābadī

A Dādābāḍī is a type of shrine, usually located near a Jain temple, and dedicated to one of the four Dādā Gurus revered by the Kharatara Gaccha sect of the Svetambara Jains. The most notable shrines are in Ajmer, Malpura and Mehrauli. The four Dādā Gurus are Jinadatta Sūri, Jinachandra Sūri Maṇidhārī, Jinakuśala Sūri and Jinachandra Sūri II.

Bhaktamara Stotra

Bhaktamara Stotra

Bhaktamara Stotra is a famous Jain Sanskrit prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga. The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two Sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal).

Yantra

Yantra

Yantra (यन्त्र) is a geometrical diagram, mainly from the Tantric traditions of the Indian religions. Yantras are used for the worship of deities in temples or at home; as an aid in meditation; used for the benefits given by their supposed occult powers based on Hindu astrology and tantric texts. They are also used for adornment of temple floors, due mainly to their aesthetic and symmetric qualities. Specific yantras are traditionally associated with specific deities and/or certain types of energies used for accomplishment of certain tasks, vows, that may be materialistic or spiritual in nature. It becomes a prime tool in certain sadhanas performed by the sadhaka the spiritual seeker. Yantras hold great importance in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.

Shatrunjaya

Shatrunjaya

Shatrunjaya or Shetrunjaya originally Pundarikgiri), are hills located by the city of Palitana, in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. They are situated on the banks of the Shetrunji River at an elevation 164 feet (50 m) above sea level. These hills have similarities to other hills where Jain temples have been built in Bihar, Gwalior, Mount Abu and Girnar.

Palitana

Palitana

Pālītāṇā is a city in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India. It is located 50 km southwest of Bhavnagar city and is a major pilgrimage centre for Jains. It is first of the two vegetarian cities in the world.

Śvētāmbara

Śvētāmbara

The Śvētāmbara is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara means "white-clad", and refers to its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jains, whose ascetic practitioners go nude. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.

Jainism

Jainism

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four tirthankaras, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

Gallery

Other buildings

There are an upashray, an ayambilshala, a bhandar, a pathshala, and a hall where food is given to pilgrims for their journeys.

Source: "Shankheshwar Jain Temple", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shankheshwar_Jain_Temple.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ Posh Dashmi is the festival to celebrate the life of Parshvanatha.[1]
  2. ^ According to Jain belief, worshipping these local replication idols allow them to directly worship the original idol.[2]
References

Citation

  1. ^ Holt 2019, p. 260.
  2. ^ a b c d Cort 2010, p. 186.
  3. ^ Pechilis & Raj 2013, p. 89.
  4. ^ a b Sonak 2017, p. 228.
  5. ^ Burgess 1876, pp. 187–217.
  6. ^ Cort 2001, p. 234.
  7. ^ Shah 1987, p. 178.
  8. ^ Kelting 2007, p. 130.
  9. ^ Suriji 2013, p. 5.
  10. ^ Trimm 1992, p. 189.
  11. ^ Gough 2021, p. 198.
  12. ^ Gough 2021, p. 210.

Sources

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