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Severians

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European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th century.
European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th century.

The Severians, also Severyans, Siverians, or Siverianians[1] (Belarusian: Севяране; Bulgarian: Севери; Russian: Северяне; Ukrainian: Сiверяни, romanizedSiveriany) were a tribe or tribal confederation of early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper River and southeast of the Danube River. They are mentioned by the Bavarian Geographer (9th century), Emperor Constantine VII (956–959), the Khazar ruler Joseph (c. 955), and in the Primary Chronicle (1113).

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Belarusian language

Belarusian language

Belarusian is an East Slavic language. It is the native language of many Belarusians and one of the two official state languages in Belarus. Additionally, it is spoken in some parts of Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, and Ukraine by Belarusian minorities in those countries.

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian is an Eastern South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of the Bulgarians.

Russian language

Russian language

Russian is an East Slavic language mainly spoken in Russia. It is the native language of the Russians and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Romanization of Ukrainian

Romanization of Ukrainian

The romanization of Ukrainian, or Latinization of Ukrainian, is the representation of the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration and transcription.

Confederation

Confederation

A confederation is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defence, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the central government being required to provide support for all its members. Confederalism represents a main form of intergovernmentalism, defined as any form of interaction around states that takes place on the basis of sovereign independence or government.

East Slavs

East Slavs

The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs. They speak the East Slavic languages, and formed the majority of the population of the medieval state Kievan Rus', which they claim as their cultural ancestor. Today, the East Slavs consist of Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians.

Danube

Danube

The Danube is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. A large and historically important river, it was once a frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects ten European countries, running through their territories or being a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km (1,770 mi), passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine. Among the many cities on the river are 4 capitals: Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade and Bratislava. Its drainage basin amounts to 817 000 km² and extends into nine more countries.

Bavarian Geographer

Bavarian Geographer

The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a short Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in Central-Eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.

Constantine VII

Constantine VII

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 6 June 913 to 9 November 959. He was the son of Emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife, Zoe Karbonopsina, and the nephew of his predecessor Alexander.

Khazars

Khazars

The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people that in the late 6th-century CE established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia, southern Ukraine, Crimea, and Kazakhstan. They created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate. Astride a major artery of commerce between Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading empires of the early medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and Kievan Rus'. For some three centuries the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus.

Joseph (Khazar)

Joseph (Khazar)

Joseph ben Aaron was king of the Khazars during the 950s and 960s. Joseph was the son of Aaron II, a Khazar ruler who defeated a Byzantine-inspired war against Khazaria on numerous fronts. Joseph's wife was the daughter of the king of the Alans.

Primary Chronicle

Primary Chronicle

The Tale of Bygone Years, often known in English as the Rus' Primary Chronicle, the Russian Primary Chronicle, or simply the Primary Chronicle, as well as also, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle, is an Old East Slavic chronicle (letopis) of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev around 1113.

Ethnonym

The etymology of the name "Severian" is uncertain. The name of the Severia region originated from the Slavic tribes. One theory proposes derivation from the Slavic word for "north" (sěver; men of the north[2]), but the Severians never were the northernmost tribe of Slavs. Another theory proposes an Iranic derivation, from the name of the Sarmatian Seuer tribe (seu meaning "black").[3] Some scholars have argued that Jews called this tribe the Sawarta, based on the Kievan Letter (c. 930), written in Hebrew as SWRTH (read either as Sur'ata or Sever'ata), derived from Slavic sirota ("orphan"; in the letter, possibly meaning "convert"); or that the name "Severian" comes from the Magyar Savarti ("black"; possibly borrowed from Proto-Germanic swartaz).[4] Based on the writings of the Bavarian Geographer, some scholars connect the ethnonym to the Zuierani,[5] Zeriuani,[6] or Sebbirozi (most probably the Sabirs[5][6]).[7]

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Etymology

Etymology

Etymology is the study of the history of the form of words and, by extension, the origin and evolution of their semantic meaning across time. It is a subfield of historical linguistics, and draws upon comparative semantics, morphology, semiotics, and phonetics.

Severia

Severia

Severia or Siveria is a historical region in present-day southwest Russia, northern Ukraine, eastern Belarus. The largest part lies in modern Russia, while the central part of the region is the city Novhorod-Siverskyi in Ukraine.

Iranian languages

Iranian languages

The Iranian languages or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Iranian peoples, predominantly in the Iranian Plateau.

Sarmatians

Sarmatians

The Sarmatians were a large confederation of ancient Eastern Iranian equestrian nomadic peoples of classical antiquity who dominated the Pontic steppe from about the 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD.

Jews

Jews

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, although its observance varies from strict to none.

Kievan Letter

Kievan Letter

The Kievan Letter, or Kyivan letter is an early 10th-century letter thought to be written by representatives of the Jewish community in Kiev. The letter, a Hebrew-language recommendation written on behalf of one member of their community, was part of an enormous collection brought to Cambridge by Solomon Schechter from the Cairo Geniza. It was discovered in 1962 during a survey of the Geniza documents by Norman Golb of the University of Chicago. The letter is dated by most scholars to around 930 CE. Some think that the letter dates from a time when Khazars were no longer a dominant force in the politics of the city. According to Marcel Erdal, the letter does not come from Kyiv but was sent to Kyiv.

Orphan

Orphan

An orphan is a child whose parents have died.

Magyar tribes

Magyar tribes

The Magyar tribes or Hungarian clans were the fundamental political units within whose framework the Hungarians (Magyars) lived, before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin and the subsequent established the Principality of Hungary.

Bavarian Geographer

Bavarian Geographer

The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a short Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in Central-Eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.

Zeriuani

Zeriuani

The Zeriuani or Zeruiani was an unknown Slavic tribe mentioned by the 9th-century Bavarian Geographer (BG). It states that the Zeruiani "which is so great a realm that from it, as their tradition relates, all the tribes of the Slavs are sprung and trace their origin". It was the first Latin source to claim that all Slavs have originated from the same homeland.

Sebbirozi

Sebbirozi

The Sebbirozi was a tribe mentioned by the 9th-century Bavarian Geographer (BG). It states that the Sebbirozi inhabit 90 settlements.

Sabir people

Sabir people

The Sabirs were nomadic people who lived in the north of the Caucasus beginning in the late-5th -7th century, on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, in the Kuban area, and possibly came from Western Siberia. They were skilled in warfare, used siege machinery, had a large army and were boat-builders. They were also referred to as Huns, a title applied to various Eurasian nomadic tribes in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe during late antiquity. Sabirs led incursions into Transcaucasia in the late-400s/early-500s, but quickly began serving as soldiers and mercenaries during the Byzantine-Sasanian Wars on both sides. Their alliance with the Byzantines laid the basis for the later Khazar-Byzantine alliance.

History

The Severians are believed to have continued the East Slavic tribal union along the middle Dnieper valley, after the political disappearance of the Antae and Dulebes, either independently or under Khazar policy. It is presumed they inhabited the lower Desna and upper Sejm and Sula rivers. They were thought to have been centered in Chernihiv ("black city"[3]).[8] However, as the Severians in the historical sources inhabited both the Dnieper valley and a part of the Danube valley, and as the Zeriuani realm was said to be so great that all Slavs traced their origins to it, Henryk Łowmiański believed that the Ruthenian Severians were the Slavic mother tribe.[6] Professor Traian Stoianovich described the Severian Slavs as mix of Slavs and Slavicized formerly Turkic speaking Huns.[9]

Some Severians settled in the territory of present-day northeastern Bulgaria, (Moesia Inferior, and Scythia Minor).[10] According to Theophanes the Confessor, the Bulgars subjugated the so-called Seven Slavic tribes. One of these tribes, the Severeis, were resettled in the east "from the klisuras before Veregava" (ἀπό τῆς ἔμπροσθεν κλεισȣ́ρας Βερεγάβων), most likely the Rish Pass of the Balkan Mountains; while the other six tribes were resettled in the southern and western regions, as far the boundary with the Pannonian Avars.[11] In 767, the Byzantines kidnapped the Severian prince Slavun, who had made trouble in Thrace, indicating they retained a tributary relationship with the Bulgars.[10]

The other Severians had as neighbors the Radimichs, Krivichs, and Vyatichs in the north and the Derevlians and Polianians in the west.[12] Those tribes had to pay tribute to the Khazars in 859 in the form of squirrel and beaver skins,[13] which suggests they lived in or near the northern forests.[2] In 884, Oleg of Novgorod annexed their territory to the Kievan Rus'.[8][13][14] The Severians had to pay a "light tribute." According to Oleg, he had acted not against the Severians but against the Khazars. It is possible that the Severians accepted Oleg's rule because he imposed lower taxes on them.[2]

Together with other East Slavic tribes, Severians participated in the Oleg's campaign against Constantinople in 907.[15] In the 10th century, in his De Administrando Imperio, Constantine VII wrote that in winter, the Rus princes (archontes) moved to and were maintained in the lands of their Severian and Krivich tributaries.[2] Eventually, Severian territory became part of the Grand Principality of Chernigov, and the last reference to them is from 1024, when they are mentioned as part of the troops recruited by Mstislav of Chernigov for his druzhina.[2] They had a significant impact on the victory at the Battle of Listven (1024), especially against the Varangians.[16]

Scholars disagree about the abovementioned dates. Some place Oleg's conquest in the 920–930s; the Khazar ruler Joseph (c. 955) mentioned that his empire ruled over the "Sever, Slaviun, and Ventit"; while Constantine VII wrote that the Severians paid tribute to the Rus and not the Khazars c. 950.[4]

The Severians eventually came to be known as the Chernihovians[17] and gave their name to the region of Severia.[18]

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Dulebes

Dulebes

The Dulebes, Dulebs, Dudlebi or Dulibyh were one of the tribal unions of Early Slavs between the 6th and the 10th centuries. According to medieval sources they lived in Western Volhynia, as well as southern parts of the Duchy of Bohemia and the Middle Danube between Lake Balaton and the Mur River in the Principality of Hungary, probably implying migrations from a single region.

Desna (river)

Desna (river)

The Desna is a river in Russia and Ukraine, a major left-tributary of the Dnieper. Its name means "right hand" in the Old East Slavic language. It has a length of 1,130 km (702 mi), and its drainage basin covers 88,900 km2 (34,324 sq mi).

Chernihiv

Chernihiv

Chernihiv, also known as Chernigov, is a city and municipality in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of Chernihiv Oblast and Chernihiv Raion within the oblast. Chernihiv's population is 285,234.

Danube

Danube

The Danube is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. A large and historically important river, it was once a frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects ten European countries, running through their territories or being a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km (1,770 mi), passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine. Among the many cities on the river are 4 capitals: Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade and Bratislava. Its drainage basin amounts to 817 000 km² and extends into nine more countries.

Henryk Łowmiański

Henryk Łowmiański

Henryk Łowmiański was a Polish historian and academic who was an authority on the early history of the Slavic and Baltic people. A researcher of the ancient history of Poland, Lithuania and the Slavs in general, Łowmiański was the author of many works, including most prominently the six-volume monumental monograph Początki Polski.

Ruthenia

Ruthenia

Ruthenia is an exonym, originally used in Medieval Latin as one of several terms for Kyivan Rus', the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia and, after their collapse, for East Slavic and Eastern Orthodox regions of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, corresponding to what is now Ukraine and Belarus.

Traian Stoianovich

Traian Stoianovich

Traian Stoianovich was an American historian and a professor of history at Rutgers University. He specialized in the history of the Balkans.

Slavs

Slavs

Slavs are the largest European ethnolinguistic group. They speak the various Slavic languages, belonging to the larger Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. Slavs are geographically distributed throughout northern Eurasia, mainly inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe, and the Balkans to the west; and Siberia to the east. A large Slavic minority is also scattered across the Baltic states and Central Asia, while a substantial Slavic diaspora is found throughout the Americas, as a result of immigration.

Huns

Huns

The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival to Europe is associated with the migration westward of an Iranian people, the Alans. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430, they had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders and causing many others to flee into Roman territory. The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, they invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, and in 452, they invaded Italy. After the death of Attila in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighboring populations to the south, east, and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria covers a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), and is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe. Sofia is the nation's capital and largest city; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy who became a monk and chronicler. He served in the court of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar before taking up the religious life. Theophanes attended the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 and resisted the iconoclasm of Leo V the Armenian, for which he was imprisoned. He died shortly after his release.

Bulgars

Bulgars

The Bulgars were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century. They became known as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region, but some researchers say that their ethnic roots can be traced to Central Asia. During their westward migration across the Eurasian steppe, the Bulgar tribes absorbed other tribal groups and cultural influences in a process of ethnogenesis, including Iranian, Finnic and Hunnic tribes. Modern genetic research on Central Asian Turkic people and ethnic groups related to the Bulgars points to an affiliation with Western Eurasian populations. The Bulgars spoke a Turkic language, i.e. Bulgar language of Oghuric branch. They preserved the military titles, organization and customs of Eurasian steppes, as well as pagan shamanism and belief in the sky deity Tangra.

Culture

Archaeologists have found numerous rural settlements associated with the Severians, including burial mounds with cremated bodies, from the 8th–10th centuries. Like other East Slavs, the Severians were mostly engaged in agriculture; cattle breeding; hunting; and different handicrafts such as pottery, weaving, and metalworking.[8] It is considered that trade was not very developed, and they offered honey, wax, furs, and slaves.[14] According to Constantine VII, they provided not only tribute but also transport via boats dug out from single hollowed trees.[19]

The Severians were a patriarchial culture ruled by clan or tribal leaders, who held political authority in the commune (zadruga) and convened tribal councils. The centers of political power were the fortified grady, which were built in forests or on elevations, around which villages developed.[14][8] Some Saltovo-Mayaki forts were situated on Severian land.[4]

In the Primary Chronicle, it is recorded that the Drevlians, Radimichs, Vyatichi, and Severians all lived violent lifestyles, and they did not enter monogamous marriages but practiced polygamy, specifically polygyny, instead.[20]

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Cremation

Cremation

Cremation is a method of final disposition of a dead body through burning.

East Slavs

East Slavs

The East Slavs are the most populous subgroup of the Slavs. They speak the East Slavic languages, and formed the majority of the population of the medieval state Kievan Rus', which they claim as their cultural ancestor. Today, the East Slavs consist of Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns, and Ukrainians.

Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Sheep, goats, pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture.

Hunting

Hunting

Hunting is the human practice of seeking, pursuing, capturing, or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest food and useful animal products, for recreation/taxidermy, to remove predators dangerous to humans or domestic animals, to eliminate pests and nuisance animals that damage crops/livestock/poultry or spread diseases, for trade/tourism, or for ecological conservation against overpopulation and invasive species.

Handicraft

Handicraft

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated related tools like scissors, carving implements, or hooks. It is a traditional main sector of craft making and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers,clay etc. One of the oldest handicraft is Dhokra; this is a sort of metal casting that has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. In Iranian Baluchistan, women still make red ware hand-made pottery with dotted ornaments, much similar to the 5000-year-old pottery tradition of Kalpurgan, an archaeological site near the village. Usually, the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic. Handicraft industries are those that produce things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality without using machines.

Pottery

Pottery

Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard and durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery. The definition of pottery, used by the ASTM International, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products". In art history and archaeology, especially of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" often means vessels only, and sculpted figurines of the same material are called "terracottas".

Metalworking

Metalworking

Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metals to create useful objects, parts, assemblies, and large scale structures. As a term it covers a wide and diverse range of processes, skills, and tools for producing objects on every scale: from huge ships, buildings, and bridges down to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry.

Honey

Honey

Honey is a sweet and viscous substance made by several bees, the best-known of which are honey bees. Honey is made and stored to nourish bee colonies. Bees produce honey by gathering and then refining the sugary secretions of plants or the secretions of other insects, like the honeydew of aphids. This refinement takes place both within individual bees, through regurgitation and enzymatic activity, as well as during storage in the hive, through water evaporation that concentrates the honey's sugars until it is thick and viscous.

Wax

Wax

Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as hexane, benzene and chloroform. Natural waxes of different types are produced by plants and animals and occur in petroleum.

Dugout canoe

Dugout canoe

A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed out tree. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) is Greek – mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) – and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In German, they are called Einbaum. Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner.

Patriarchy

Patriarchy

Patriarchy is a social system in which positions of dominance and privilege are primarily held by men. It is used, both as a technical anthropological term for families or clans controlled by the father or eldest male or group of males and in feminist theory where it is used to describe broad social structures in which men dominate over women and children. In these theories it is often extended to a variety of manifestations in which men have social privileges over others causing exploitation or oppression, such as through male dominance of moral authority and control of property. Patriarchal societies can be patrilineal or matrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male or female lineage respectively.

Gord (archaeology)

Gord (archaeology)

A gord is a medieval Slavonic fortified settlement, usually built on strategic sites such as hilltops, riverbanks, lake islets or peninsulas between the 6th and 12th centuries CE in Central and Eastern Europe. The typical gord usually consisted of a group of wooden houses surrounded by a wall made of earth and wood, and a palisade running along the top of the bulwark.

Source: "Severians", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severians.

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References
  1. ^ "Slavs". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. 1993. Retrieved 2023-01-25.
  2. ^ a b c d e Simon Franklin; Jonathan Shepard (2014). The Emergence of Russia 750-1200. Routledge. pp. 77–78, 109, 120, 195, 197. ISBN 9781317872238.
  3. ^ a b "The Ukrainian Quarterly". The Ukrainian Quarterly. Ukrainian Congress Committee of America. 56: 184. 2000.
  4. ^ a b c Kevin Alan Brook (2006). The Jews of Khazaria. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 105–106, 55, 58, 35. ISBN 9781442203020.
  5. ^ a b Łuczyński, Michal (2017). ""Geograf Bawarski" — nowe odczytania" ["Bavarian Geographer" — New readings]. Polonica (in Polish). XXXVII (37): 73. doi:10.17651/POLON.37.9. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak (2013). "Poselstwo ruskie w państwie niemieckim w roku 839: Kulisy śledztwa w świetle danych Geografa Bawarskiego". Slavia Orientalis (in Polish and English). 62 (1): 25–43.
  7. ^ Henryk Łowmiański (1986). Studia nad dziejami Słowiańszczyzny, Polski i Rusi w wiekach średnich. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewica w Poznaniu. pp. 161–169.
  8. ^ a b c d Paul Robert Magocsi (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. pp. 47, 49, 57, 66. ISBN 9781442610217.
  9. ^ Stoianovich, Traian (1994). Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe. Armonk, United States: Taylor & Francis Inc. p. 134. ISBN 9781563240331.
  10. ^ a b John Van Antwerp Fine (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. pp. 69, 77. ISBN 9780472081493.
  11. ^ Fiedler, Uwe (2008). "Bulgars in the Lower Danube region: A survey of the archaeological evidence and of the state of current research". In Curta, Florin; Kovalev, Roman (eds.). The Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans. Brill. p. 154. ISBN 9789004163898.
  12. ^ Martin Gilbert (2002). The Routledge Atlas of Russian History. Psychology Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780415281195.
  13. ^ a b Pavel Dolukhanov (2014). The Early Slavs: Eastern Europe from the Initial Settlement to the Kievan Rus. Routledge. pp. 182, 194. ISBN 9781317892229.
  14. ^ a b c Orest Subtelny (2009). Ukraine: A History (4 ed.). University of Toronto Press. pp. 21–22, 43. ISBN 9781442697287.
  15. ^ Vladimir Plugin (2007). Russian Intelligence Services. Algora Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 9781892941251.
  16. ^ John Marsden (2011). Harald Hardrada: The Warrior's Way. The History Press. ISBN 9780752474441.
  17. ^ Serhii Plokhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9781139458924.
  18. ^ Joseph L. Wieczynski (1994). The Modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet history. Academic International Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780875690643.
  19. ^ Michael Postan (1987) [1952]. The Cambridge economic history of Europe: 2. Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 488–489. ISBN 9780521087094.
  20. ^ Eve Levin (1995). Sex and Society in the World of the Orthodox Slavs, 900–1700. Cornell University Press. pp. 41–42. ISBN 9780801483042.
See also

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