|Part of a series on|
A self-driving truck, also known as an autonomous truck, or robo-truck is an application of self-driving car designed to transport cargo without requiring a human driver. Many companies are testing self-driving semi trucks.
In September 2022, Guidehouse Insights listed Waymo, Aurora, TuSimple, Gatik, PlusAI, Kodiak Robotics, Daimler Truck, Einride, Locomation, and Embark as the top 10 vendors in automated trucking. And, Transport Topics in November 2022 is listing fourteen companies to know about self-driving truck; Aurora, Waymo, TuSimple, Gatik, Locomation, Torc Robotics, Waabi, Einride, PlusAI, Embark, Kodiak Robotics, Robotic Research, Outrider and Pronto.
Discover more about Self-driving truck related topics
According to Allied Market Research, the global self-driving truck market may have generated as much as $1 billion in revenue in 2020, and is projected to reach the market size of $1,669 million by 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate of 10.4 percent from 2020 to 2025.
Economists and policy makers are concerned about the effects of automation and artificial intelligence on employment including whether some kinds of jobs will cease to exist at all, and trucking is the most concerned job. However, Karen Levy is on the view that the path to fully autonomous trucking is likely to be a gradual slope due to social, legal, and cultural factors.
Defense and dual-use technology
In December 2022, the Army partnered with the Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) to prototype a software package, as well as a process to adapt self-driving vehicle technology. The Ground Vehicle Autonomous Pathways project will prototype software for the navigation of uncrewed vehicles by fusing data from multiple sensors and allowing teleoperations of unmanned ground vehicles. Self-driving trucking technology company Kodiak Robotics won the contract to test and deploy autonomous software that can navigate complex, off-road terrain, diverse operational conditions and GPS-challenged environments. DIU is leveraging this partnership to build a pipeline between the commercial and military deployment of self-driving vehicle technologies that will reduce the risk to troops in war zones.
As recorded in June 1995 in Popular Science Magazine, self-driving trucks were being developed for combat convoys, whereby only the lead truck would be driven by a human and the following trucks would rely on satellite navigation, an inertial guidance system and ground-speed sensors.
Komatsu made the earliest development in autonomous trucks testing a fleet of five Ultra Class trucks in Codelco Mine Radomiro Tomic in Chile in 2005 then in 2007 was installed the first working fleet in the mine Gabriela Mistral in Chile, also a Codelco property.
Lockheed Martin, with funding from the U.S. Army, developed an autonomous truck convoy system that uses a lead truck operated by a human driver with a number of trucks following autonomously. Developed as part of the Army's Autonomous Mobility Applique System (AMAS), the system consists of an autonomous driving package that, as of 2014[update], has been installed on more than nine types of vehicles and has completed more than 55,000 hours of driving at speeds up to 64 km/h (40 mph). As of 2017[update] the Army was planning to field 100–200 trucks as part of a rapid-fielding program.
In Europe, truck platooning was being considered with the Safe Road Trains for the Environment approach, a project that ended in September 2012.
Caterpillar Inc. made early developments in 2013 with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to improve efficiency and reduce cost at various mining and construction sites. Companies such as Codelco Chilean State Mining Company, Suncor Energy (a Canadian energy company), and Rio Tinto Group were among the first to replace human-operated trucks with driver-less commercial trucks run by computers.
Otto demonstrated its self-driving trucks on the highway before being acquired by Uber in August 2016. In May 2017, San Francisco-based startup Embark announced a partnership with truck manufacturer Peterbilt to test and deploy autonomous technology in Peterbilt's vehicles. Waymo stated it was also testing autonomous technology in trucks, however no timeline has been given for the project.
In April 2016, trucks from major manufacturers including Volvo and Daimler completed a week of autonomous driving across Europe, organized by the Netherlands, in an effort to get self-driving trucks on the road. Volvo has also developed its own autonomous trucks, called Vera.
In 2016, Anheuser-Busch and Uber partnered and made the first commercial delivery of beer over 120 miles (190 km) using a self-driving truck, with a human in the truck, but not behind the wheel. Waymo also delivered freight in Atlanta, Georgia.
In February 2018, Starsky Robotics, the San Francisco-based autonomous truck company, completed a 7-mile (11 km) driver-less trip in Florida without a human in the truck, though one was available to take over by remote control. Starsky Robotics claimed to be the first self-driving truck company to drive on a public road without a person in the cab.
In July 2018, Uber announced it was shuttering the truck-focused branch of its autonomous vehicles program as part of a reorganization of its Advanced Technologies Group following the fatal Uber autonomous passenger vehicle crash in Tempe, Arizona in March 2018. Shortly after Uber shut down its autonomous truck efforts, two autonomous truck startups, Kodiak Robotics and Ike, announced they had hired employees from the Uber program.
In September 2018, Ford unveiled its own vision of the heavy-duty truck of the future as the F-Vision semi concept which will be a SAE Level 4 autonomous vehicle.
In November 2018, Embark Trucks announced a pilot with national truck fleet Ryder and Frigidaire to deliver refrigerators via autonomous trucks from El Paso, Texas to Palm Springs, California. During the pilot, manually-driven Ryder trucks provided first and last mile delivery while Embark autonomous trucks carried the load as far as 306 miles (492 km) at a time on Interstate 10.
In March 2019, Daimler AG through its subsidiary Daimler Truck North America announced that it would acquire a majority stake in Torc Robotics for an undisclosed amount as part of its Highly Automated Truck Program.
In May 2019, the company TuSimple announced a contract for a two-week pilot delivering mail for the United States Postal Service. The company planned to run five round trips between Dallas, Texas and Phoenix, Arizona, with two humans on board. The company runs daily cargo for customers in Arizona.
As of June 2019[update], Starsky Robotics became the first company to operate fully unmanned on public highways at 55 miles per hour (89 km/h) with no one in the cab of the truck. Unable to raise additional funding, Starsky shut down operations on March 19, 2020.
In December 2019, Plus conducted the industry's first cross-country commercial freight run using a self-driving truck, carrying 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of butter 2,800 miles (4,500 km) from Tulare, California to Quakertown, Pennsylvania for Land O'Lakes.
In March 2020, the company TuSimple expanded its freight-hauling pilot program with the United Parcel Service (UPS) to run 20 trips per week hauling cargo between Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, and between Phoenix and El Paso, Texas. Also in March 2020, Waymo announced the official launch of Waymo Via, which includes the use of autonomous Class 8 trucks for delivery.
In July 2020, Locomation completed a two-week pilot with Wilson Logistics where Locomation trucks hauled commercial cargo between Portland, Oregon and Nampa, Idaho over Interstate 84. Also in July 2020, Aurora opened an office in Texas to expand testing of self-driving trucks with commercial routes in the Dallas-Fort Worth area by the end of the year.
In September 2020, Daimler Trucks and Torc Robotics opened a test center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, testing automated vehicle runs on New Mexico highways.
In December 2021, TuSimple completed its first autonomous truck run on open public roads, 80-mile between a railyard in Tuscon, Arizona and a distribution center in Phoenix.
An amendment to the UNECE's regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems for their use in heavy vehicles including trucks, buses and coaches is expected to enter into force in June 2022 in the 54 Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement, which already apply UNECE's regulation 157.
Torc Robotics opened an engineering office in Austin, Texas, and a Technology and Development Center in Stuttgart, Germany. The company also announced that Penske Truck Leasing would serve as the truck maintenance service provider for Torc's autonomous test fleet.
In June 2022, Einride received approval to operate its vehicles on the U.S. roads.
In October 2022, TuSimple's CEO, Chief Technology Officer, and co-founder, Xiaodi Hou, was fired by the company's board, which cited a "loss in trust and confidence" in Hou's judgment in connection with an alleged sharing of confidential information with a Chinese company, Hydron Inc. The FBI, the SEC, and CFIUS are investigating TuSimple on suspicions of illicit technology transfer to Hydron in China.
In December 2022, Kodiak Robotics won the contract with Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) to prototype autonomous software that can navigate complex, off-road terrain, diverse operational conditions and GPS-challenged environments. DIU is leveraging this partnership to build a pipeline between the commercial and military deployment of self-driving vehicle technologies that will reduce the risk to troops in war zones.
Discover more about History related topics
Source: "Self-driving truck", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 8th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-driving_truck.
Get our FREE extension now!
- ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (September 22, 2022). "Guidehouse Insights Leaderboard Report: Automated Trucking". guidehouseinsights.com. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
- ^ "Who's Who in Self-Driving Truck Development". Transport Topics. November 23, 2022. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
- ^ "2018 Self-driving truck Market". Allied Market Research. March 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
- ^ Karen Levy (December 6, 2022). "Robo Truckers and the AI-Fueled Future of Transport". Wired. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
- ^ David Vergun (December 6, 2022). "DOD Adopting Commercial Technology to Control Unmanned Ground Vehicles". US DoD. Retrieved December 29, 2022.
- ^ a b Rebecca Bellan (December 6, 2022). "Kodiak Robotics wins $50M to help US Army build AVs for recon, surveillance". techcrunch. Retrieved December 29, 2022.
- ^ Nelson, Ray (June 1995). Leave The Driving To Us. p. 26.
- ^ (article),
- ^ "Komatsu marks 10 years of autonomous trucks". TradeEarthmovers.com.au.
- ^ "Lockheed Martin Wins Contract to Develop Autonomous Operation of Tactical Vehicles | Unmanned Systems Technology". Unmanned Systems Technology. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
- ^ "Driverless Convoy Technology May Be Fielded Soon". Military.com. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
- ^ Gingrich, Newt (7 October 2014). Breakout: Pioneers of the Future, Prison Guards of the Past, and the Epic Battle That Will Decide America's Fate. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62157-281-7.
- ^ "Suncor Seeks Cost Cutting With Robot Trucks in Oil-Sands Mine". Bloomberg. 31 October 2013.
- ^ Dillet, Romain (18 August 2016). "Uber acquires Otto to lead Uber's self-driving car effort". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- ^ "Embark – Self-Driving Semi Trucks". www.embarktrucks.com.
- ^ Etherington, Darrell (18 July 2017). "Self-driving truck startup Embark raises $15M, partners with Peterbilt". TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- ^ "Waymo working on self-driving trucks". Reuters. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- ^ "Automation". www.volvogroup.com.
- ^ Brett, A.K., Tyler, H., & Jake, H. (2017). Disruptive technology: Economic consequences of artificial intelligence and the robotics revolution. Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, 12(2), 53-67. https://doi.org/17.2304/5772/9394
- ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (9 March 2018). "Waymo's self-driving trucks will start delivering freight in Atlanta". The Verge.
- ^ "Truck completes fully automated route without driver in cab". www.ccjdigital.com. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- ^ "Uber's self-driving trucks division is dead, long live Uber self-driving cars". TechCrunch. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
- ^ Ohnsman, Alan. "A Google, Uber Self-Driving Veteran Raises $40 Million For Robot Truck Startup Kodiak". Forbes. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
- ^ "Ike raises $52 million for self-driving trucks". VentureBeat. 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
- ^ Daniel Rufiange (24 September 2018). "THE FORD F-VISION CONCEPT, A SEMI INSPIRED BY THE MARVEL MOVIES". auto123. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
- ^ "Embark's semi-autonomous trucks are hauling Frigidaire appliances". Engadget. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
- ^ "Ryder Teams With Embark, Frigidaire for Autonomous Truck Test". Transport Topics. 2017-11-15. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
- ^ "Daimler buys Torc Robotics stake for self-driving trucks". Reuters. 2019-03-29.
- ^ Korosec, Kirsten (2019-05-21). "Self-driving truck startup TuSimple will haul mail for USPS in two-week pilot". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
- ^ Ohnsman, Alan. "Big Step For Self-Driving Semis As Starsky Tests Unmanned Robo-Truck On Florida Highway". Forbes.
- ^ Straight, Brian (2020-03-19). "Starsky Robotics ends remote truck experiment, shuts down operations". FreightWaves. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
- ^ Blanco, Sebastian (2019-12-12). "An Autonomous Semi-Truck Just Drove Across America To Deliver Butter". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
- ^ "TuSimple Expands Autonomous Trucking Program With UPS". Transport Topics. 2020-03-05. Retrieved 2020-06-16.
- ^ LeBeau, Phil (2020-03-02). "Waymo launches delivery service after raising $2.25 billion". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
- ^ Wiggers, Kyle (2020-08-12). "Locomation completes public road trial of semi-autonomous truck convoy tech". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2020-08-26.
- ^ Korosec, Kirsten (2020-07-20). "Aurora expands to Texas in bid to ramp up self-driving truck efforts". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
- ^ "Daimler Trucks tests self-driving vehicles in US Southwest". The Washington Post. 2020-09-03.
- ^ Bellan, Rebecca (2021-12-29). "TuSimple completes its first driverless autonomous truck run on public roads". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2023-01-28.
- ^ "UN regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems (ALKS) extended to trucks, buses and coaches | UNECE".
- ^ "Self-driving truck company Torc Robotics picks Austin for tech hub". Austin American-Statesman. 2022-01-07.
- ^ "Torc to Open Tech Development Center". Heavy Duty Trucking. 2022-05-18.
- ^ "Torc taps Penske to service autonomous trucking test fleet". Fleet Owner. 2022-05-09.
- ^ Ridden, Paul (2022-06-27). "Cabless autonomous electric truck approved for US public roads". New Atlas. Retrieved 2022-06-28.
- ^ "TuSimple Fires CEO Xiaodi Hou Amid Federal Probes". The Wall Street Journal. 31 October 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
- ^ "TuSimple probed by FBI, SEC over ties to Chinese startup, the Wall Street Journal reports". Reuters. 2022-10-30. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
- All articles containing potentially dated statements
- All articles with unsourced statements
- Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014
- Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017
- Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2019
- Articles with short description
- Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018
- Automotive technologies
- Emerging technologies
- Self-driving cars
- Short description matches Wikidata
The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.