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Scream (1996 film)

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Scream
Scream (1996 film) poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byWes Craven
Written byKevin Williamson
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyMark Irwin
Edited byPatrick Lussier
Music byMarco Beltrami
Production
company
Woods Entertainment[1]
Distributed byDimension Films[1]
Release dates
  • December 18, 1996 (1996-12-18) (Los Angeles)
  • December 20, 1996 (1996-12-20) (United States)
Running time
111 minutes[2]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$14–15 million[3][4]
Box office$173 million[3]

Scream is a 1996 American slasher film[5] directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. The film stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Matthew Lillard, Rose McGowan, Skeet Ulrich, Jamie Kennedy, and Drew Barrymore. Released on December 20, it follows high school student Sidney Prescott (Campbell) and her group of friends in the fictional town of Woodsboro, California, who become the targets of a mysterious killer in a Halloween costume known as Ghostface. The film satirizes the clichés of the slasher genre popularized in films such as Halloween (1978), Friday the 13th (1980) and Craven's own A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984). Scream was considered unique at the time of its release for featuring characters aware of real-world horror films who openly discussed the clichés that the film attempted to subvert.

Inspired by the real-life case of the Gainesville Ripper, Scream was influenced by Williamson's passion for horror films, especially Halloween (1978). The screenplay, originally titled Scary Movie, was bought by Dimension Films and was retitled by the Weinstein brothers just before filming was complete. The production faced censorship issues with the Motion Picture Association of America and obstacles from locals while filming on location. The film received positive reviews and was a financial success, earning $173 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing slasher film until the release of Halloween (2018). It still remains the highest-grossing slasher film in adjusted dollars. It received several awards and award nominations. The soundtrack by Marco Beltrami was also acclaimed, and was cited as "[one] of the most intriguing horror scores composed in years".[6] The score has since earned "cult status".[7] Scream marked a change in the genre as it cast already-established and successful actors, which was considered to have helped it find a wider audience, including a significant female viewership.

Scream was credited with revitalizing the slasher genre in the 1990s, which was considered to be almost dead following an influx of direct-to-video titles and numerous sequels to established horror franchises of the 1970s and 1980s. Scream's success spawned a series of sequels.

Discover more about Scream (1996 film) related topics

David Arquette

David Arquette

David Arquette is an American actor and former professional wrestler. He is best known for his role as Dewey Riley in the slasher film franchise Scream, for which he won a Teen Choice Award and two Blockbuster Entertainment Awards. As a professional wrestler, he is best remembered for his 2000 stint in World Championship Wrestling (WCW), where he won the WCW World Heavyweight Championship and headlined the Slamboree pay-per-view event; he has received praise in recent times for his work on the independent circuit.

Courteney Cox

Courteney Cox

Courteney Bass Cox is an American actress and filmmaker. She gained international recognition for her starring role as Monica Geller on the NBC sitcom Friends, which aired from 1994 to 2004. For her performance in the series, she received seven Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, of which she won one. She received further recognition for starring as Gale Weathers in the horror film franchise Scream (1996–present). She also starred as Lauren Miller in the NBC sitcom Family Ties (1987–1989), Lucy Spiller in the FX drama series Dirt (2007–2008), and as Jules Cobb in the ABC/TBS sitcom Cougar Town (2009–2015), the lattermost of which earned her nominations at the Golden Globe Awards and the Critics' Choice Awards.

Drew Barrymore

Drew Barrymore

Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director, producer, talk show host and author. A member of the Barrymore family of actors, she has received several awards and nominations, including a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, in addition to nominations for a British Academy Film Award and seven Emmy Awards. She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface is a fictional identity adopted by eleven characters and the primary antagonist in the Scream franchise. The figure was originally created by Kevin Williamson, and is primarily mute in person but voiced over the phone by Roger L. Jackson, regardless of who is behind the mask. Ghostface first appeared in Scream (1996) as a disguise used by teenagers Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, during their killing spree in the fictional town of Woodsboro. The mask was a popular Halloween costume created and designed by Fun World costume company before being chosen by Marianne Maddalena and Craven for the film. The identity is used primarily as a disguise for the antagonists of each film to conceal their identities while conducting serial murders, and as such has been portrayed by several actors.

Cliché

Cliché

A cliché is an element of an artistic work, saying, or idea that has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being weird or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. In phraseology, the term has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to an expression imposed by conventionalized linguistic usage.

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween is a 1978 American independent slasher film directed and scored by John Carpenter, co-written with producer Debra Hill, and starring Jamie Lee Curtis and Donald Pleasence, with P. J. Soles and Nancy Loomis in supporting roles. The plot centers on a mental patient, Michael Myers, who was committed to a sanitarium for murdering his babysitting teenage sister on Halloween night when he was six years old. Fifteen years later, he escapes and returns to his hometown, where he stalks a female babysitter and her friends while under pursuit by his psychiatrist.

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th is a 1980 American slasher film produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, written by Victor Miller, and starring Betsy Palmer, Adrienne King, Harry Crosby, Laurie Bartram, Mark Nelson, Jeannine Taylor, Robbi Morgan, and Kevin Bacon. Its plot follows a group of teenage camp counselors who are murdered one by one by an unknown killer while attempting to re-open an abandoned summer camp with a tragic past.

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 1984 American supernatural slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven and produced by Robert Shaye. It is the first installment in the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise and stars Heather Langenkamp, John Saxon, Ronee Blakley, Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger, and Johnny Depp in his film debut.

Danny Rolling

Danny Rolling

Daniel Harold Rolling, known as the Gainesville Ripper, was an American serial killer. He murdered five students in Gainesville, Florida, over four days in August 1990. Rolling later confessed to raping several of his victims, also committing a triple homicide in his home city of Shreveport, Louisiana, and attempting to murder his father in May 1990. In total, Rolling confessed to killing eight people. He was sentenced to death for the five Gainesville murders in 1994. He was executed by lethal injection in 2006.

Dimension Films

Dimension Films

Dimension Films is an American film production company owned by Lantern Entertainment. It was formerly used as Harvey and Bob Weinstein's label within Miramax, which was acquired by The Walt Disney Company on June 30, 1993, to produce and release independent films and genre titles, specifically horror and science fiction films.

Cult following

Cult following

A cult following refers to a group of fans who are highly dedicated to some person, idea, object, movement, or work, often an artist, in particular a performing artist, or an artwork in some medium. The lattermost is often called a cult classic. A film, book, musical artist, television series, or video game, among other things, is said to have a cult following when it has a small but very passionate fanbase. A common component of cult followings is the emotional attachment the fans have to the object of the cult following, often identifying themselves and other fans as members of a community. Cult followings are also commonly associated with niche markets. Cult media are often associated with underground culture, and are considered too eccentric or anti-establishment to be appreciated by the general public or to be widely commercially successful.

Direct-to-video

Direct-to-video

Direct-to-video or straight-to-video refers to the release of a film, television series, short or special to the public immediately on home video formats rather than an initial theatrical release or television premiere. This distribution strategy was prevalent before streaming platforms came to dominate the TV and movie distribution markets.

Plot

High school student Casey Becker is home alone when she receives a phone call from an unknown person, during which they discuss horror films. The caller turns sadistic, refusing to leave Casey alone and threatening her life. He reveals that her boyfriend Steve is bound and gagged outside on her patio and demands she answer questions about horror films if she wants him to live. After Casey answers a question about Friday the 13th incorrectly, Steve is murdered in front of her. Refusing to answer more questions, Casey attempts to escape, but is cornered by someone wearing a "Ghostface" costume, who kills her before her parents arrive home to find her disemboweled corpse hanging from a tree.

News media descend on the town in the wake of the murders and a police investigation begins. Teenager Sidney Prescott struggles with the first anniversary of her mother Maureen's rape and murder, while a news reporter, Gale Weathers, whom Sidney despises, arrives among the media. Gale was responsible for spreading rumors and conspiracy theories about Maureen's death, insinuating that the imprisoned Cotton Weary, who was tried and convicted of Maureen's rape and murder, was not responsible for the crime. That night, while waiting at home for her best friend Tatum Riley to arrive, Sidney gets a taunting phone call and is attacked by Ghostface. Sidney's boyfriend Billy Loomis arrives immediately after. When he drops his cell phone, Sidney suspects him of making the call and flees. Billy is arrested and questioned, but later, at Tatum's house, Sidney receives another ominous call.

The next day, Billy is released and suspicion shifts to Sidney's father Neil Prescott, due to the ominous phone calls having been traced to his phone. After school is suspended in wake of the murders, Ghostface ambushes Principal Arthur Himbry and stabs him to death. Tatum's boyfriend and Billy's best friend, Stu Macher, throws a party to celebrate the school's closure. Gale attends uninvited, as she expects the killer to strike again. Tatum's older brother, Deputy Sheriff Dewey Riley, also looks out for the murderer at the party. Tatum goes out to the garage and is cornered by Ghostface, who crushes her neck with the garage door when she attempts to escape through the pet door. Many party attendees are drawn away after hearing of Himbry's death, leaving only Sidney, Billy, their friend Randy Meeks, Stu, and Gale's cameraman Kenny.

After having sex, Sidney and Billy are confronted by Ghostface, who stabs Billy. Sidney escapes from the house and seeks help from Kenny, but he is killed by Ghostface. Gale crashes her van while escaping and Dewey is stabbed in the back while investigating in the house, with Sidney taking his gun for protection. Randy and Stu show up and accuse each other of being the killer, but Sidney retreats back into the house where she finds a wounded Billy. After they let Randy inside, Sidney gives Billy the gun, who in turn shoots Randy, revealing himself to be the killer; Stu is revealed to be his accomplice by talking into a voice changer.

Billy and Stu corner Sidney in the kitchen and discuss their plan to kill her and pin the murder spree on her father, whom they have taken hostage. They also reveal that they murdered her mother and framed Cotton for it, as she was having an affair with Billy's father, which drove his mother away. Gale intervenes, enabling Sidney to escape and turn the tables on the killers, taunting them with a phone call and donning the Ghostface costume, before knocking Billy out and killing Stu by dropping a television set on his head. An enraged Billy awakens and attacks Sidney, but Gale shoots him. Randy, wounded but alive, remarks that the killer always resurfaces for one last scare. As Billy rises, Sidney shoots Billy in the head, finally killing him. As police arrive, Dewey, badly injured, is taken away by ambulance as Gale makes an impromptu news report about the night's events.

Discover more about Plot related topics

Casey Becker

Casey Becker

Casey Becker is a fictional character from the Scream franchise, first appearing in the 1996 film Scream. The character was created by Kevin Williamson and originated by American actress Drew Barrymore. Casey was subsequently played by Heather Graham in Scream 2 for its movie-within-a-movie scenes. Casey and Steve Orth, her boyfriend, are among the first characters to be killed in the franchise, in what has been called "one of the most famous scenes of all time."

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th is a 1980 American slasher film produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, written by Victor Miller, and starring Betsy Palmer, Adrienne King, Harry Crosby, Laurie Bartram, Mark Nelson, Jeannine Taylor, Robbi Morgan, and Kevin Bacon. Its plot follows a group of teenage camp counselors who are murdered one by one by an unknown killer while attempting to re-open an abandoned summer camp with a tragic past.

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface is a fictional identity adopted by eleven characters and the primary antagonist in the Scream franchise. The figure was originally created by Kevin Williamson, and is primarily mute in person but voiced over the phone by Roger L. Jackson, regardless of who is behind the mask. Ghostface first appeared in Scream (1996) as a disguise used by teenagers Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, during their killing spree in the fictional town of Woodsboro. The mask was a popular Halloween costume created and designed by Fun World costume company before being chosen by Marianne Maddalena and Craven for the film. The identity is used primarily as a disguise for the antagonists of each film to conceal their identities while conducting serial murders, and as such has been portrayed by several actors.

Sidney Prescott

Sidney Prescott

Sidney Prescott is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Scream franchise. The character was created by Kevin Williamson and is portrayed by Canadian actress Neve Campbell. She first appeared in Scream (1996) followed by four sequels: Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000), Scream 4 (2011), and Scream (2022). The character appears in the Scream films as the target of a series of killers who adopt the Ghostface persona, a ghost mask and black cloak, to pursue her. In each film, the Ghostface killers often murder people close to Sidney and taunt her by phone with threats and intimate knowledge of her life or the murder of her mother, leading to a final confrontation where the true killer is revealed.

Gale Weathers

Gale Weathers

Gale Weathers is a fictional character of the Scream film series, created by Kevin Williamson and portrayed by Courteney Cox. The character first appeared in Scream (1996), followed by five sequels: Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000), Scream 4 (2011), Scream (2022) and Scream VI (2023). She is the only character who has appeared in every movie of the series.

Cast

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List of Scream (film series) characters

List of Scream (film series) characters

Kevin Williamson's and Wes Craven's American meta horror slasher film series Scream features a large cast of characters created primarily by Kevin Williamson with contributions from Craven and Ehren Kruger. The series focuses on a succession of murderers who adopt a ghost-like disguise, dubbed Ghostface, who taunt and attempt to kill Sidney Prescott in the first four films, and Sam and Tara Carpenter in the fifth and sixth films. The series comprises five films: Scream (1996), Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000), Scream 4 (2011), and Scream (2022), with Scream VI set to be released in 2023. Other major recurring characters include ambitious news reporter Gale Weathers, police officer Dewey Riley, film-geek Randy Meeks, and Cotton Weary.

List of Scream (film series) cast members

List of Scream (film series) cast members

Scream is an American meta horror slasher film series created in 1996 by Kevin Williamson and Wes Craven. Each of the films features a large ensemble of actors and actresses. The leading role of the series is Sidney Prescott, portrayed by Canadian actress Neve Campbell, who is accompanied by ambitious news reporter Gale Weathers, played by Courteney Cox, and the police officer Dewey Riley, played by David Arquette, who appear in all five Scream films. Other major recurring characters include film-geek Randy Meeks, played by Jamie Kennedy, and Cotton Weary, played by Liev Schreiber, in the first three films. The series consists of five films: Scream (1996), Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000), Scream 4 (2011) and Scream (2022), with Scream VI set to be released in 2023. The first four films were directed by Wes Craven and scored by Marco Beltrami. Kevin Williamson wrote Scream, Scream 2 and Scream 4, but scheduling commitments meant he could provide only notes for Scream 3, with writing duties instead helmed by Ehren Kruger.

David Arquette

David Arquette

David Arquette is an American actor and former professional wrestler. He is best known for his role as Dewey Riley in the slasher film franchise Scream, for which he won a Teen Choice Award and two Blockbuster Entertainment Awards. As a professional wrestler, he is best remembered for his 2000 stint in World Championship Wrestling (WCW), where he won the WCW World Heavyweight Championship and headlined the Slamboree pay-per-view event; he has received praise in recent times for his work on the independent circuit.

Courteney Cox

Courteney Cox

Courteney Bass Cox is an American actress and filmmaker. She gained international recognition for her starring role as Monica Geller on the NBC sitcom Friends, which aired from 1994 to 2004. For her performance in the series, she received seven Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, of which she won one. She received further recognition for starring as Gale Weathers in the horror film franchise Scream (1996–present). She also starred as Lauren Miller in the NBC sitcom Family Ties (1987–1989), Lucy Spiller in the FX drama series Dirt (2007–2008), and as Jules Cobb in the ABC/TBS sitcom Cougar Town (2009–2015), the lattermost of which earned her nominations at the Golden Globe Awards and the Critics' Choice Awards.

Gale Weathers

Gale Weathers

Gale Weathers is a fictional character of the Scream film series, created by Kevin Williamson and portrayed by Courteney Cox. The character first appeared in Scream (1996), followed by five sequels: Scream 2 (1997), Scream 3 (2000), Scream 4 (2011), Scream (2022) and Scream VI (2023). She is the only character who has appeared in every movie of the series.

Jamie Kennedy

Jamie Kennedy

James Harvey Kennedy is an American actor and comedian. He has played Randy Meeks in the Scream franchise (1996–2000) and a multitude of characters in The Jamie Kennedy Experiment (2002–2004) on The WB. His other film roles include Romeo + Juliet (1996), Bowfinger (1999), Malibu's Most Wanted (2003), Finding Bliss (2009), and Good Deeds (2012).

Joseph Whipp

Joseph Whipp

Joseph Whipp is an American actor who has starred in many films and starred on television. He is known for playing police officers in films and on television.

Liev Schreiber

Liev Schreiber

Isaac Liev Schreiber is an American actor, director, screenwriter, producer, and narrator. He became known during the late 1990s and early 2000s after appearing in several independent films, and later mainstream Hollywood films, including the first three Scream horror films (1996-2000), Ransom (1996), Phantoms (1998), The Hurricane (1999), The Sum of All Fears (2002), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), The Omen (2006), Defiance (2008), X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009), Taking Woodstock (2009), Salt (2010), Goon (2011), Pawn Sacrifice (2014), and Spotlight (2015), The 5th Wave (2016), and The French Dispatch (2021). He has also lent his voice to animated films such as My Little Pony: The Movie (2017), Isle of Dogs, and Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse.

Drew Barrymore

Drew Barrymore

Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director, producer, talk show host and author. A member of the Barrymore family of actors, she has received several awards and nominations, including a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, in addition to nominations for a British Academy Film Award and seven Emmy Awards. She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.

Casey Becker

Casey Becker

Casey Becker is a fictional character from the Scream franchise, first appearing in the 1996 film Scream. The character was created by Kevin Williamson and originated by American actress Drew Barrymore. Casey was subsequently played by Heather Graham in Scream 2 for its movie-within-a-movie scenes. Casey and Steve Orth, her boyfriend, are among the first characters to be killed in the franchise, in what has been called "one of the most famous scenes of all time."

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface is a fictional identity adopted by eleven characters and the primary antagonist in the Scream franchise. The figure was originally created by Kevin Williamson, and is primarily mute in person but voiced over the phone by Roger L. Jackson, regardless of who is behind the mask. Ghostface first appeared in Scream (1996) as a disguise used by teenagers Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, during their killing spree in the fictional town of Woodsboro. The mask was a popular Halloween costume created and designed by Fun World costume company before being chosen by Marianne Maddalena and Craven for the film. The identity is used primarily as a disguise for the antagonists of each film to conceal their identities while conducting serial murders, and as such has been portrayed by several actors.

Henry Winkler

Henry Winkler

Henry Franklin Winkler is an American actor, comedian, author, executive producer, and director. After rising to fame as Arthur "Fonzie" Fonzarelli on the American television series Happy Days, Winkler has distinguished himself as a character actor for roles such as Arthur Himbry in Scream, Coach Klein in The Waterboy, Barry Zuckerkorn in Arrested Development, Eddie R. Lawson in Royal Pains, Dr. Saperstein in Parks and Recreation, Fritz in Monsters at Work, Stanley Yelnats III in Holes, Uncle Joe in The French Dispatch, Al Pratt in Black Adam, and Gene Cousineau in Barry. In 2016, he also became a reality television star on the NBC series, Better Late Than Never. Winkler's accolades include a Primetime Emmy, two Daytime Emmys, two Golden Globe Awards, and two Critics Choice Awards.

Production

Writing

Scream was originally developed under the title Scary Movie by Kevin Williamson, an aspiring screenwriter.[8] Influenced by a news story he was watching about a series of grisly murders by the Gainesville Ripper, Williamson became concerned about intruders upon finding an open window in the house where he was staying.[8] He was inspired to draft an 18-page script treatment about a young woman, alone in a house, who is taunted over the phone and then attacked by a masked killer.[9] The treatment remained as a short story while Williamson worked on another script, Teaching Mrs. Tingle, a thriller that he would eventually sell but that would languish in development hell for many years.[10] Struggling to pay his bills, Williamson secluded himself in Palm Springs and focused on the development of his Scary Movie treatment, hoping for a quick sale to meet his financial needs.[8] Over the course of three days, Williamson developed a full-length script as well as two separate five-page outlines for potential sequels—Scary Movie 2 and Scary Movie 3. He hoped to entice buyers with the potential for a franchise.[10][11] In an interview, Williamson said that one reason he focused on the Scary Movie script was because it was a film he wanted to watch, born of his childhood love of horror films such as Halloween, but "nobody else [was] making it".[12] His appreciation for previous horror films became evident in the script, which was inspired by and references films such as Halloween (1978), When a Stranger Calls (1979), Friday the 13th (1980), Prom Night (1980), and A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984).[13] Williamson listened to the soundtrack of Halloween for inspiration while writing the script. Excerpts from the soundtrack appear in the film.[13]

By June 1995[10] Williamson brought the Scary Movie script to his agent, Rob Paris, to put out for sale. Paris warned him that the level of violence and gore in his script would make it "impossible" to sell.[14] Following the script's purchase by Miramax, Williamson was required to remove much of the gorier content, such as graphic depictions of the internal organs of gutted murder victims "rolling" down their legs. However, once Craven was secured as director, he was able to bring much of the excised content back.[13] Williamson was going to remove a scene in the school bathroom featuring Sidney, as he felt it was awkward and out of place in the film. Craven insisted the scene should remain, as he felt it developed the character and her relationship with her deceased mother. Williamson later confirmed that he was glad that Craven proved him wrong about the scene.[14]

Dimension Films head Bob Weinstein realized while reviewing the script that there were thirty pages (approximately thirty on-screen minutes) without a murder, so he instructed Williamson to have another character killed.[14] Williamson included the death of the character Principal Himbry (Winkler) based on this input and in doing so inadvertently resolved a problem in the script's finale. Williamson had struggled to find a reason for several extraneous characters to leave a party scene so that the killer could attack, finally determining that the announcement of the discovery of Himbry's corpse would serve to remove the non-essential characters, who decide to take a look at the corpse and leave the party before (and enabling) the start of the murders.[14] Concerning the killers' motives, Williamson felt it was essential for the audience to learn why the antagonists had become killers, but he also felt it was potentially scarier if they had no motivation. Opinions at the studio were split between those who believed a motive was needed for resolution and those who felt the action was scarier without one. As there were two killers, Williamson decided to do both: Billy Loomis had the motive of maternal abandonment, while the second killer, Stu Macher, jokingly suggests "peer pressure" as his motive when prompted.[14]

Development

The script for what was then known as Scary Movie went on sale on a Friday in June 1995, but received no bids.[8] By the following Monday, the script had become the subject of a significant bidding war among a host of established studios, including Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures, and Morgan Creek Productions.[15] Producer Cathy Konrad read the script and felt it was exactly what the Weinstein brothers of the fledgling Dimension Films – then a part of Miramax – were looking for. Dimension had previously released several horror films and intended to focus on that genre. Konrad brought the script to Bob Weinstein's assistant, Richard Potter. Believing it had potential, he brought it to Weinstein's attention.[9] Studios began to drop out of the bidding as the price of the script increased, and the final two bidders were Oliver Stone, who was at the time working under Cinergi Pictures, and the Weinsteins of Dimension Films.[10][14] Williamson agreed to a bid of $400,000 from Miramax, plus a contract for two sequels and a possible fourth unrelated film. Williamson said he chose Dimension because he believed they would produce Scary Movie immediately and without significantly censoring the violence in the script.[10][13] Craven read the script before he became involved in the production, and considered convincing a studio to buy it for him to direct. However, by the time Craven read the script, it had already been sold.[8]

Bob Weinstein approached Craven early in the planning stages, because he felt Craven's previous work in the genre that combined horror and comedy would make him the perfect person to bring Williamson's script to screen. Craven was already busy developing a remake of The Haunting and was considering distancing himself from the horror genre. He was growing weary of what he felt was an inherent misogyny and violence in it.[9] Weinstein approached other directors, including Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino,[16] Danny Boyle,[17] George A. Romero, and Sam Raimi.[9] Williamson said they "didn't get it"; he was concerned that having read the script, many of the directors believed the film to be purely a comedy.[17] Craven was approached again but continued to pass in spite of repeated requests. When production of The Haunting collapsed, Craven was freed from that commitment and found himself in need of a project.[13] Meanwhile, Drew Barrymore had signed on to the film at her own request. When he heard an established actress wanted to be involved, Craven reasoned that Scary Movie might be different from other films of the genre he had previously undertaken, and he contacted Weinstein to accept the job.[9] Craven was committed to keeping the film's title Scary Movie.[18]

As the film neared completion, the Weinstein brothers changed the film's title from Scary Movie to Scream.[10] They were inspired by the Michael Jackson song of the same name.[19] Bob Weinstein considered Scary Movie to be an unsuitable title as, in addition to the horror and violence, the film contained elements of satire and comedy; Weinstein wished for that to be better conveyed by the title. The change was effected so late into production that congratulatory gifts bore the original name.[9] Williamson and Craven immediately disliked the new title, and considered it "stupid".[14] Both later remarked that the change turned out to be positive, and that Weinstein had been wise to pick the new title.[14] Following a screening of the film in front of a test audience and Miramax executives, Craven was offered a two-picture contract for sequels to Scream.[13]

Sony Pictures filed a lawsuit against Dimension Films and Miramax, claiming that the title "Scream" infringed on the copyright of Sony's own Screamers (1995), released the previous year. After the case was settled out of court—the details remain confidential—Scream 2 producer Marianne Maddalena considered that the case was a result of other issues between the two companies and did not truly pertain to the film's moniker. Maddalena confirmed that the studio was free to use the Scream brand for future films.[11]

Casting

Scream was a turning point in terms of casting for the horror genre, which normally involved relatively unknown actors. The genre was considered unsuitable for bigger names as the films had lower budgets and often attained negative critical response.[11] Drew Barrymore read the script and was interested in being involved. She approached the production team herself to request a role. Barrymore, a member of the Barrymore family of actors and granddaughter of actor John Barrymore, had become a star in her own right following her appearance in E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). The producers were quick to take advantage of her unexpected interest, and signed her to play the lead role of Sidney Prescott.[8][10] Her involvement was believed to be instrumental in attracting other popular actors to the film in spite of its smaller budget, and in causing Craven to reconsider his decision to direct the film.[8] Before filming began, Barrymore was faced with unexpected commitments that meant she would no longer be available to play the lead role. She instead played the smaller role of Casey Becker, which allowed her to remain involved and still gave the production the advantage of her stature.[10] Killing off one of their biggest stars early in the film was considered a calculated risk, but it was believed that it would be so shocking and unexpected that audiences would then believe that any character could die.[14] Craven had seen Neve Campbell in the television series Party of Five and asked her to audition for the part of Sidney. He believed she could play a character who was "innocent", but who could also realistically handle herself while dealing with the physical conflict and emotions required by the role.[8][14] Campbell was initially reluctant to star in another horror film so soon after her supporting role in The Craft (1996).[8] After a successful audition, Campbell accepted an offer to play Sidney. She accepted because Scream would be her first leading role, and because she adored the character, saying "She's a fantastic character for any kind of movie."[17]

The central young cast of Scream. From left to right: Ulrich, Campbell, Lillard, McGowan, and Kennedy.
The central young cast of Scream. From left to right: Ulrich, Campbell, Lillard, McGowan, and Kennedy.

For the role of news reporter Gale Weathers, the studio wanted a recognizable actress. They auditioned Brooke Shields and Janeane Garofalo.[9] Courteney Cox, who was starring in the sitcom Friends at the time, approached the production to pursue the role. She was interested in playing a "bitch" character to offset her "nice" Friends image. This image was the main reason why the producers initially refused to consider Cox for the part. Cox continued to lobby the studio as she felt she could believably play the character; her efforts ultimately succeeded.[8] Rose McGowan was cast as Tatum Riley: the casting director believed she best embodied the "spunky", "cynical" yet "innocent" nature of the character.[9] The studio felt the strong female cast of Campbell, Barrymore, Cox, and McGowan would help draw a significant female audience to the film.[14]

Skeet Ulrich was cast in the role of Sidney's boyfriend Billy Loomis. The producers viewed him as "perfect" for the part and noted his resemblance to a young Johnny Depp who appeared in A Nightmare on Elm Street, one of the many films referenced in Scream.[9] Ulrich and Campbell had worked together on The Craft shortly before Scream, and believed their experience on the former film helped them be more comfortable with each other, which allowed a more natural portrayal of the relationship between their characters.[17] David Arquette was also approached for the role of Billy Loomis but he asked to read for the part of Dewey Riley after reading the script.[14] The role, described as "hunky", was considered ill-fitting for Arquette's lean, slender appearance and approach but Arquette was still allowed to audition for the part. Craven appreciated his softer, funnier approach to the character, and gave him the role.[8] Matthew Lillard was cast as Billy's equally sadistic friend Stu Macher by chance after accompanying his then-girlfriend to an unrelated audition taking place elsewhere in the same building. Casting director Lisa Beach saw Lillard in the hallway and asked him to audition for the part.[9] He got into the role with "incredible ferocity".[13] Lillard would later confirm that he initially was supposed to audition for the role of Billy, but he was eventually persuaded to come back and audition for Stu instead.[20] The role of Randy Meeks was contested between Jamie Kennedy and Breckin Meyer. The producers favored Kennedy, believing him to best embody the role.[9] As he had no major roles prior to Scream, the studio wanted a more prominent actor than Kennedy to play the character. The producers were adamant that he was the best choice and successfully fought to keep him.[10] According to Kennedy, Jason Lee and Seth Green were in the running for the role as well.[21] Roger L. Jackson, voice of the character Ghostface, was picked at the end of several weeks of local casting in Santa Rosa, where parts of Scream were filmed.[22] The producers had originally intended to use his voice only as a placeholder, dubbing over it during post-production. They decided that Jackson's contribution was perfect and kept it.[23] Craven described it as an "intelligent" and "evil" voice that would become irreplaceable to the series.[24] To aid their performances, Jackson was never allowed to meet the other actors, preventing them from associating a face with the menacing voice. Jackson was present on the set and spoke to actors by phone to help aid their performances.[14]

The cast was rounded out by W. Earl Brown, who played Gale Weather's cameraman Kenny; Joseph Whipp, who portrayed Sheriff Burke; Lawrence Hecht as Neil Prescott (Sidney's father); and C.W. Morgan as Hank Loomis (Billy's father). Liev Schreiber appeared in a minor role as Cotton Weary, the framed killer of Sidney's mother, and Linda Blair made a brief cameo as a TV reporter outside the school. Henry Winkler appeared as Principal Himbry, an aggressive school principal. He remained uncredited so as to not draw attention away from the young main cast.[14]

Filming

Stu Macher's house, the location of the 40-minute finale of the film. Filming took place at the house over 21 nights.
Stu Macher's house, the location of the 40-minute finale of the film. Filming took place at the house over 21 nights.

Principal photography for Scream took place over eight weeks between April 15 and June 8, 1996, on a budget of $15 million.[25] The Weinsteins wanted to film in Vancouver as it was estimated that they could save $1 million in costs compared to shooting in the United States.[9] Craven was adamant about filming in the United States, and making a film that looked "truly American". The argument over where to film almost led to Craven being removed from the project, but the Weinsteins eventually agreed to keep the production in America.[9] Location scouts looked at North Carolina as a possibility, but found that sites that seemed appropriate for the film's requirements would have required extensive building, repairs, or modification, which would have inflated costs.[8]

Attention was next turned towards California; scouts discovered Sonoma County and the cities of Santa Rosa, Healdsburg, and the nearby Tomales Bay. The house of Barrymore's character is situated southeast of Santa Rosa on Sonoma Mountain Road, directly facing the house used in the horror film Cujo (1983).[14] The home of Sidney Prescott is located near Calistoga, north of Santa Rosa.[22] Tatum's home is situated on McDonald Avenue in Santa Rosa, next to the houses used in Pollyanna (1960) and Shadow of a Doubt (1943).[26] The home of Lillard's character, which is the location for the entire third act, is a house on Tomales Road east of Tomales Bay that had only recently become available after the death of its owners.[14] The Woodsboro town square, including the fountain where many of the cast sit in an early scene, is represented by the Healdsburg town square.[22]

For the Woodsboro high school, Craven desired a building that looked "American",[9] and the producers approached Santa Rosa High School. The school board insisted on seeing the script and immediately objected to the violence against teenage children and the cynical, dark dialogue, including that of the fictional school principal.[10][14] Local newspapers criticized the project, and irate parents objected to such a film taking place at their children's school. Comparisons were made between film violence and the kidnap and murder of Polly Klaas three years prior, which had left the area sensitized toward violence.[9] The producers received support from the school's students and some local residents, who recognized that economic benefits would be generated by the film's presence. Others argued for the film's First Amendment rights. The dispute resulted in a three-hour debate scheduled for April 16, one day after filming was to begin. Unwilling to be delayed, Craven began filming as scheduled on the 15th. He started with the opening scene of the film, which features Barrymore;[10] the scene took five days to complete.[15] The result of the Santa Rosa debate was that permission would be denied. The production was forced to find another location for the school, and ended up filming at the Sonoma Community Center, southeast of Santa Rosa.[10]

The progress of filming was criticized early on. Bob Weinstein disliked the Ghostface mask, believing it was not "scary". Upon reviewing the dailies footage of the opening scene, the studio was concerned that the film was progressing in an unwanted direction. They considered replacing Craven.[9] To assuage their concerns, Craven and editor Patrick Lussier developed a rough workprint version of the opening 13 minutes of the film to demonstrate how the completed film might turn out. After viewing the new footage, the studio was content to let Craven continue as director. Weinstein, having seen the mask in action, was satisfied that it could be scary.[9] The third and final act of the film, over forty minutes long, is set at a house party where Ghostface strikes. It was shot at a vacant property in Tomales over 21 nights.[9] The scene, labeled "Scene 118", was considered the most difficult to shoot as it took place entirely in one location yet featured the individual stories and deaths of multiple characters. Actors spent weeks undertaking intense emotional and physical scenes while coated in fake blood and wounds.[14] As the scene was set during the evening, production had no choice but to halt at dawn.[9]

Director of photography Mark Irwin was fired during filming of Scream's finale, a week before principal photography was to be completed. Upon review of the dailies, Craven found the footage was out of focus and unusable.[9] Irwin was initially ordered to fire his camera crew. He retorted that if his crew were to be fired, they would also have to fire him. The producers fired him and replaced him with Peter Deming, who finished the film.[9]

Special effects and design

Barrymore's replica model and the chair used to display Steve Orth's death. Note the actor kneeling behind it.
Barrymore's replica model and the chair used to display Steve Orth's death. Note the actor kneeling behind it.

To produce the many grisly effects for the film, the producers recruited KNB Effects team Howard Berger, Robert Kurtzman, and Gregory Nicotero. One of their first tasks was the production of a mask for the film's killer. In his script, Williamson had only described the antagonist as a "masked killer", which gave Craven no specific information on what type of mask to use or how to conceal the body.[14] While location scouting, Maddalena discovered the Ghostface mask hanging from a post inside the house previously used for the film Shadow of a Doubt.[9][27][28][29] Craven wanted to use it, but the mask design was owned by Fun World, a costume company. He was told to create one that the production could own.[9] KNB developed multiple design sketches varying from deformed faces to monstrous visages riddled with fangs. Craven found nothing like the Ghostface design, so he had KNB develop a mask that was based on it, with enough differences to avoid any claim of copyright. The team developed several molds based on the Ghostface design, but Craven found none were as suitable as the mask he wanted to use.[9] Desperate to use the design, Craven finally convinced the studio to approach Fun World and gained permission to use the mask. While negotiations were in progress, he had KNB make a mask that was very similar to the original mask, but was appropriate for use in filming. The mask they produced, made of a thin foam, was used in two scenes of the film: the opening scene with Barrymore's character and the murder of Principal Himbry. Craven disliked the mask due to its slight differences from the original, and thus used the Fun World design for the rest of filming.[14]

KNB Effects created over 50 gallons of fake blood, normally composed of corn syrup and food dye, to create the special effect of severe wounds.[10] For the penetrating effect of knives, the production used collapsible blades to prevent injury. An umbrella with a retractable tip is used as a stabbing weapon in the finale. Ulrich wore a protective vest beneath his shirt to help prevent harm while a stuntwoman attacked him with it. The second thrust missed the vest and stabbed Ulrich on his chest, impacting a wound from an open heart surgery operation. Ulrich's genuine pain was captured on film and used in the release version of Scream.[14]

Two of the most complex special effects in the film were the corpses of Barrymore's and Walls' characters, Casey Becker and Steve Orth.[10] Their deaths involved the character being gutted from ribcage to pelvis, essentially hollowing out the torso of internal organs,[30] with the guts "rolling" from the wound.[13] To allow Walls to continue to move and feign death while displaying the wound, KNB designed a chair with no back. The actor would kneel behind it while his upper body, head, and arms were positioned within the chair's seating area.[10] An anatomical model representing the character's torso and legs was positioned in the chair and disguised so that the actor's upper body and the model appeared to be one piece. The fake abdomen was filled with rubber, latex, and gelatin pieces smeared in fake blood—the "internal organs" – which could then fall free.[10] The other effect involved Barrymore's character being gutted and hanged by the neck from a tree. The team utilized a similar approach, but replicated Barrymore's entire body, as it would be impossible to conceal her real body and display the special effect of her character having been gutted.[10][14]

Post-production

After filming was completed in June 1996, Craven spent two months editing the final product. He encountered repeated conflicts with the Motion Picture Association of America film rating system (MPAA) concerning the content of scenes. He was forced to tone down or obscure the more intense scenes and overall violence to avoid an NC-17 rating, which is considered "box office suicide"—cinemas and retail chains often refused to stock NC-17 titles.[14][31] Though Dimension had previously released NC-17-rated films, the rating made those films difficult to market and attract an audience. Dimension was desperate for a less-restrictive R rating, but the producers felt the demanded cuts would remove key elements from the film and reduce its quality.[10] The opening scene featuring Barrymore was one of the most difficult parts to process through the MPAA, who required cuts based on its "intensity". Craven lied to the MPAA, claiming he had only one take of the scene and could not replace it with something less intense; the MPAA allowed the scene.[14]

I'm a director who can do something very well but am not allowed to put it on screen. And they ultimately get you, as they did on this one, on intensity. They say, "it's not a specific shot, it's not blood, it's just too intense".

—Director Wes Craven on his conflict with MPAA censorship during production of Scream[13]

Craven sent eight different cuts of the film to deal with complaints. Problematic scenes included the gutting death of Steve Orth (Walls), where he was required to remove any movement of the character's internal organs; the throat-cutting of Kenny, where he had to trim the end of the scene, as the MPAA felt the actor's pained expression was too "disturbing"; and they had to shorten the length of time spent viewing the crushed head of Tatum Riley.[13] The MPAA still held issue with a scene from the finale, where the killers (Ulrich and Lillard) stab each other, creating large amounts of visible blood. The MPAA required that the blood not be seen in motion—falling to the floor from the body. It seemed unlikely that the film would be able to achieve an R rating without further significant cuts.[13] With the film's release date drawing closer, Bob Weinstein intervened and personally contacted the MPAA. He believed they misunderstood the film and to which genre Scream really belonged, and were focusing too much on the horror elements.[9] Weinstein explained that although he agreed with their assessment that the film was "intense", the film also had comedic elements and satire; it was not just a horror film glorifying violence.[9] The MPAA reviewed their decision; shortly thereafter the film was granted an R rating.[10]

Music

The Scream score was provided by fledgling composer Marco Beltrami, his first time scoring a feature film. Craven's assistant Julie Plec had requested input on composers who were "new", "fresh", and "wonderful", and was given Beltrami's name by several people. Beltrami was contacted for samples of his work. Craven, impressed by what he heard, requested Beltrami come to the set to view the opening thirteen minutes of the film containing the introduction and the death of Barrymore's character.[14] Beltrami was tasked with scoring a piece of music for this scene, which would be reviewed by the producers and the Weinstein brothers. Beltrami was hired to score the entire film on the basis of this sample.[32] Beltrami had no prior experience scoring a work of horror. Craven and editor Patrick Lussier advised him on how to deliver music that would raise the tension and how to use stings to punctuate the more intense moments.[32][33] Craven wanted the music to intentionally raise tension during scenes where audience expectations were already raised by their experience of previous horror films. The volume would be raised to indicate that the killer is hiding behind a door, but nothing would be present upon its opening.[14]

Beltrami decided to intentionally disregard conventional horror score styles. He approached the film as a western, taking influence from Ennio Morricone, a prolific composer for many westerns.[34] When scoring a theme for the character of Dewey (Arquette), Beltrami approached him as a "quirky" wild west sheriff, using a Morricone-style guitar accompaniment.[35] Sidney Prescott's theme, titled "Sidney's Lament", features a female choral arrangement expressing "sorrow" concerning the character's situation. Beltrami states that the voice "spoke" for the character, "lamenting" the loss of her mother.[33] Christian Clemmensen of Filmtracks called the "haunting" vocals of the track the "voice of the franchise". The song was used throughout the film's sequels.[7]

Discover more about Production related topics

Kevin Williamson (screenwriter)

Kevin Williamson (screenwriter)

Kevin Meade Williamson is an American screenwriter, director, and producer. He is known for developing and writing the screenplay for slasher film Scream (1996)—which launched the Scream franchise—along with those for Scream 2 (1997) and Scream 4 (2011). He is also known for creating the WB teen drama series Dawson's Creek (1998–2003), the CW supernatural drama series The Vampire Diaries (2009–2017), the Fox crime thriller series The Following (2013–2015), the CBS crime drama series Stalker (2014–2015), and the CBS All Access thriller series Tell Me a Story (2018–2020).

Development hell

Development hell

Development hell, also known as development purgatory or development limbo, is media and software industry jargon for a project, concept, or idea that remains in a stage of early development for a long time, because the project is stuck in legal, technical, or artistic challenges. A work may move between many sets of artistic leadership, crews, scripts, game engines, or studios. Many projects which end up in development hell never progress into production, and are gradually abandoned by the involved parties.

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween is a 1978 American independent slasher film directed and scored by John Carpenter, co-written with producer Debra Hill, and starring Jamie Lee Curtis and Donald Pleasence, with P. J. Soles and Nancy Loomis in supporting roles. The plot centers on a mental patient, Michael Myers, who was committed to a sanitarium for murdering his babysitting teenage sister on Halloween night when he was six years old. Fifteen years later, he escapes and returns to his hometown, where he stalks a female babysitter and her friends while under pursuit by his psychiatrist.

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th is a 1980 American slasher film produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, written by Victor Miller, and starring Betsy Palmer, Adrienne King, Harry Crosby, Laurie Bartram, Mark Nelson, Jeannine Taylor, Robbi Morgan, and Kevin Bacon. Its plot follows a group of teenage camp counselors who are murdered one by one by an unknown killer while attempting to re-open an abandoned summer camp with a tragic past.

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 1984 American supernatural slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven and produced by Robert Shaye. It is the first installment in the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise and stars Heather Langenkamp, John Saxon, Ronee Blakley, Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger, and Johnny Depp in his film debut.

Halloween (soundtrack)

Halloween (soundtrack)

Halloween is a soundtrack album composed and performed by John Carpenter, featuring the score to the 1978 film Halloween. It was released in Japan in 1979 through Columbia Records and in the US in 1983 through Varèse Sarabande. An expanded 20th Anniversary Edition was released in 1998 through Varèse Sarabande. In 2018, an LP was released by Mondo Records featuring the mono tracks taken from the original 35mm stem of the film and for the first time features the music as originally heard in theaters and on the earliest VHS releases of the film. The soundtrack would later play a major role in influencing the synthwave music genre.

Miramax

Miramax

Miramax, LLC, also known as Miramax Films, is an American film and television production and distribution company founded on December 19, 1979, by Harvey and Bob Weinstein, and based in Los Angeles, California.

Dimension Films

Dimension Films

Dimension Films is an American film production company owned by Lantern Entertainment. It was formerly used as Harvey and Bob Weinstein's label within Miramax, which was acquired by The Walt Disney Company on June 30, 1993, to produce and release independent films and genre titles, specifically horror and science fiction films.

Bob Weinstein

Bob Weinstein

Robert Weinstein is an American film producer. He is the founder and head of Dimension Films, former co-chairman of Miramax Films and The Weinstein Company, all of which he co-founded with his older brother, Harvey. He has focused on making action and horror films.

Morgan Creek Entertainment

Morgan Creek Entertainment

Morgan Creek Entertainment is an American film production company that has released box-office hits including Young Guns, Dead Ringers, Major League, True Romance, Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, The Crush, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and The Last of the Mohicans. The studio was co-founded in 1988 by James G. Robinson and Joe Roth. Robinson leads the company as chairman and CEO. His two sons, Brian Robinson and David C. Robinson, run the day-to-day operations. The company name comes from Roth's favorite film, The Miracle of Morgan's Creek.

Oliver Stone

Oliver Stone

William Oliver Stone is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. Stone won an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay as writer of Midnight Express (1978), and wrote the gangster film remake Scarface (1983). Stone achieved prominence as writer and director of the war drama Platoon (1986), which won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture. Platoon was the first in a trilogy of films based on the Vietnam War, in which Stone served as an infantry soldier. He continued the series with Born on the Fourth of July (1989)—for which Stone won his second Best Director Oscar—and Heaven & Earth (1993). Stone's other works include the Salvadoran Civil War-based drama Salvador (1986); the financial drama Wall Street (1987) and its sequel Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps (2010); the Jim Morrison biographical film The Doors (1991); the satirical black comedy crime film Natural Born Killers (1994); a trilogy of films based on the American Presidency: JFK (1991), Nixon (1995), and W. (2008); and Snowden (2016).

Cinergi Pictures

Cinergi Pictures

Cinergi Pictures Inc. was an American independent film production company founded by Andrew G. Vajna in 1989, after he had sold his interest in his first production company, Carolco International Pictures. The company had a number of major hit films, most notably Tombstone, Die Hard with a Vengeance and Evita. However, the majority of their films lost money. A string of box office bombs – including Renaissance Man, Color of Night, Judge Dredd, The Scarlet Letter, Nixon, Shadow Conspiracy, Deep Rising and An Alan Smithee Film: Burn Hollywood Burn – ultimately did the company in, and it was dissolved on February 27, 1998. Cinergi Pictures' library is now owned by Disney.

Release

Theatrical

Scream held its premiere on December 18, 1996, at the AMC Avco theater in Westwood, Los Angeles, California.[36] Bob Weinstein ordered that the film be released on December 20, 1996, a date others were critical of as it was the Christmas period where seasonal and family films were more prevalent.[9] Weinstein argued this fact was in the film's favor as it meant that horror fans and teenagers had nothing interesting to watch during the December period.[9] When Scream's first weekend takings amounted to only $6 million, it was considered that this release date gamble had failed, but the following week, takings did not drop but increased and continued to increase in the following weeks leading to a total U.S. gross of over $100 million and high critical praise.[9]

In cooperation with rights holder Paramount Pictures, Fathom Events said it would re-release Scream in theaters for one night on October 10, 2021.[37]

Home media

Scream was released in the United States on Dolby Digital (AC-3) LaserDisc (uncut) on July 2, 1997,[38] VHS on June 24, 1997, and a special release with the Scream 2 trailer on December 2, 1997,[39] and on DVD on December 3, 1997.[40] A DTS LaserDisc uncut version was released on August 26, 1998,[41] followed by a collector's edition DVD of the film on December 8, 1998,[42] containing the film, the theatrical trailer, cast interviews, a director's commentary, and behind the scenes information.[43] These releases were all undertaken by Buena Vista Home Entertainment. Following the release of Scream 3, Scream and its first two sequels were collected in "The Ultimate Scream Collection" by Buena Vista Home Entertainment on September 26, 2000, a boxset containing the three films[44] and a bonus disc containing "Behind the Scream", a 30-minute documentary about the production of the three films, and additional material, including screentests and outtakes. Scream was also released on LaserDisc in France, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United Kingdom in 1997; and in Germany and as a special edition in Japan in 1998.[45]

Scream remained unreleased on DVD in some foreign territories, including Europe, until 2001. The Japanese DVD was released on December 23, 1998[46] contained both the R-rated version of the film, plus the original "Director's Cut", which restored the gore/violence removed by the MPAA.[47] Scream was released in Europe with Scream 2 and Scream 3 on February 26 by Buena Vista Home Entertainment. Each package contained additional content found in the Collector's Edition version of the US release, including deleted scenes, outtakes, theatrical trailers, music videos, and crew commentary.[48][49][50] The three films were also sold as a collection called the "Scream Trilogy", released on February 26, 2001.[51]

On March 29, 2011, two weeks prior to the release of Scream 4, Scream was released in US territories on Blu-ray by Lionsgate Home Entertainment. The Blu-ray presents the films in 1080p high definition. The releases contain all the additional materials found on the Collector's Edition DVD, but not the material from the boxset bonus disc.[52]

On October 19, 2021, for its 25th anniversary, Paramount released a newly remastered 4K version of the film on Ultra HD Blu-ray.[53] Blu-ray.com praised the new transfer as a significant improvement over the 2011 Blu-ray.[54]

Discover more about Release related topics

Premiere

Premiere

A première, also spelled premiere, is the debut of a play, film, dance, or musical composition. A work will often have many premières: a world première, its first presentation in each country, and an online première. When a work originates in a country that speaks a different language from that in which it is receiving its national or international première, it is possible to have two premières for the same work in the same country—for example, the play The Maids by the French dramatist Jean Genet received its British première in 1952, in a production given in the French language. Four years later, it was staged again, this time in English, which was its English-language première in Britain.

AMC Theatres

AMC Theatres

AMC Entertainment Holdings, Inc. is an American movie theater chain founded in Kansas City, Missouri and now headquartered in Leawood, Kansas. It is the largest movie theater chain in the world. Founded in 1920, AMC has the largest share of the U.S. theater market ahead of Regal and Cinemark Theatres.

Paramount Pictures

Paramount Pictures

Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film and television production and distribution company and the main namesake division of Paramount Global. It is the fifth-oldest film studio in the world, the second-oldest film studio in the United States, and the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios located within the city limits of Los Angeles.

Fathom Events

Fathom Events

Fathom Events is an entertainment content provider that broadcasts entertainment events in movie theaters throughout the United States including Metropolitan Opera Live in HD, the performing arts, major sporting events, and music concerts.

Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital, originally synonymous with Dolby AC-3, is the name for what has now become a family of audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. Formerly named Dolby Stereo Digital until 1995, the audio compression is lossy, based on the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) algorithm. The first use of Dolby Digital was to provide digital sound in cinemas from 35 mm film prints; today, it is also used for applications such as TV broadcast, radio broadcast via satellite, digital video streaming, DVDs, Blu-ray discs and game consoles.

LaserDisc

LaserDisc

The LaserDisc (LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978. Its diameter typically spans 30 cm (12 in). Unlike most optical disc standards, LaserDisc is not fully digital, and instead requires the use of analog video signals.

Scream 2

Scream 2

Scream 2 is a 1997 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. It stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Jamie Kennedy, Laurie Metcalf, Jerry O'Connell, Elise Neal, Timothy Olyphant, Jada Pinkett and Liev Schreiber. The film was released on December 12, 1997, less than a year after the first, by Dimension Films, as the second installment in the Scream film series. Scream 2 takes place two years after the first film and again follows the character of Sidney Prescott (Campbell), and other survivors of the Woodsboro massacre, at the fictional Windsor College in Ohio, where they are targeted by a copycat killer using the guise of Ghostface. Like its predecessor, Scream 2 combines the violence of the slasher genre with elements of comedy, satire and "whodunit" mystery while satirizing the cliché of film sequels.

DVD

DVD

The DVD is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 1995 and first released on November 1, 1996, in Japan. The medium can store any kind of digital data and has been widely used for video programs or formerly for storing software and other computer files as well. DVDs offer significantly higher storage capacity than compact discs (CD) while having the same dimensions. A standard DVD can store up to 4.7 GB of storage, while variants can store up to a maximum of 17.08 GB.

Scream 3

Scream 3

Scream 3 is a 2000 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Ehren Kruger. It stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Parker Posey, Patrick Dempsey, Scott Foley, Lance Henriksen, Matt Keeslar, Jenny McCarthy, Emily Mortimer, Deon Richmond, and Patrick Warburton. Released as the third installment in the Scream franchise, it was originally the concluding chapter of the series until the franchise was revived in 2011 with a sequel, Scream 4.

Blu-ray

Blu-ray

The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 2005 and released on June 20, 2006 worldwide. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, and capable of storing several hours of high-definition video. The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs.

1080p

1080p

1080p is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as Full HD or FHD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens. Although 1080p is sometimes informally referred to as 2K, these terms reflect two distinct technical standards, with differences including resolution and aspect ratio.

High-definition video

High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical scan lines or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal, by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

Reception

Box office

The film opened in 1,413 theaters, taking $6.4 million in its opening weekend, opening in second against Beavis and Butt-head Do America,[55] and almost $87 million in its initial release. It was re-released to theatres on April 11, 1997, and accrued a further $16.2 million,[56] for a total domestic gross of $103 million,[55] and a worldwide lifetime gross of $173 million.[55] Scream remains the most successful of the Scream film series, receiving a largely positive critical reception. Scream 2 generated a worldwide gross of $172 million, less than $1 million below that of the first film, $11 million more than Scream 3, and $75 million more than Scream 4. As of 2013, Scream is currently the 577th highest-grossing movie worldwide.[57] In the United States, without adjusting for inflation, the film is the twentieth highest-grossing horror film,[58] and remained the highest-grossing slasher film until it was surpassed by Halloween (2018), directly followed by Scream 2 and Scream 3.[59] Adjusted for inflation, the film would have doubled its gross to $346 million.[60]

Despite competition from other box office fare such as Tom Cruise's Jerry Maguire and Tim Burton's Mars Attacks!, its release during the Christmas season, and Variety labeling it "D.O.A." before it was even released,[8] Scream became the fifteenth highest-grossing film of 1996, well placed amongst big-budget blockbusters released that year such as Independence Day and Mission: Impossible. It was shown in cinemas for nearly eight months after its release.[9][61]

Critical response

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 80% based on 84 reviews, with an average rating of 7.3/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Horror icon Wes Craven's subversive deconstruction of the genre is sly, witty, and surprisingly effective as a slasher film itself, even if it's a little too cheeky for some."[62] On Metacritic, the film received a weighted average score of 65 out of 100 based on 25 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[63]

Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle appreciated the shift from the teen slasher films of the 1980s and their "endless series of laborious, half-baked sequels".[64] Kevin Thomas of The Los Angeles Times called Scream "a bravura, provocative sendup of horror pictures" and complimented the film for being "scary and gruesome" while avoiding a sense of "morbidity".[61] Empire's Adam Smith called it "Clever, quick and bloody funny".[65] Williamson's script was praised as containing a "fiendishly clever, complicated plot" which "deftly mixes irony, self-reference and wry social commentary with chills and blood spills".[66] Time Out London lauded the film's intelligence and scares, while praising the casting, saying "at last, a horror movie to shout about!"[67] Film4 cited Craven's own Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994) and its cast of self-aware characters as inspiration for Scream, but declared that while New Nightmare was a "noble failure – pretty smart, but crucially not very scary" that Scream was "not merely clever ... it is, from its breathtaking opening sequence (with Barrymore as the woman in peril) onwards, simply terrifying".[68]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a positive review of 3 out of 4 stars, appreciating "the in-jokes and the self-aware characters", but was confused over whether the level of violence was "defused by the ironic way the film uses it and comments on it".[69] The New York Times' Janet Maslin was not as appreciative, saying "not much of Scream is that gruesome". She wrote that Craven "wants things both ways, capitalizing on lurid material while undermining it with mocking humor. Not even horror fans who can answer all this film's knowing trivia questions may be fully comfortable with such an exploitative mix."[70] Despite being critical of the film itself, calling it "one experiment that needed more lab time", Variety complimented the "strong" ensemble cast, singling out the performances of Campbell and Ulrich as "charismatic".[71] The BBC claimed that the film had promise, saying "It appeared to be clever, dangerous, witty, and fresh" but went on to label it as derivative of the films it satirized: "Scream runs out of humour, and in turn robs itself of the chance to get the audience to take the thrills and gut-spills it offers seriously."[72]

Accolades

Scream received several awards and award nominations following its release, including the Saturn Award for Best Actress for Campbell, Best Writing for Kevin Williamson, and Best Horror Film; it received Saturn nominations for Best Director for Wes Craven and Best Supporting Actor for Ulrich and Barrymore.[73] Craven was awarded the Grand Prize at the Gérardmer Film Festival.[74][75] The film was awarded the 1997 Best Movie by the MTV Movie Awards, while Campbell received a nomination for Best Female Performance.[76]

Year Award Category Work Result Ref.
1996 International Horror Guild Best Film Scream Won [77]
Saturn Award Best Actress Neve Campbell Won [73]
Best Direction Wes Craven Nominated [78]
Best Horror Film Scream Won [73]
Best Supporting Actor Skeet Ulrich Nominated [78]
Best Supporting Actress Drew Barrymore Nominated [78]
Best Writing Kevin Williamson Won [73]
1997 MTV Movie Award Best Female Performance Neve Campbell Nominated [79]
Best Movie Scream Won [79]
Gérardmer Film Festival Grand Prize Wes Craven Won [74][75]

Discover more about Reception related topics

Scream (franchise)

Scream (franchise)

Scream is an American slasher franchise that includes five films, a television series, merchandise, and games. The film series has grossed over $740 million in worldwide box-office receipts. It was created by Kevin Williamson, who wrote the first two films and the fourth. The first four films were directed by Wes Craven. Ehren Kruger wrote the third film. Recent entries have been directed by Matt Bettinelli-Olpin and Tyler Gillett with Guy Busick and James Vanderbilt as writers and Williamson returning as executive producer. Bob and Harvey Weinstein served as executive producer in the first four films, while Gary Barber served as executive producer in the fifth film. Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, David Arquette, and Roger L. Jackson, who voices the various Ghostface killers, have all starred in the first five films, with Cox and Jackson reprising their roles for the sixth film. Melissa Barrera, Jenna Ortega, Mason Gooding, and Jasmin Savoy Brown joined the franchise in the fifth film and are all due back for the sixth.

Halloween (2018 film)

Halloween (2018 film)

Halloween is a 2018 American slasher film directed by David Gordon Green and co-written by Green, Jeff Fradley and Danny McBride. It is the eleventh installment in the Halloween film series and a sequel to the 1978 film of the same name, while disregarding all previous sequels. The film stars Jamie Lee Curtis who reprises her role as Laurie Strode. James Jude Courtney portrays Michael Myers, with Nick Castle returning to the role for a cameo. Halloween also stars Judy Greer, Andi Matichak, Will Patton, Haluk Bilginer, and Virginia Gardner. Its plot follows a post-traumatic Laurie Strode who prepares to face Michael Myers in a final showdown on Halloween night, forty years after she survived his killing spree.

Jerry Maguire

Jerry Maguire

Jerry Maguire is a 1996 American romantic sports comedy-drama film written, produced, and directed by Cameron Crowe; it stars Tom Cruise, Cuba Gooding Jr., Renée Zellweger, and Regina King. Produced in part by James L. Brooks, it was inspired by an experience sports agent Leigh Steinberg had with client Tim McDonald during the 1993 NFL season when free agency was introduced to the league. The film was also partly inspired by a 28-page memo written at Disney in 1991 by Jeffrey Katzenberg. It was released in North American theaters on December 13, 1996, produced by Gracie Films, and distributed by TriStar Pictures.

Mars Attacks!

Mars Attacks!

Mars Attacks! is a 1996 American science fiction comedy film directed by Tim Burton, who also co-produced it with Larry J. Franco. The screenplay by Jonathan Gems was based on the Topps trading card series of the same name. The film features an ensemble cast consisting of Jack Nicholson, Glenn Close, Annette Bening, Pierce Brosnan, Danny DeVito, Martin Short, Sarah Jessica Parker, Michael J. Fox, Rod Steiger, Tom Jones, Lukas Haas, Pam Grier, Natalie Portman, Jim Brown, Jack Black, Lisa Marie, and Sylvia Sidney in her final film role.

Dead on arrival

Dead on arrival

Dead on arrival (DOA), also dead in the field and brought in dead (BID), are terms which indicate that a patient was found to be already clinically dead upon the arrival of professional medical assistance, often in the form of first responders such as emergency medical technicians, paramedics, firefighters, or police.

Blockbuster (entertainment)

Blockbuster (entertainment)

A blockbuster is a work of entertainment—typically used to describe a feature film produced by a major film studio, but also other media—that is highly popular and financially successful. The term has also come to refer to any large-budget production intended for "blockbuster" status, aimed at mass markets with associated merchandising, sometimes on a scale that meant the financial fortunes of a film studio or a distributor could depend on it. The term originated from the Blockbuster bomb which were used in World War II.

Independence Day (1996 film)

Independence Day (1996 film)

Independence Day is a 1996 American science fiction action film directed by Roland Emmerich and written by Emmerich and Dean Devlin. It stars an ensemble cast that consists of Will Smith, Bill Pullman, Jeff Goldblum, Mary McDonnell, Judd Hirsch, Margaret Colin, Randy Quaid, Robert Loggia, James Rebhorn, and Harvey Fierstein. The film focuses on disparate groups of people who converge in the Nevada desert in the aftermath of a worldwide attack by a powerful extraterrestrial race. With the other people of the world, they launch a counterattack on July 4—Independence Day in the United States.

Mission: Impossible (film)

Mission: Impossible (film)

Mission: Impossible is a 1996 American action spy film directed by Brian De Palma and produced by and starring Tom Cruise from a screenplay by David Koepp and Robert Towne and story by Koepp and Steven Zaillian. A continuation of the 1966 television series of the same name and its 1988 sequel series, it is the first installment in the Mission: Impossible film series. It also stars Jon Voight, Emmanuelle Béart, Henry Czerny, Ving Rhames, Kristin Scott Thomas, Vanessa Redgrave, and Jean Reno. In Mission: Impossible, Ethan Hunt (Cruise) seeks to uncover who framed him for the murders of most of his Impossible Missions Force (IMF) team.

Review aggregator

Review aggregator

A review aggregator is a system that collects reviews of products and services. This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users can view the reviews, selling information to third parties about consumer tendencies, and creating databases for companies to learn about their actual and potential customers. The system enables users to easily compare many different reviews of the same work. Many of these systems calculate an approximate average assessment, usually based on assigning a numeric value to each review related to its degree of positive rating of the work.

Rotten Tomatoes

Rotten Tomatoes

Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee, and Stephen Wang. Although the name "Rotten Tomatoes" connects to the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes in disapproval of a poor stage performance, the original inspiration comes from a scene featuring tomatoes in the Canadian film Léolo (1992).

Metacritic

Metacritic

Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of films, television shows, music albums, video games, and formerly books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged. Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, and Julie Doyle Roberts in 1999, and is owned by Fandom, Inc. as of 2023.

San Francisco Chronicle

San Francisco Chronicle

The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000. It is the only major daily paper covering the city and county of San Francisco.

Albums

Soundtrack

The Scream original soundtrack was released on December 17, 1996, by TVT Records. The soundtrack features 11 songs—most of which appeared in various scenes in the film—plus a piece from the film's score, "Trouble in Woodsboro" / "Sidney's Lament", by Beltrami. The Alice Cooper version of "School's Out" appeared in the film following the closure of Woodsboro high school, but it was replaced with a cover version of the song by The Last Hard Men on the album. An acoustic cover of Blue Öyster Cult's "Don't Fear the Reaper", performed by Gus Black, plays softly in the background while Sidney and Billy discuss their relationship. The song was also one of the few songs featured in John Carpenter's Halloween, a film to which Scream makes repeated homage. Analyst Jeff Smith describes the musical choice as:

An ironic comment on the brutality we have just seen in the opening sequence. More importantly, however, the allusion to the Blue Öyster Cult classic recasts the song's title by literalizing its meaning. While the title itself invokes the Reaper as a popular symbol for death, the film presents us with an actual person, who not only dresses as the Grim Reaper but also unleashes homicidal vengeance on the other characters of the film. The irony here, of course, is that Billy himself proves to be one of the film's dual slashers and is, in fact, the "Reaper" to be feared.[81]

The song "Red Right Hand" by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, heard in the first film, is also used in Scream 2, Scream 3 and Scream (2022). Nick Cave performs a version of the track written specifically for Scream 3 in that film. An alternate version of the music video "Drop Dead Gorgeous" by Republica, featuring clips from the film, was shown on music networks such as MTV. Although the song can be heard in the film, it is only included on the European edition of the soundtrack album. The song was also used in one of the film's television commercials. The soundtrack album was not considered a success, failing to chart on the US Billboard 200.[82] AllMusic awarded the album 3 stars out of 5.[83]

Scream: Music from the Dimension Motion Picture
No.TitleWriter(s)ArtistLength
1."Youth of America"Joey AmmoBirdbrain3:03
2."Whisper"Mark Rew, Keith Brown, Kerry BrownCatherine3:12
3."Red Right Hand"Mick Harvey, Nick Cave and Thomas WydlerNick Cave and the Bad Seeds6:11
4."(Don't Fear) The Reaper"Donald RoeserGus Black4:47
5."Artificial World [Interdimensional Mix]"Julee Cruise, Louis Tucci, Supa D.J. Dmittry, D.J. SilverJulee Cruise with the Flow5:08
6."Better Than Me"Chris RandallSister Machine Gun4:01
7."Whisper to a Scream (Birds Fly)"Ian McNabbSoho5:26
8."First Cool Hive"Richard HallMoby5:16
9."Bitter Pill"Peele WimberleyThe Connells3:41
10."School's Out"Alice Cooper, Michael Bruce, Glen Buxton, Dennis Dunaway, Neal SmithThe Last Hard Men2:17
11."Trouble in Woodsboro" / "Sidney's Lament"Marco BeltramiMarco Beltrami3:28
Total length:46:30
Scream: Music from the Dimension Motion Picture – European edition
No.TitleWriter(s)ArtistLength
12."Drop Dead Gorgeous"RepublicaRepublica4:30
Total length:51:00

Score

The Scream score by Marco Beltrami was released by Varèse Sarabande on July 14, 1998, on a CD titled "Scream/Scream 2", which also contained tracks from the score of Scream 2.[6] The release consisted of only six tracks—"Sidney's Lament", "Altered Ego", "A Cruel World", "Trouble in Woodsboro", "Chasing Sidney", and "NC-17"[7]—with a runtime of only 12 minutes, compared to over an hour of music made for the film and the more common 30–45 minutes of music found in other original scores.[6] Some reviewers felt the restricted runtime was a result of the high cost of releasing a composer's music commercially, combined with Varèse Sarabande's unwillingness to pay.[84]

The score to Scream received generally positive reviews, with Mikael Carlsson labeling it as "some of the most intriguing horror scores composed in years".[6] Filmtracks.com claimed the scores had "cult status", awarding it 3 stars out of 5.[7] AllMusic said that the score "perfectly captured the post-modern, hip scare-ride of the Scream movies", also giving it 3 stars out of 5.[85]

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Alice Cooper (band)

Alice Cooper (band)

Alice Cooper was an American rock band formed in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1964. The band consisted of lead singer Vince Furnier, Glen Buxton, Michael Bruce, Dennis Dunaway, and Neal Smith (drums). Furnier legally changed his name to Alice Cooper and has had a solo career under that name since the band became inactive in 1975. The band was notorious for their elaborate, theatrical shock rock stage shows. In 2011, the original Alice Cooper band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Cover version

Cover version

In popular music, a cover version, cover song, remake, revival, or simply cover, is a new performance or recording by a musician other than the original performer or composer of the song. Originally, it referred to a version of a song released around the same time as the original in order to compete with it. Now, it refers to any subsequent version performed after the original.

Blue Öyster Cult

Blue Öyster Cult

Blue Öyster Cult is an American rock band formed on Long Island in Stony Brook, New York, in 1967. Best known for the singles "(Don't Fear) The Reaper", "Burnin' for You", and "Godzilla", the band has sold 25 million records worldwide, including 7 million in the United States alone. The band's fusion of hard rock and psychedelia with occult, fantastical and often tongue-in-cheek lyrics had a major influence on heavy metal music. Though they have experienced limited and infrequent commercial success, the band has developed a cult following and their most popular songs remain classic rock radio staples.

Gus Black

Gus Black

Anthony Penaloza, better known by his stage name Gus Black, is an American director, singer-songwriter, and producer from Los Angeles.

Red Right Hand

Red Right Hand

"Red Right Hand" is a song by Australian rock band Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. It was released as a single from their eighth studio album, Let Love In (1994), on 24 October 1994. A condensed version was included in the single, while the longer version was included with the album. The title comes from John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost, in which it refers to the vengeful hand of God.

Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds

Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds

Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds are an Australian rock band formed in 1983 by vocalist Nick Cave, multi-instrumentalist Mick Harvey and guitarist-vocalist Blixa Bargeld. The band has featured international personnel throughout its career and presently consists of Cave, violinist and multi-instrumentalist Warren Ellis, bassist Martyn P. Casey, guitarist George Vjestica, keyboardist/percussionist Toby Dammit and drummers Thomas Wydler (Switzerland) and Jim Sclavunos. Described as "one of the most original and celebrated bands of the post-punk and alternative rock eras in the '80s and onward", they have released seventeen studio albums and completed numerous international tours.

Republica

Republica

Republica are an English alternative rock band formed in 1994. The height of their popularity spanned from 1996 to 1999. The current line-up consists of Saffron (vocals), Tim Dorney (keyboards), Johnny Male (guitar), Conor Lawrence (drums).

MTV

MTV

MTV is an American cable channel that launched on August 1, 1981. Based in New York City, it serves as the flagship property of the MTV Entertainment Group, part of Paramount Media Networks, a division of Paramount Global.

Billboard 200

Billboard 200

The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine and is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart grew from a weekly top 10 list in 1956 to become a top 200 list in May 1967, and acquired its current name in March 1992. Its previous names include the Billboard Top LPs (1961–1972), Billboard Top LPs & Tape (1972–1984), Billboard Top 200 Albums (1984–1985) and Billboard Top Pop Albums (1985–1992).

AllMusic

AllMusic

AllMusic is an American online music database. It catalogs more than three million album entries and 30 million tracks, as well as information on musicians and bands. Initiated in 1991, the database was first made available on the Internet in 1994. AllMusic is owned by RhythmOne.

Birdbrain (band)

Birdbrain (band)

Birdbrain was an American post-grunge band, formed in Boston, Massachusetts, by neighborhood friends in 1992 and dissolved in 1997. They had some success with their song "Youth of America", which appeared in the 1996 film Scream, as well as a contribution to the soundtrack for the 1995 film The Last Supper with a cover of Paul McCartney's "Jet". They were formed by guitarist/singer/songwriter Joey Ammo and drummer Mike Benway and signed to TVT Records in 1995. With two CD albums and two soundtrack contributions they broke up in 1997.

Catherine (alternative rock band)

Catherine (alternative rock band)

Catherine was an American alternative rock band from Chicago, Illinois, United States, that was active from 1985 to 1998. They were signed to TVT Records.

Sequels

Campbell starred in Scream and went on to reprise her character in the first four sequels.
Campbell starred in Scream and went on to reprise her character in the first four sequels.

Williamson had attached five-page proposals for potential sequels to Scream when he originally sold the script, hoping to entice prospective buyers into buying a film and a franchise. When Dimension Films bought the script, they secured Williamson for two future Scream films, should the original prove successful.[10][13] After a highly positive test screening of Scream at which executives from Dimension Films and Miramax were present, Craven was signed to direct the two sequels.[13] After the film's box office and critical success, the first sequel was greenlit and sent into production while Scream was still in theaters. The second picture was given an increased budget. The surviving cast—Campbell, Cox, Arquette, Kennedy, and Schreiber—all returned, as well as much of the original crew, including editor Patrick Lussier and composer Marco Beltrami.[11] A third film followed shortly after, again with the crew and surviving cast returning to create what was, at the time, the concluding film in the Scream trilogy. The three original films, released in a five-year period, followed the story of Sidney Prescott's encounters with a succession of killers adopting the Ghostface disguise. The films also analyze her relationship with her deceased mother, who inadvertently initiates the events depicted in the films.[30][86][87] Scream 2 fared as well financially and critically as its predecessor,[55][88] while Scream 3 fared significantly worse on both counts, with critics deriding the film as having become what the original had so deftly satirized.[89]

Fifteen years after the release of Scream and eleven years after the release of the last film in the series, The Weinstein Company released a new sequel, Scream 4, in April 2011.[90] Campbell, Cox and Arquette all returned to their roles, and Craven, Williamson, and Beltrami returned to the production side. The Weinstein Company stated that the success of Scream 4 could have led to potential sequels and a new Scream trilogy,[91] with Campbell,[92] Arquette,[93] Craven,[91] and Williamson[94] all having been contracted or expressed interest in appearing in future installments.

A fifth Scream film was released in January 2022, with Matt Bettinelli-Olpin and Tyler Gillett directing and Kevin Williamson producing.[95] Neve Campbell reprised her role as Sidney Prescott in the film,[96] along with Courteney Cox, David Arquette[97] and Skeet Ulrich.

Discover more about Sequels related topics

Scream (franchise)

Scream (franchise)

Scream is an American slasher franchise that includes five films, a television series, merchandise, and games. The film series has grossed over $740 million in worldwide box-office receipts. It was created by Kevin Williamson, who wrote the first two films and the fourth. The first four films were directed by Wes Craven. Ehren Kruger wrote the third film. Recent entries have been directed by Matt Bettinelli-Olpin and Tyler Gillett with Guy Busick and James Vanderbilt as writers and Williamson returning as executive producer. Bob and Harvey Weinstein served as executive producer in the first four films, while Gary Barber served as executive producer in the fifth film. Neve Campbell, Courteney Cox, David Arquette, and Roger L. Jackson, who voices the various Ghostface killers, have all starred in the first five films, with Cox and Jackson reprising their roles for the sixth film. Melissa Barrera, Jenna Ortega, Mason Gooding, and Jasmin Savoy Brown joined the franchise in the fifth film and are all due back for the sixth.

Scream 2

Scream 2

Scream 2 is a 1997 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. It stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Jamie Kennedy, Laurie Metcalf, Jerry O'Connell, Elise Neal, Timothy Olyphant, Jada Pinkett and Liev Schreiber. The film was released on December 12, 1997, less than a year after the first, by Dimension Films, as the second installment in the Scream film series. Scream 2 takes place two years after the first film and again follows the character of Sidney Prescott (Campbell), and other survivors of the Woodsboro massacre, at the fictional Windsor College in Ohio, where they are targeted by a copycat killer using the guise of Ghostface. Like its predecessor, Scream 2 combines the violence of the slasher genre with elements of comedy, satire and "whodunit" mystery while satirizing the cliché of film sequels.

Scream 3

Scream 3

Scream 3 is a 2000 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Ehren Kruger. It stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Parker Posey, Patrick Dempsey, Scott Foley, Lance Henriksen, Matt Keeslar, Jenny McCarthy, Emily Mortimer, Deon Richmond, and Patrick Warburton. Released as the third installment in the Scream franchise, it was originally the concluding chapter of the series until the franchise was revived in 2011 with a sequel, Scream 4.

The Weinstein Company

The Weinstein Company

The Weinstein Company was an American independent film studio, founded in New York City by Bob and Harvey Weinstein on March 10, 2005. TWC was one of the largest mini-major film studios in North America as well as in the United States; prior to the firing of Harvey Weinstein following allegations of sexual harassment and rape against him, as well as financial troubles that followed. The studio eventually declared bankruptcy in February 2018, with independent studio Lantern Entertainment acquiring a majority of its film library and assets. Founder and chief executive Bob Weinstein previously owned a small stake in the company.

Scream 4

Scream 4

Scream 4 is a 2011 American slasher film directed by Wes Craven and written by Kevin Williamson. Produced by Outerbanks Entertainment and distributed by Dimension Films, it is the fourth installment in the Scream film series. The film stars Neve Campbell, David Arquette, Courteney Cox, Emma Roberts, Hayden Panettiere, Anthony Anderson, Alison Brie, Adam Brody, Rory Culkin, Marielle Jaffe, Erik Knudsen, Mary McDonnell, Marley Shelton, Nico Tortorella, and Roger L. Jackson. The film takes place on the fifteenth anniversary of the original Woodsboro murders and involves Sidney Prescott returning to the town after ten years, where Ghostface once again begins killing students from Woodsboro High. Like its predecessors, Scream 4 combines the violence of the slasher genre with elements of black comedy and "whodunit" mystery to satirize the clichés of film remakes. The film also provides commentary on the extensive usage of social media and the obsession with internet fame.

Scream (2022 film)

Scream (2022 film)

Scream is a 2022 American slasher film directed by Matt Bettinelli-Olpin and Tyler Gillett and written by James Vanderbilt and Guy Busick. It is the fifth installment in the Scream film series. Though billed as a relaunch of the film series, the film is a direct sequel to Scream 4 (2011) and is the first film in the series to not be directed by Wes Craven, following his death in 2015. The film is dedicated to Craven at the beginning of the closing credits. The film stars Melissa Barrera, Kyle Gallner, Mason Gooding, Mikey Madison, Dylan Minnette, Jenna Ortega, Jack Quaid, Jasmin Savoy Brown, and Sonia Ammar, alongside Heather Matarazzo, Roger L. Jackson, Marley Shelton, Skeet Ulrich, Courteney Cox, David Arquette, and Neve Campbell, who reprise their roles from previous installments. The film takes place twenty-five years after the original Woodsboro murders, when yet another Ghostface appears and begins targeting a group of teenagers who are each somehow linked to the original killings. Similar to previous entries, Scream combines the violence of the slasher genre with elements of black comedy and "whodunit" mystery to satirize the trend of reboots and legacy sequels. The film also provides commentary on the horror fandom culture, particularly the divide between "elevated horror" and classic slasher films.

Matt Bettinelli-Olpin

Matt Bettinelli-Olpin

Matt Bettinelli-Olpin is an American director, writer, actor, and musician. He is a founding member of the punk band Link 80 and co-creator of the filmmaking collectives Chad, Matt & Rob and Radio Silence. He is best known for his work in horror films, including V/H/S, Southbound, Ready or Not and Scream.

Tyler Gillett

Tyler Gillett

Tyler Gillett is an American film director, cinematographer, writer, and producer. A co-creator of the filmmaking collective Radio Silence, Gillett co-directed, with Matt Bettinelli-Olpin, the horror films Devil's Due (2014), Ready or Not (2019) and Scream (2022). He was also featured in a popular 2020 episode of the podcast Reply All.

Skeet Ulrich

Skeet Ulrich

Skeet Ulrich is an American actor. He is best known for his roles in popular 1990s films, including Billy Loomis in Scream (1996), Chris Hooker in The Craft (1996) and Vincent Lopiano in As Good as It Gets (1997). Since 2017, he has starred as Forsythe Pendleton "F.P." Jones II on The CW's Riverdale. He reprised his Scream role in the sequel Scream . His other television roles include Johnston Jacob "Jake" Green Jr. in the television series Jericho, and LAPD Detective Rex Winters, a Marine veteran from the Law & Order franchise.

Controversies

In the years following the release of Scream, the film has been accused of inspiring copycat crimes and inducing violent acts.

In January 1998, 16-year-old Mario Padilla and his 14-year-old cousin, Samuel Ramirez, stabbed Mario's mother, Gina Castillo, 45 times, killing her. The case became known as the "Scream murder" and fell under intense media scrutiny after the boys claimed they were inspired by Scream and Scream 2. The pair confessed to needing the money acquired from Gina's murder to fund a killing spree, which would include purchasing two Ghostface costumes, as well as a voice-changer used by the characters in the films. During their trial, Madeline Levine, a psychologist who studied the effect of violence on children, stated, "There were a whole bunch of reasons why they acted out that way. But did the movie provide a blueprint? Absolutely."[98] The case was expected to highlight the effect of violent films on teenagers. However, presiding judge John Cheroske ordered that evidence pertaining to Scream be barred and that the case not be referred to as the "Scream murder", refusing media access to the courtroom, intending that the case be tried as murder and nothing else.[10][98]

On January 17, 1999, 13-year-old Ashley Murray was stabbed multiple times in the head and back before being left for dead by his friends Daniel Gill, 14, and Robert Fuller, 15. He was later found and saved by an elderly man walking his dog. The pair were dubbed the "Scream attackers" after it emerged that they had watched Scream shortly before the attack and drawings of the Ghostface mask were found among their possessions. Their actions were additionally blamed on physical abuse, drugs and exposure to black magic in their home life.[99] Murray, who later testified against the pair, stated that he believed the film may have influenced the pair to attack him.[100]

On May 4, 1999, following the Columbine High School massacre and increasing news media reports on the effects of violent films, games, and other media on society, the United States Senate Commerce committee held a hearing about Hollywood's marketing of films to youths. The committee focused specifically on horror films. The opening scene of Scream, featuring the murder of Casey Becker, was shown to the committee as an example of negative media which may be viewed by children.[10][101]

On June 3, 2002, a 17-year-old boy lured his friend, 15-year-old Alice Beaupère, out of her parents' house in Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire, France, and stabbed her 42 times while wearing a Ghostface mask. He ran away when he saw a neighbor approaching, and the girl told the neighbor the name of her attacker before she died from her injuries. After being arrested, the boy told police that he had wanted to kill someone to emulate the Ghostface character from Scream.[102][103][104]

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Copycat crime

Copycat crime

A copycat crime is a criminal act that is modelled after or inspired by a previous crime. It notably occurs after exposure to media content depicted said crimes, and/or a live criminal model.

Physical abuse

Physical abuse

Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury, trauma, bodily harm or other physical suffering to another person or animal by way of bodily contact. In most cases, children are the victims of physical abuse, but adults can also be victims, as in cases of domestic violence or workplace aggression. Alternative terms sometimes used include physical assault or physical violence, and may also include sexual abuse. Physical abuse may involve more than one abuser, and more than one victim.

Black magic

Black magic

Black magic, also known as dark magic, has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for evil and selfish purposes, specifically the seven magical arts prohibited by canon law, as expounded by Johannes Hartlieb in 1456. During his period of scholarship, A. E. Waite provided a comprehensive account of black magic practices, rituals and traditions in The Book of Ceremonial Magic (1911).

Columbine High School massacre

Columbine High School massacre

On April 20, 1999, a school shooting and attempted bombing occurred at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado, United States. The perpetrators, 12th grade students Eric David Harris and Dylan Bennet Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. Ten students were killed in the school library, where Harris and Klebold subsequently committed suicide. Twenty-one additional people were injured by gunshots, and gunfire was also exchanged with the police. Another three people were injured trying to escape. At the time, it was the deadliest high school shooting in U.S. history, until the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in 2018. The shooting has inspired dozens of copycat killings, dubbed the Columbine effect, including many deadlier shootings across the world. The word "Columbine" has become a byword for school shootings.

Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire

Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire

Saint-Sébastien-sur-Loire is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.

Legacy

Prior to Scream's release, the popularity of the horror genre had been considered to be in decline, with many films released straight-to-video while those released in cinemas were sequels to popular and established franchises, such as Psycho, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, Halloween, Friday the 13th, and A Nightmare on Elm Street, capable of drawing audiences despite decreasing budgets and diminishing critical reception. The glut of sequels contributed to audience familiarity with the icons of the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as Freddy Krueger and Jason Voorhees, and that familiarity was considered to have dampened their ability to instill fear or interest in their audiences.[105] Scream, utilizing a popular and attractive cast and an innovative script that both mocked and embraced the conventions of horror which had become considered clichéd, was credited with changing the status of the genre, becoming both a financial and critical success, and launching the careers of many of its actors.[106] Such was the film's impact that some commentators considered its legacy as the creation of a distinct era of "post-Scream" horror films. Following its release, many studios, including Scream's own Dimension Films, rushed to capitalize on its unexpected success with the release of films such as I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997), Urban Legend (1998) and Cherry Falls (2000), as well as sequels to popular, but diminishing, franchises such as Halloween H20: 20 Years Later and Bride of Chucky.[106]

Much of the humor of the 2000 film Scary Movie relies upon specific references to other contemporary films. Roger Ebert remarked in his review that "to get your money's worth, you need to be familiar with the various teenage horror franchises."[107] The two films on which the script is most heavily based are Scream and I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997), utilizing the general narrative arcs of both films, and featuring comedic recreations of key scenes.[108] The backstory in which the teenagers are responsible for accidentally killing a man following a beauty pageant recalls the same plot point in I Know What You Did Last Summer. Major references to Scream include the identity of Ghostface and the murder of Drew Decker in the opening scene, a reference to the opening scene of Scream in which the same thing occurs to the character played by Drew Barrymore. Additionally, the characters of Scream and I Know What You Did Last Summer are heavily mirrored in the film, and the title Scary Movie was originally the working title for the project that would eventually become Scream.

In June 2001, as part of the American Film Institute''s AFI 100 Years ... series, Scream became one of the 400 nominees in the 100 Years ... 100 Thrills category.[109] In 2003, the character Ghostface was nominated in the "Villains" category 100 Heroes and Villains.[110] In 2005, "Do you like scary movies?", as spoken by Roger Jackson, was nominated for AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest cinematic quotes.[111]

Scream ranks #32 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the "50 Best High School Movies",[112] and the opening scene featuring the death of Barrymore's character ranked No. 13 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments.[113] In 2008, Entertainment Weekly dubbed the film a "New Classic" by ranking it #60 in their list of the "100 Best Films of the Last 13 years".[114] In 2008 Empire ranked the film #482 on their list of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time".[115] In 2016, Empire ranked the film #3 on their list of the greatest horror films of all time.[116]

Year Award Recipient Ranking Ref.
2001 AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Thrills Scream [109]
2003 AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains Ghostface [110]
2004 Bravo's "100 Scariest Movie Moments" Opening scene #13 [113]
2005 AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes "Do you like scary movies?" [111]
2008 Empire's "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time" Scream #482 [115]
Entertainment Weekly's "50 Best High School Movies" Scream #32 [112]
Entertainment Weekly's 100 Best Films of the Last 13 Years Scream #60 [114]

Discover more about Legacy related topics

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween (1978 film)

Halloween is a 1978 American independent slasher film directed and scored by John Carpenter, co-written with producer Debra Hill, and starring Jamie Lee Curtis and Donald Pleasence, with P. J. Soles and Nancy Loomis in supporting roles. The plot centers on a mental patient, Michael Myers, who was committed to a sanitarium for murdering his babysitting teenage sister on Halloween night when he was six years old. Fifteen years later, he escapes and returns to his hometown, where he stalks a female babysitter and her friends while under pursuit by his psychiatrist.

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th (1980 film)

Friday the 13th is a 1980 American slasher film produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, written by Victor Miller, and starring Betsy Palmer, Adrienne King, Harry Crosby, Laurie Bartram, Mark Nelson, Jeannine Taylor, Robbi Morgan, and Kevin Bacon. Its plot follows a group of teenage camp counselors who are murdered one by one by an unknown killer while attempting to re-open an abandoned summer camp with a tragic past.

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 1984 American supernatural slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven and produced by Robert Shaye. It is the first installment in the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise and stars Heather Langenkamp, John Saxon, Ronee Blakley, Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger, and Johnny Depp in his film debut.

Freddy Krueger

Freddy Krueger

Freddy Krueger is a fictional character and the primary antagonist in the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series. He was created by Wes Craven and made his debut in Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984) as the malevolent spirit of a child killer who had been burned to death by his victims' parents after evading prison. Krueger goes on to murder his victims in their dreams, causing their deaths in the real world as well. In the dream world, he is a powerful force and seemingly invulnerable. However, whenever Freddy is pulled back into the real world, he has normal human vulnerabilities and can be destroyed. He is commonly identified by his burned, disfigured face, dirty red-and-green-striped sweater and brown fedora, and trademark metal-clawed, brown leather, right hand glove. This glove was the product of Krueger's own imagination, having welded the blades himself before using it to murder many of his victims, both in the real and dream worlds. Over the course of the film series, Freddy has battled several reoccurring survivors including Nancy Thompson and Alice Johnson. The character was consistently portrayed by Robert Englund in the original film series as well as in the television spin-off Freddy's Nightmares. Englund has stated that he feels the character represents neglect, particularly that suffered by children. The character also more broadly represents subconscious fears.

Jason Voorhees

Jason Voorhees

Jason Voorhees is a character from the Friday the 13th series. He first appeared in Friday the 13th (1980) as the young son of camp-cook-turned-killer Mrs. Voorhees, in which he was portrayed by Ari Lehman. Created by Victor Miller, with contributions by Ron Kurz, Sean S. Cunningham and Tom Savini, Jason was not originally intended to carry the series as the main antagonist. The character has subsequently been represented in various other media, including novels, video games, comic books, and a crossover film with another iconic horror film character, Freddy Krueger.

I Know What You Did Last Summer

I Know What You Did Last Summer

I Know What You Did Last Summer is a 1997 American slasher film directed by Jim Gillespie, written by Kevin Williamson, and starring Jennifer Love Hewitt, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Ryan Phillippe and Freddie Prinze Jr. It is loosely based on the 1973 novel of the same name by Lois Duncan and is the first installment in the I Know What You Did Last Summer franchise. The film centers on four young friends who are stalked by a hook-wielding killer one year after covering up a car accident in which they supposedly killed a man. The film also draws inspiration from the urban legend known as "The Hook" and the 1980s slasher films Prom Night (1980) and The House on Sorority Row (1982).

Cherry Falls

Cherry Falls

Cherry Falls is a 2000 American slasher film directed by Geoffrey Wright, and starring Brittany Murphy, Jay Mohr, and Michael Biehn. The plot focuses on a small Virginia town where a serial killer is targeting teenaged virgins. After being submitted to and rejected by the MPAA numerous times, the film was never picked up for theatrical distribution and was purchased by USA Films, who telecast it in the fall of 2000.

Halloween H20: 20 Years Later

Halloween H20: 20 Years Later

Halloween H20: Twenty Years Later is a 1998 American slasher film directed by Steve Miner, and starring Jamie Lee Curtis, LL Cool J, Adam Arkin, Michelle Williams, Janet Leigh and Josh Hartnett in his film debut. It is the seventh installment in the Halloween franchise. Ignoring the Jamie Lloyd story arc of the previous three installments, H20 is a direct sequel to the second film. It follows a post-traumatic Laurie Strode, who has faked her death in order to go into hiding from her murderous brother, Michael Myers, who finds her working at a private boarding school in California.

Bride of Chucky

Bride of Chucky

Bride of Chucky is a 1998 American black comedy slasher film written by Don Mancini and directed by Ronny Yu. The fourth installment in the Child's Play franchise, it stars Jennifer Tilly, Brad Dourif, John Ritter, Katherine Heigl, and Nick Stabile. Unlike the first three films, Bride of Chucky takes a markedly humorous turn towards self-referential parody. It also departs from the Andy Barclay storyline of the first three films, focusing mainly on series villain Chucky, a doll possessed by a serial killer, and his former lover and accomplice Tiffany, whose soul is also transferred into a doll.

Drew Barrymore

Drew Barrymore

Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director, producer, talk show host and author. A member of the Barrymore family of actors, she has received several awards and nominations, including a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, in addition to nominations for a British Academy Film Award and seven Emmy Awards. She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.

American Film Institute

American Film Institute

The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American nonprofit film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership fees.

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface (identity)

Ghostface is a fictional identity adopted by eleven characters and the primary antagonist in the Scream franchise. The figure was originally created by Kevin Williamson, and is primarily mute in person but voiced over the phone by Roger L. Jackson, regardless of who is behind the mask. Ghostface first appeared in Scream (1996) as a disguise used by teenagers Billy Loomis and Stu Macher, during their killing spree in the fictional town of Woodsboro. The mask was a popular Halloween costume created and designed by Fun World costume company before being chosen by Marianne Maddalena and Craven for the film. The identity is used primarily as a disguise for the antagonists of each film to conceal their identities while conducting serial murders, and as such has been portrayed by several actors.

Source: "Scream (1996 film)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scream_(1996_film).

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