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The Scindia dynasty (anglicized from Shinde) is a Hindu Maratha dynasty of maratha origin that ruled the erstwhile State of Gwalior. It had the Patil-ship of Kumberkerrab in Wai. It was founded by Ranoji Scindia, who started as a personal servant of the Peshwa Bajirao I.[1][2][3][4] Ranoji and his descendents along with their rivals the Holkars, played a leading role during the Maratha ascendency in North india during the 18th century. The Gwalior state was a princely state under the British Raj during the 19th and the 20th centuries. After India's independence in 1947, several members of the Scindia family went on to enter Indian politics.

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Shinde

Shinde

Shinde is a clan of the Maratha clan system of Kunbi (Kurmi) origin; variations of the name include Scindia and Sindhia, Sindia. The Shinde last name may be also found in the Dalit community.

Maratha (caste)

Maratha (caste)

The Maratha caste is composed of Marathi clans originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (Kunbi), shepherd (Dhangar), pastoral (Gavli), blacksmith (Lohar), carpenter (Sutar), Bhandari, Thakar and Koli castes in Maharashtra. Many of them took to military service in the 16th century for the Deccan sultanates or the Mughals. Later in the 17th and 18th centuries, they served in the armies of the Maratha Empire, founded by Shivaji, a Maratha by caste. Many Marathas were granted hereditary fiefs by the Sultanates, and Mughals for their service.

Gwalior

Gwalior

Gwalior(pronunciation  ) is a major city in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh; it lies in northern part of Madhya Pradesh and is one of the Counter-magnet cities. Located 343 kilometres (213 mi) south of Delhi, the capital city of India, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Agra and 414 kilometres (257 mi) from Bhopal, the state capital, Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India. The historic city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic Indian kingdoms. From the Kachchhapaghatas in the 10th century, Tomars in the 13th century, it was passed on to the Mughal Empire, then to the Maratha in 1754, and the Scindia dynasty of Maratha Empire in the 18th century. In April 2021, It was found that Gwalior had the best air quality index amongst the 4 major cities in Madhya Pradesh.

Holkar

Holkar

The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, and later became Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818. Later, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India.

Princely state

Princely state

A princely state was a nominally sovereign entity of the British Indian Empire that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule, subject to a subsidiary alliance and the suzerainty or paramountcy of the British crown.

British Raj

British Raj

The British Raj was the rule of the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent; it is also called Crown rule in India, or Direct rule in India, and lasted from 1858 to 1947. The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British paramountcy, called the princely states. The region was sometimes called the Indian Empire, though not officially.

Foundation

Maratha Sardar Ranoji Scindia
Maratha Sardar Ranoji Scindia

The Scindia dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia, a personal servant of Bajirao I Peshwa.[1][2][3][4] Ranoji prospered early under Bajirao because of the favorable circumstances created by the appointment of Bajirao as the Peshwa at the age of twenty.This had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Anant Ram Sumant, Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, Khanderao Dabhade and Kanhoji Bhosle.This led Baji Rao to promote as commanders of his troops, talented young men who were barely out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, the Pawar brothers, Pilaji Jadhav, Fateh Singh Bhosle and of course, Ranoji.None of these men belonged to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under earlier rulers such as the Deccan Sultanates.[5][6] The Shindes or Scindias had served as shiledars (cavalrymen) under the Bahmani Sultanate and played an important role in the state of affairs and held Patilki of Kumberkerrab.[7][3]

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Ranoji Scindia

Ranoji Scindia

Ranoji Shinde the founder of the Scindia dynasty from maratha caste that produced outstanding Maratha military commanders during the 18th century. Later the Scindia served as vassals of the British from the northern Princely state of Gwalior.

Khanderao Dabhade

Khanderao Dabhade

Khanderao Dabhade is the founding patriarch of the Sarsenapati Dabhade family of Talegaon Dabhade. He was the eldest of the two sons of Yesaji Dabhade and the grandson of Bajaji Dabhade. He was conferred the hereditary title of Sardar Senapati by Shahuji, the grandson of Shivaji on 11 January 1717. ]

Malhar Rao Holkar

Malhar Rao Holkar

Malhar Rao Holkar was a noble subedar of the Maratha Empire, in present-day India. He was one of the early officers along with Ranoji Scindia to help spread the Maratha rule to northern states and was given the estate of Indore to rule by the Peshwas, during the reign of the Maratha emperor Shahu I. He was founder of the Holkar dynasty that ruled Malwa.

Deshmukh

Deshmukh

Deshmukh (IAST:Dēśamukh), is a historical title conferred to the rulers of a Dēśamukhi. It is used as a surname in certain regions of India, specifically in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh whose family received it as a title.

Shiledar

Shiledar

Shiledar was a term used for a soldier's position in India's Maratha Empire (1630–1818), particularly during the reign of Shivaji. The word shiledar means "a soldier who possesses his own sword and horse for taking active part in combat/war".

Bahmani Sultanate

Bahmani Sultanate

The Bahmani Sultanate, or Deccan, was a Persianate Sunni Indo-Muslim Kingdom located in the Deccan region. It was the first independent Muslim kingdom of the Deccan, and was known for its perpetual wars with its rival Vijayanagara, which would outlast the Sultanate.

Patil (title)

Patil (title)

Patil is an Indian last name and a title or surname. The female variant of the title is Patlin or Patlinbai, and is also used to describe the wife of a Patil.

Origin and history

The Maharaja of Gwalior Before His Palace
The Maharaja of Gwalior Before His Palace

Lineage

According to records of British period there are several anecdotes about origin of Scindhias, specially Sir John Malcolm's record illustrates that:

Scindhia hailed from cultivator caste maratha like Holkars who were of Dhangar origin.In ritual status they were regarded as kshtriya.The founder of Scindhia dynasty ""Ranoji"" was in service of Peshwa Bajirao. One day Bajirao came out of his camp and saw his servant (Ranoji) sleeping with his sleepers. He was so impressed with faithfulness of his servant that he promoted him to his bodyguard .[8]

Stewart Gordon, also agrees to the cultivator, etc. origin of other Marathas as well.[9]

Maratha Period

Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde
Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde

The Scindia dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia, who was the son of Jankojirao Scindia, the Patil of Kanherkhed, a village in Satara District, Maharashtra.[10] Peshwa Baji Rao's career saw the strengthening of the Maratha Empire. Ranoji was in charge of the Maratha conquests in Malwa in 1726. Ranoji established his capital at Ujjain in 1731. His successors included Jayajirao, Jyotibarao, Dattajirao, Jankojirao, Mahadji Shinde and Daulatrao Scindia.The Scindias became a major regional power in the latter half of the 18th century, and figured prominently in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars.They held sway over many of the Rajput states, and conquered north India. In 1818, after accepting the terms of a subsidiary alliance with the British, the family shifted their base from Ujjain to The Gwalior.

Rulers of Gwalior state under the British

After the defeat of the allied Maratha states by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1818, Daulatrao Shinde was forced to accept local autonomy as a princely state within British-occupied India and to give up Ajmer to the British. After the death of Daulatrao, Maharani Baiza Bai ruled the empire, saving it from the British power, till the adopted child Jankoji Rao took over the charge. Jankoji died in 1843, and his widow Tarabai Raje Scindia successfully maintained the position and adopted a child from close lineage named Jayajirao.

Accession of Gwalior state into Independent India

The Scindia family ruled Gwalior until India's independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, when the Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia acceded to the Government of India. Gwalior was merged with a number of other princely states to become the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. Jiwajirao Scindia served as the state's rajpramukh, or appointed governor, from 28 May 1948 to 31 October 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh.

Political careers of family members

In 1962, Vijayraje Scindia, the widow of Maharaja Jiwajirao, was elected to the Lok Sabha, beginning the family's career in electoral politics.[11] She was first a member of the Congress Party, and later became an influential member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Her son Madhavrao Scindia was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1971 representing the Jansangh Party, he joined Congress in 1980 and served until his death in 2001. His son, Jyotiraditya Scindia, joined the Congress Party and was elected to the seat formerly held by his father in 2004. He later joined the Bharatiya Janata Party on 11 March 2020.

Vijayaraje's daughters have supported the Bharatiya Janata Party. Vasundhara Raje Scindia contested and won five parliamentary elections from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Under the Vajpayee government from 1998 onwards, Vasundhara was in charge of several different ministries. In 2003 she led the Bharatiya Janata Party to its largest majority in Rajasthan, and became the state's Chief Minister.[12] In 2013 again, she led Bharatiya Janata Party to a thumping win in the state of Rajasthan, winning over 160 out of the 200 seats in the assembly elections. Her other daughter, Yashodhara Raje Scindia, contested assembly elections from Shivpuri in Madhya Pradesh and won in 1998, 2003 and 2013 and also lok sabha 2004, 2009 from Gwalior. Upon the BJP's win in the state, she became the state's Minister for Tourism, Sports and Youth Affairs. Vasundhara's son Dushyant Singh entered the Lok Sabha in 2004 from Rajasthan.[13]

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Dhangar

Dhangar

Dhangar is a herding caste of people found in the Indian states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. They are referred as Gavli in southern Maharashtra, Goa and northern Karnataka, Golla in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and Ahir in northern Maharashtra. Some Gavlis live in forested hill tracts of India's Western Ghats. Gavli, also known as Dange or Mhaske, and Ahir are a sub-caste of Dhangar. However, there are many distinct Gavli castes in Maharashtra and Dhangar Gavli is one of them.

Shinde Chhatri

Shinde Chhatri

Shinde Chhatri at Wanawadi in Pune, India is a memorial dedicated to the 18th century Maratha military leader Mahadji Shinde who served as the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army under the Peshwas from 1760 to 1780. It is one of the most significant landmarks in the city and is reminiscent of the Maratha rule. It is a hall that marks the spot of Mahadji Shinde's cremation on 12 February 1794.

Pune

Pune

Pune, formerly known as Poona, is one of the most important industrial and educational hubs of India, with an estimated population of 7.4 million as of 2020. Pune is considered to be the cultural and educational capital of Maharashtra state. It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times. Together with the municipal corporation areas of Pimpri-Chinchwad (PCMC) and Pune (PMC), and the three cantonment towns of Camp, Khadki, and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). As of 2021, with an area of 7,256 sq km, PMR is geographically the largest metropolitan region in Maharashtra state and 5th largest in India.

Ranoji Scindia

Ranoji Scindia

Ranoji Shinde the founder of the Scindia dynasty from maratha caste that produced outstanding Maratha military commanders during the 18th century. Later the Scindia served as vassals of the British from the northern Princely state of Gwalior.

Patil (title)

Patil (title)

Patil is an Indian last name and a title or surname. The female variant of the title is Patlin or Patlinbai, and is also used to describe the wife of a Patil.

Kanherkhed

Kanherkhed

Kanherkhed is a village in Satara district, Maharashtra, India. It was the home village of Shinde (Scindia) family that later ruled the Gwalior State.

Maharashtra

Maharashtra

Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India and the second-most populous country subdivision globally. It was formed on 1 May 1960 by splitting the bilingual Bombay State, which had existed since 1956, into majority Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati-speaking Gujarat. Maharashtra is home to the Marathi people, the predominant ethno-linguistic group, who speak the Marathi language, the official language of the state. The state is divided into 6 divisions and 36 districts, with the state capital being Mumbai, the most populous urban area in India, and Nagpur serving as the winter capital, which also hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Godavari and Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. Forests cover 16.47 per cent of the state's geographical area. Out of the total cultivable land in the state, about 60 per cent is used for grain crops in the Deccan region, rice in coastal Konkan, and other high rainfall areas.

Peshwa

Peshwa

The Peshwa was the appointed prime minister of the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Originally, the Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati ; later, under the Bhat family, they became the de facto leaders of the Maratha Confederacy, with the Chhatrapati becoming a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, and remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company.

Baji Rao I

Baji Rao I

Baji Rao I, born as Visaji, also known as Bajirao Ballal, was the 7th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. During his 20-year tenure as a Peshwa, he defeated Mughals and their vassal Nizam-ul-Mulk at several battles like the Battle of Delhi and Battle of Bhopal. Baji Rao's achievements include establishing Maratha supremacy in southern India and northern India. Thus, he was responsible for establishing Maratha power in Gujarat, Malwa, Rajputana and Bundelkhand and liberating Konkan from the Siddis of Janjira and Portuguese rule.

Maratha Empire

Maratha Empire

The Maratha Empire, later referred as Maratha Confederacy, was an early modern Indian empire that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. Maratha rule formally began in 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji of the Bhonsle Dynasty as the Chhatrapati. Although Shivaji came from the Maratha caste, the Maratha empire also included warriors, administrators and other notables from Maratha and several other castes from Maharashtra.

Malwa

Malwa

Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, it is also synonymous with the former state of Madhya Bharat which was later merged with Madhya Pradesh. At present the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan. Sometimes the definition of Malwa is extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas.

Ujjain

Ujjain

Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth-largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division. It is one of the Hindu pilgrimage centres of Sapta Puri famous for the Kumbh Mela held there every 12 years. The famous temple of Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga is located in the center of the city.

Shinde Maharajas of Ujjain and Gwalior

Mahadaji Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power in North India after the Battle of Panipat in 1761[14]
Mahadaji Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power in North India after the Battle of Panipat in 1761[14]
  • Ranoji Rao Shinde (1731 – 19 July 1745). Died 19 July 1745.
  • Jayappa Rao Shinde (1745 – 25 July 1755). Born c. 1720, died 25 July 1755.
  • Jankoji Rao Scindia I (25 July 1755 – 15 January 1761). Born in 1745. died 15 January 1761.
  • Dattaji Rao Scindia (Regent 1755 – 10 January 1760). Died 10 January 1760.
  • Vacant 15 January 1761 – 25 November 1763
  • Kadarji Rao Scindia (25 November 1763 – 10 July 1764) Died ?.
  • Manaji Rao Scindia (10 July 1764 – 18 January 1768) Died ?.
  • Mahadaji Scindia (18 January 1768 – 12 February 1794). Born 3 December 1730, died 12 February 1794.
  • Daulat Rao Shinde (12 February 1794 – 21 March 1827). Born 1779, died 21 March 1827.
  • Jankoji Rao Scindia II (18 June 1827 – 7 February 1843). Born 1805, died 7 February 1843.
  • Jayaji Rao Scindia (7 February 1843 – 20 June 1886). Born 19 January 1835, died 20 June 1886.
  • Madho Rao Scindia (20 June 1886 – 5 June 1925). Born 20 October 1876, died 5 June 1925.
  • Jivajirao Scindia (Maharaja 5 June 1925 – 15 August 1947, Rajpramukh 28 May 1948 – 31 October 1956. Last Maharaja, later Rajpramukh) Born 26 June 1916, died 16 July 1961.
  • Madhavrao Scindia (1961–1971) The last Maharaja, before the abolishment of monarchy in 1971.

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Mahadaji Shinde

Mahadaji Shinde

Mahadaji Shinde, later known as Mahadji Scindia or Madhava Rao Sindhia, was a Maratha statesman and ruler of Ujjain in Central India. He was the fifth and the youngest son of Ranoji Rao Scindia, the founder of the Scindia dynasty.

Dattaji Rao Scindia

Dattaji Rao Scindia

Dattaji Rao Scindia, also known as Dattaji Rao Shinde, was the second son of Ranoji Rao Shinde and Maina Bai, alias Nimba Bai. His elder brother was Jayappaji Rao Shinde and his younger brother was Jyotiba.

Kadarji Rao Scindia

Kadarji Rao Scindia

Kadarji Rao Scindia was the fourth Maharaja of Gwalior State for a brief period. He became Maharaja of Gwalior after two years of death of Jankoji Rao Scindia in Third battle of Panipat in 1761.

Manaji Rao Scindia

Manaji Rao Scindia

Manaji Rao Scindia, popularly known as Manaji Phakade, was the fifth Maharaja of Gwalior State from 1764 to 1768. He became Maharaja of Gwalior after the abdication of Kadarji Rao Scindia.

Jankoji Rao Scindia II

Jankoji Rao Scindia II

Jankoji Rao Scindia II, was Maharaja of Gwalior.

Jayajirao Scindia

Jayajirao Scindia

Jayajirao Scindia GCB, GCSI, CIE of the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas was the ruling Maharajah of Gwalior under the British rule from 1843 to 1886.

Madho Rao Scindia

Madho Rao Scindia

Maharaja Sir Madho Rao Scindia of Gwalior, was the 5th Maharaja of Gwalior belonging to the Scindian dynasty of the Marathas.

Madhavrao Scindia

Madhavrao Scindia

Madhavrao Jivajirao Scindia was an Indian politician and a minister in the Government of India. He was a member of the Indian National Congress party.

Source: "Scindia", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scindia.

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References
  1. ^ a b Ainslie Thomas Embree (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-684-18899-7. Ranoji Scindia (d. 1750), the founder of Gwalior state, started his political career reputedly as a slipper-bearer at the court of the peshwa, or prime minister, of the Marathas, but soon rose to high office.
  2. ^ a b K. V. Krishna Ayyar (1999). The Zamorins of Calicut: From the Earliest Times Down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut. ISBN 978-81-7748-000-9. The carrying of the Pallimaradi before the Zamorin on public occasions might have been due to the same reason as the carrying of a pair of golden slippers before Scindia, whose ancestor was the slipper - bearer of Peshwa Baji Rao - to show his respect for his original humble office which was the cause of his subsequent success
  3. ^ a b c Satish Chandra (2003). Essays on Medieval Indian History. Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-566336-5. The Sindhias, it is well-known, were drawn from a Kunbi family which had the hereditary patel-ship of Kumberkerrab in the district of Wai. The origins of the Holkar were even more humble: they belonged to the caste of goat-herds (dungar), the family holding zamindari rights in the village of Hal.
  4. ^ a b Romila Thapar (1994). "Seminar - Issues 417-424": 59. Many peasant caste men who distinguished themselves in battle or otherwise served the ruler became Marathas . Witness the first Holkar who was a shepherd and the first Scindia who was a Kunbi personal servant of the Peshwa {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Gordon, Stewart (2007). The Marathas 1600–1818. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 117–121. ISBN 978-0521033169.
  6. ^ Sardesai, Govind Sakharam (1946). New History of the Marathas: The expansion of the Maratha power, 1707-1772. Phoenix Publications. pp. 65, 69.
  7. ^ Richard M. Eaton (19 December 2005). A social history of the Deccan, 1300-1761: eight Indian lives. Cambridge University Press. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-0-521-25484-7. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  8. ^ Ramusack, Barbara N. (2004). The Indian Princes and their States. The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 35&36. ISBN 9781139449083.
  9. ^ Stewart Gordon (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. Looking backward from ample material on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, we know that Maratha as a category of caste represents the amalgamation of families from several castes - Kunbi, Lohar, Sutar, Bhandari, Thakar, and even Dhangars (shepherds) – which existed in the seventeenth century and, indeed, exist as castes in Maharashtra today. What differentiated, for example, "Maratha" from "Kunbi"? It was precisely the martial tradition, of which they were proud, and the rights (watans and inams) they gained from military service. It was these rights which differentiated them from the ordinary cultivator, ironworkers and tailors, especially at the local level
  10. ^ N. G. Rathod (1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-85431-52-9.
  11. ^ "Vijaya Raje Scindia". Archived from the original on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2006.
  12. ^ Life and Career – Vasundhara Raje
  13. ^ "Dushyant Singh wins". NDTV.
  14. ^ N. G. Rathod (1994). The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia. Sarup & Sons. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-85431-52-9.
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