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Sapporo Breweries

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Sapporo Breweries Ltd.
IndustryAlcoholic beverage
Founded1876; 147 years ago (1876) in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
FounderGovernment of Hokkaido
Headquarters,
Japan
ProductsBeer
Production output
616.374 megaliters
OwnersMitsui Group, Sapporo Holdings, owned by:
TMTBJ investment trusts (4.84%)
JTSB investment trusts (4.24%)
Nippon Life (3.14%)
TCSB investment trusts on behalf of Mizuho T&B (3.10%)
Meiji Yasuda Life (2.65%)
Norinchukin Bank (2.38%)
Mizuho Bank (2.38%)
Marubeni (2.10%)
Taisei Corporation (1.78%)
Employee shares (1.37%)
SubsidiariesSleeman Breweries
Anchor Brewing Company
Sapporo Holdings: also Pokka
Websitewww.sapporoholdings.jp/english/

Sapporo Breweries Ltd. (サッポロビール株式会社, Sapporo Bīru Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese beer brewing company founded in 1876. Sapporo is the oldest brand of beer in Japan. It was first brewed in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1876 by brewer Seibei Nakagawa. The world headquarters of Sapporo Breweries is in Ebisu, Shibuya, Tokyo. The company purchased the Canadian company Sleeman Breweries in 2006.

The company has five breweries in Japan, the Sleeman brewery in Canada, and Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, U.S. The main brands are Sapporo Draft (Premium in North America); Yebisu; and Sleeman Cream Ale. Sapporo Premium has been the #1 selling Asian beer in the United States since Sapporo U.S.A., Inc. was first founded in 1984.

Sapporo Breweries is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu.

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Brewery

Brewery

A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC; in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction and divine protection from the goddess Ninkasi. Brewing was initially a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; by the ninth century, monasteries and farms would produce beer on a larger scale, selling the excess; and by the eleventh and twelfth centuries larger, dedicated breweries with eight to ten workers were being built.

Ebisu, Shibuya

Ebisu, Shibuya

Ebisu (恵比寿) is major district of Shibuya-ku in Tokyo, Japan. It was developed on the site of a former brewery and is now home to Yebisu Garden Place. It has a high concentration of bars and restaurants.

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries is a Japanese-owned Canadian brewery founded by John Warren Sleeman in 1988 in Guelph, Ontario. The company is the third-largest brewing company in Canada. Along with its own Sleeman brands, the company produces under licence the Stroh's family of brands, Maclays Ale and Sapporo Premium beers for sale in Canada. The company's parent Sapporo owns 4.2 per cent of Ontario's primary beer retailer The Beer Store.

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County. Positioned alongside the Mississippi River, La Crosse is the largest city on Wisconsin's western border. La Crosse's population as of the 2020 census was 52,680. The city forms the core of and is the principal city in the La Crosse–Onalaska Metropolitan Area, which includes all of La Crosse County and Houston County, Minnesota, with a population of 139,627.

Mitsui

Mitsui

Mitsui Group is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world.

Keiretsu

Keiretsu

A keiretsu is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. In the legal sense, it is a type of informal business group that are loosely organized alliances within the social world of Japan's business community. The keiretsu system dominated the Japanese economy for the second half of the 20th century, following the dissolution of the zaibatsu after World War II, and, to a lesser extent, continues to do so in the early 21st century.

History

The origins of this company are in Sapporo, Hokkaido during the Meiji period, where the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitakushi) established many businesses. Seibei Nakagawa, a Germany-trained brewer, became the first brewmaster of the Kaitakushi Brewery in June 1876, and the first Sapporo Lager was produced at that time. Privatized in 1886, the Sapporo brewery became the centerpiece for the Sapporo Beer Company.

In 1887, another company, the Japan Beer Brewery Company was established in Mita, Meguro, Tokyo, and began producing Yebisu Beer. The competition between Sapporo and Japan Beer, as well as competition with the Osaka (now Asahi) and Kirin breweries led to a 1906 merger of Sapporo, Japan, and Osaka breweries into the Dai-Nippon Beer Company, Ltd. (大日本麦酒株式会社), which formed a near monopoly on the Japanese market until after World War II.

After 1949, Dai-Nippon was split into Nippon and Asahi breweries, with the Nippon Breweries resuming production of Sapporo beer in 1956 and renaming itself to the present name, Sapporo Breweries, in 1964. Yebisu Beer was relaunched as a separate brand in 1971, marketed as a German-style barley beer. Sapporo Black Label beer was launched in 1977.

In 2006, Sapporo announced they would be acquiring Canadian brewer Sleeman in a $400-million all-cash deal.[1]

On February 15, 2007, Steel Partners Japan Strategic Fund, a Cayman Islands-registered fund management subsidiary of Warren Lichtenstein's Steel Partners and the biggest shareholder (18.6% as of Feb. 2007) of Sapporo Holdings, submitted a proposal to the company seeking approval to raise its stake to 66.6%.[2]

On 3 August 2017, it was announced that Sapporo Brewing Company would be acquiring Anchor Brewing.[3]

In 2020, Sapporo Breweries won the Lausanne Index Prize - Best of Packaging.[4]

Despite its name, Sapporo beer is not exclusively brewed in Sapporo. Sapporo is also brewed in Sendai, Chiba, Shizuoka, and Kyushu.[5] Most Sapporo beer sold in North America had been brewed at the Sleeman brewery in Guelph, Ontario, Canada.[6] Most Sapporo beer sold in the United States is now brewed by Sapporo Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, U.S.[7]

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Lager

Lager

Lager is beer which has been brewed and conditioned at low temperature. Lagers can be pale, amber, or dark. Pale lager is the most widely consumed and commercially available style of beer. The term "lager" comes from the German for "storage", as the beer was stored before drinking, traditionally in the same cool caves in which it was fermented.

Mita, Meguro, Tokyo

Mita, Meguro, Tokyo

Mita (三田) is a quiet residential district of Meguro, Tokyo, Japan, and, most notably, is home to its landmark Yebisu Garden Place. Distinct from another district Mita, Minato, Tokyo, the district is sometimes referred to as Meguro-Mita.

Asahi Breweries

Asahi Breweries

Asahi Group Holdings, Ltd. is a Japanese global beer, spirits, soft drinks and food business group headquartered in Sumida, Tokyo.

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries is a Japanese-owned Canadian brewery founded by John Warren Sleeman in 1988 in Guelph, Ontario. The company is the third-largest brewing company in Canada. Along with its own Sleeman brands, the company produces under licence the Stroh's family of brands, Maclays Ale and Sapporo Premium beers for sale in Canada. The company's parent Sapporo owns 4.2 per cent of Ontario's primary beer retailer The Beer Store.

Cayman Islands

Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands is a self-governing British Overseas Territory—the largest by population in the western Caribbean Sea. The 264-square-kilometre (102-square-mile) territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, which are located to the south of Cuba and northeast of Honduras, between Jamaica and Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. The capital city is George Town on Grand Cayman, which is the most populous of the three islands.

Warren Lichtenstein

Warren Lichtenstein

Warren G. Lichtenstein is an American businessman and philanthropist. Lichtenstein is founder and executive chairman of Steel Partners Holdings L.P. (NYSE:SPLP), a global diversified holding company. He founded the company in 1990 at the age of 24 after beginning his career as an analyst at Para Partners, L.P. and then serving as an acquisition analyst at Ballantrae Partners, L.P. For the past 25 years, Steel Partners has grown from a private investment fund with two employees and assets of $600,000 into Steel Partners Holdings L.P., a company through its consolidated holdings employs 13,500 people in 155 plants and facilities in 20 countries with a combined revenue of more than $3.6 billion. He is chairman of Steel Partners LLC based in New York City. Lichtenstein is a former chairman of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc., an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer. His tenure as Aerojet Chairman ended on June 30, 2022 by overwhelming share holder sentiment, a result of a proxy contest in which the then CEO, Eileen Drake, led a successful proxy campaign that removed Warren and all of his Steel Partner selected board members. "FORM 8-K Item 5.02 Departure of Directors or Certain Officers; Election of Directors; Appointment of Certain Officers; Compensatory Arrangements of Certain Officers Item 5.07 Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders". 2022-07-06. Retrieved 2022-07-20.

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County. Positioned alongside the Mississippi River, La Crosse is the largest city on Wisconsin's western border. La Crosse's population as of the 2020 census was 52,680. The city forms the core of and is the principal city in the La Crosse–Onalaska Metropolitan Area, which includes all of La Crosse County and Houston County, Minnesota, with a population of 139,627.

Breweries

Chiba Brewery
Chiba Brewery

Japan

Sapporo has five breweries in Japan.[8] The first, Sendai Brewery, was opened in 1971 in Natori, Miyagi, and was among the first to use a computerised brewing system.[9] Shizuoka Brewery in Yaizu was opened in 1980,[10] Chiba Brewery in Chiba was opened in 1988,[11] Hokkaido Brewery in Eniwa, Hokkaido was built in 1989,[12] and the Kyushu Hita Brewery was opened in Hita, Ōita in 2000.[13]

Canada

Sleeman Breweries was purchased by Sapporo Brewery in 2006 for $400 million.[14] Sleeman was restarted in 1988 in Guelph, Ontario, Canada by the great grandson of John H. Sleeman, the owner of the original Sleeman brewery founded in 1834.[15] The first Sleeman brewery ceased operations by 1933, when their liquor license was revoked for bootlegging, specifically, smuggling beer into Detroit, Michigan. The company's current products are based on the family's original recipes, and recipes from Unibroue (which brewery Sleeman had previously purchased). Sleeman Breweries / Sapporo Canada currently consists of four Canadian breweries: Sleeman in Guelph, Ontario, Okanagan Spring in Vernon, British Columbia, Unibroue in Chambly, Quebec, and Wild Rose Brewery in Calgary, Alberta. As of 2017, Sleeman Breweries also owned 4.2% of The Beer Store.[16]

United States

Sapporo beers are brewed, canned, and bottled by Sapporo Brewing Company by City Brewing Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin, for Sapporo U.S.A.

On 3 August 2017, it was announced that Sapporo Breweries would acquire the Anchor Brewing Company.[3] In June 2022, Stone and Sapporo announced that they had reached an agreement for Sapporo to purchase Stone Brewing for $168 million, with the purchase expected to close in August 2022.[17][18]

Vietnam

The Sapporo Vietnam brewery is situated in Đức Hòa, Long An. Its products include 650 mL cans of Premium Beer for the Australian and Mexican market.[19]

Germany

The brewery located in Düsseldorf Germany mostly ships to other EU countries.

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Natori, Miyagi

Natori, Miyagi

Natori is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 May 2020, the city had an estimated population of 79,459 in 31,748 households, and a population density of 810 persons per km². The total area of the city is 98.17 square kilometres (37.90 sq mi).

Eniwa, Hokkaido

Eniwa, Hokkaido

Eniwa is a city in Ishikari Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. It is on the Ishikari plain, 8 km north of Chitose, and 26 km south of the prefectural capital Sapporo. It is reached through route 36 and the Chitose Railway Line. The town is separated into three major areas: Eniwa in the south, Megumino in the center, and Shimamatsu in the north.

Hita, Ōita

Hita, Ōita

Hita is a city located in Ōita Prefecture, Japan that was founded on December 11, 1940. It is an agricultural and industrial centre that primarily produces lumber, furniture, and pottery. Its attractions and scenic beauty also make it a popular tourist destination.

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries

Sleeman Breweries is a Japanese-owned Canadian brewery founded by John Warren Sleeman in 1988 in Guelph, Ontario. The company is the third-largest brewing company in Canada. Along with its own Sleeman brands, the company produces under licence the Stroh's family of brands, Maclays Ale and Sapporo Premium beers for sale in Canada. The company's parent Sapporo owns 4.2 per cent of Ontario's primary beer retailer The Beer Store.

Rum-running

Rum-running

Rum-running or bootlegging is the illegal business of smuggling alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law. Smuggling usually takes place to circumvent taxation or prohibition laws within a particular jurisdiction. The term rum-running is more commonly applied to smuggling over water; bootlegging is applied to smuggling over land.

Unibroue

Unibroue

Unibroue is a brewery in Chambly, Quebec, Canada, that was started by Serge Racine and Quebec native André Dion. The company was purchased by Sleeman Breweries Ltd. in 2004, which was itself taken over by Sapporo in 2006. The company was incorporated in 1993 and is the first of three microbrewing companies in Greater Montreal area, both chronologically and in terms of sale benefits.

Vernon, British Columbia

Vernon, British Columbia

Vernon is a city in the Okanagan region of the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is 440 km (270 mi) northeast of Vancouver. Named after Forbes George Vernon, a former MLA of British Columbia who helped establish the Coldstream Ranch in nearby Coldstream, the City of Vernon was incorporated on December 30, 1892. The City of Vernon has a population of 40,000 (2013), while its metropolitan region, Greater Vernon, has a population of 58,584 as of the Canada 2011 Census. With this population, Vernon is the largest city in the North Okanagan Regional District. A resident of Vernon is called a "Vernonite".

Chambly, Quebec

Chambly, Quebec

Chambly is an off-island suburb of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is located in the Montérégie region, inland from the South Shore of the Saint Lawrence River.

The Beer Store

The Beer Store

Brewers Retail Inc., doing business as The Beer Store, is a privately-owned chain of retail outlets selling beer and other malt beverages in the province of Ontario, Canada.

City Brewing Company

City Brewing Company

City Brewing Company is a large brewery located in La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA. It also goes by the trade name of City Brewery.

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse, Wisconsin

La Crosse is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the county seat of La Crosse County. Positioned alongside the Mississippi River, La Crosse is the largest city on Wisconsin's western border. La Crosse's population as of the 2020 census was 52,680. The city forms the core of and is the principal city in the La Crosse–Onalaska Metropolitan Area, which includes all of La Crosse County and Houston County, Minnesota, with a population of 139,627.

Anchor Brewing Company

Anchor Brewing Company

Anchor Brewing Company is an American alcoholic beverage producer, operating a brewery on Potrero Hill in San Francisco, California. The brewery was founded in 1896 and was purchased by Frederick Louis Maytag III in 1965, saving it from closure. It moved to its current location in 1979. It is one of the last remaining breweries to produce California common beer, also known as Steam Beer, a trademark owned by the company.

Brands

A can of Sapporo Premium
A can of Sapporo Premium

The company produces a range of pale and dark lagers, including Sapporo Draft (Premium in North America) and Yebisu.[20] In the Sleeman brewery in Canada they brew Sleeman branded beers such as Sleeman Cream Ale, as well as Sapporo Premium.[21]

The company also produces a malt based soft drink, Super Clear, which was launched in 2002 as a low-alcohol beer, then changed in September 2009 to an alcohol free malt drink.[22][23]

Yebisu

Yebisu (ヱビス, Ebisu) is one of Japan's oldest brands, first brewed in Tokyo in 1890 by the Japan Beer Brewery Company. Through a complicated set of mergers and divisions, the brand was acquired and eventually retained by the modern-day Sapporo Brewery. The brand lay dormant during the post-World War II era, until it was resurrected in 1971. It has been brewed continuously ever since.[24]

Yebisu comes in two main varieties: Yebisu (Premium), a Dortmunder/export lager, and Yebisu Black, a dark lager. There are also occasional special varieties that are limited in distribution area and time. In April 2007, for example, there was a green-label "The Hop" variety.

The modern-day Yebisu is positioned as Sapporo's "luxury" beer label. Sapporo describes it as a beer brand with "a touch of class".[25] It is a 100% malt beer.

A Japan-only yearly "vintage" release
A Japan-only yearly "vintage" release

Yebisu is notable in that its Japanese name includes the now-obsolete kana character we ( or ) for the even-older ye reading, an anachronism in keeping with historical kana orthography. This can lead to confusion when romanized, as the "Y" is not pronounced. The Tokyo neighborhood of Ebisu was named for the beer, which was originally produced there, though its name is spelled with a conventional e kana instead of we. The pronunciations of both "Yebisu" and "Ebisu" are the same.

Space Barley

Using barley grown from seeds which spent five months on board the International Space Station in 2006, Sapporo created a limited Space Barley brew. The project was a joint one between the Russian Academy of Sciences, Okayama University, and Sapporo. Tasters described the flavour as no different from similar beers, which researchers point to as important in showing that producing food in space for long duration flights is possible. Six packs of the space beer were sold in a lottery system for 10,000 yen.[26][27]

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Pale lager

Pale lager

Pale lager is a very pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well-attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness.

Soft drink

Soft drink

A soft drink is a drink that usually contains water, a sweetener, and a natural and/or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute, or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and/or other ingredients.

Dortmunder Export

Dortmunder Export

Dortmunder Export or Dortmunder is a pale lager originally brewed by Dortmunder Union in Dortmund, Germany, in 1873. It is a soft-textured beer influenced by the Pilsner lager brewed in Pilsen.

We (kana)

We (kana)

ゑ in hiragana, or ヱ in katakana, is a nearly obsolete Japanese kana. The combination of a W-column kana letter with "ゑ゙" in hiragana was introduced to represent [ve] in the 19th century and 20th century.

Anachronism

Anachronism

An anachronism is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of people, events, objects, language terms and customs from different time periods. The most common type of anachronism is an object misplaced in time, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a plant or animal, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period that is placed outside its proper temporal domain.

Historical kana orthography

Historical kana orthography

The historical kana orthography , or old orthography , refers to the kana orthography in general use until orthographic reforms after World War II; the current orthography was adopted by Cabinet order in 1946. By that point the historical orthography was no longer in accord with Japanese pronunciation. It differs from modern usage in the number of characters and the way those characters are used. There was considerable opposition to the official adoption of the current orthography, on the grounds that the historical orthography conveys meanings better, and some writers continued to use it for many years after.

E (kana)

E (kana)

In Japanese writing, the kana え (hiragana) and エ (katakana) occupy the fourth place, between う and お, in the modern Gojūon (五十音) system of collating kana. In the Iroha, they occupy the 34th, between こ and て. In the table at right, え lies in the first column and the fourth row. Both represent.

International Space Station

International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest modular space station in low Earth orbit. The project involves five space agencies: those include the United States' NASA, Russia's Roscosmos, Japan's JAXA, Europe's ESA, and Canada's CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars.

Russian Academy of Sciences

Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

Okayama University

Okayama University

Okayama University is a national university in Japan. The main campus is located in Tsushima-Naka, Okayama, Okayama Prefecture.

Source: "Sapporo Breweries", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapporo_Breweries.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "Sapporo acquisition of Sleeman on tap". CBC News. August 11, 2006. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
  2. ^ "Steel Partners after 66.6% if Sapporo drops its defenses". The Japan Times. February 16, 2007. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  3. ^ a b "San Francisco's Anchor Brewing acquired by Sapporo". San Francisco Chronicle. August 3, 2017. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  4. ^ "2020 L.I.P. Best of Packaging - Sapporo Breweries". Archived from the original on January 15, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  5. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  6. ^ Sapporo. Sapporousa.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-12. Archived January 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Sapporo Light & Premium Bottle & Can Redesign". mybeerbuzz.blogspot.com. May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  8. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  9. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  10. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  11. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  12. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  13. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Brewery&Restaurant Guide". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  14. ^ "CBC News - Money - Sapporo acquisition of Sleeman on tap". cbc.ca. August 11, 2006. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  15. ^ "Sleeman Brewing History". www.library.guelph.on.ca. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
  16. ^ "The Beer Store Operations Report 2017" (PDF). The Beer Store. 2018. p. 57. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2018.
  17. ^ "Sapporo U.S.A. to Acquire Stone Brewing". www.businesswire.com. June 24, 2022. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  18. ^ Traylor, Daniel (June 24, 2022). "Sapporo U.S.A. to acquire Stone Brewing as its moves to speed up global expansion". The Japan Times. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  19. ^ "Sapporo Premium Lager Cans 650mL". www.danmurphys.com.au. Archived from the original on September 1, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  20. ^ "Sapporo Breweries". www.ratebeer.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  21. ^ "Sleeman Brewing & Malting Co. (Sapporo)". www.ratebeer.com. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  22. ^ "Sapporo Super Clear from Sapporo Breweries - Ratebeer". www.ratebeer.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  23. ^ "サッポロビール サッポロスーパークリア". www.sapporobeer.jp. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  24. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Corporate Information". Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  25. ^ "SAPPORO BREWERIES/Corporate Information". Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2007.
  26. ^ "'Space Beer' Available for Purchase to 250 People". Universe Today. December 7, 2009. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
  27. ^ "'Out of this world' Japanese beer". BBC. December 7, 2009. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
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