|Part of the post-Soviet conflicts|
For countries providing aid to Ukraine since 2022, see foreign aid to Ukraine
For details, see Russian military suppliers
|Commanders and leaders|
For details of strengths and units involved at key points in the conflict, see:
Combatants of the war in Donbas (2014–2022)
|Casualties and losses|
|Reports vary widely, but tens of thousands at a minimum. See Casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War for details.|
The Russo-Ukrainian War[f] is an international conflict between Russia and Russian-backed separatists, against Ukraine, which began in February 2014.[g] Following Ukraine's Revolution of Dignity, Russia annexed Crimea from Ukraine and supported pro-Russian separatists fighting the Ukrainian military in the Donbas war. The first eight years of conflict also included naval incidents, cyberwarfare, and heightened political tensions. In February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine.
In early 2014, the Euromaidan protests led to the Revolution of Dignity and the ousting of Ukraine's pro-Russian president Viktor Yanukovych. Shortly after, pro-Russian unrest erupted in eastern and southern Ukraine. Simultaneously, unmarked Russian troops moved into Ukraine's Crimea and took over government buildings, strategic sites and infrastructure. Russia soon annexed Crimea after a highly-disputed referendum. In April 2014, armed pro-Russian separatists seized government buildings in Ukraine's eastern Donbas region and proclaimed the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) as independent states, starting the Donbas war. The separatists received considerable but covert support from Russia, and Ukrainian attempts to fully retake separatist-held areas failed. Although Russia denied involvement, Russian troops took part in the fighting. In February 2015, Russia and Ukraine signed the Minsk II agreements to end the conflict, but the agreements were never fully implemented in the years that followed. The Donbas war settled into a violent but static conflict between Ukraine and Russian proxies, with many brief ceasefires but no lasting peace and few changes in territorial control.
Beginning in 2021, Russia built up a large military presence near its border with Ukraine, including within neighbouring Belarus. Russian officials repeatedly denied plans to attack Ukraine. Russian president Vladimir Putin criticized the enlargement of NATO and demanded that Ukraine be barred from ever joining the military alliance. He also expressed irredentist views and questioned Ukraine's right to exist. Russia recognized the DPR and LPR as independent states in February 2022, with Putin announcing a "special military operation" in Ukraine and subsequently invading the region. The invasion was internationally condemned; many countries imposed sanctions against Russia and increased existing sanctions. Russia abandoned an attempt to take Kyiv in early April 2022 amid fierce resistance. From August, Ukrainian forces began recapturing territories in the north-east and south as a result of counter-offensives. In late September, Russia declared the annexation of four partially-occupied regions in southern and eastern Ukraine, which was internationally unrecognized. The war has resulted in a refugee crisis and tens of thousands of deaths.
Discover more about Russo-Ukrainian War related topics
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
Capture of the Crimean Parliament
2014 Crimean status referendum
Donetsk People's Republic
Enlargement of NATO
International recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic
International sanctions during the Russo-Ukrainian War
Kyiv offensive (2022)
Independent Ukraine and the Orange Revolution
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991, Ukraine and Russia maintained close ties. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon state. Former Soviet nuclear weapons in Ukraine were removed and dismantled. In return, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States agreed to uphold the territorial integrity and political independence of Ukraine through the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances. In 1999, Russia was one of the signatories of the Charter for European Security, which "reaffirmed the inherent right of each and every participating State to be free to choose or change its security arrangements, including treaties of alliance, as they evolve." In the years after the dissolution of the USSR, several former Eastern Bloc countries joined NATO, partly in response to regional security threats involving Russia such as the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993) and the First Chechen War (1994–1996). Russian leaders described this expansion as a violation of Western powers' informal assurances that NATO would not expand eastward.
The 2004 Ukrainian presidential election was controversial. During the election campaign, opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko was poisoned by TCDD dioxin; he later accused Russia of involvement. In November, Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner, despite allegations of vote-rigging by election observers. During a two-month period which became known as the Orange Revolution, large peaceful protests successfully challenged the outcome. After the Supreme Court of Ukraine annulled the initial result due to widespread electoral fraud, a second round re-run was held, bringing to power Yushchenko as president and Yulia Tymoshenko as prime minister, and leaving Yanukovych in opposition. The Orange Revolution is often grouped together with other early-21st century protest movements, particularly within the former USSR, known as colour revolutions. According to Anthony Cordesman, Russian military officers viewed such colour revolutions as an attempt by the US and European states to destabilise neighbouring countries and undermine Russia's national security. Russian President Vladimir Putin accused organisers of the 2011–2013 Russian protests of being former advisors to Yushchenko, and described the protests as an attempt to transfer the Orange Revolution to Russia. Rallies in favour of Putin during this period were called "anti-Orange protests".
At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Ukraine and Georgia sought to join NATO. The response among NATO members was divided; Western European countries opposed offering Membership Action Plans (MAP) in order to avoid antagonising Russia, while US President George W. Bush pushed for their admission. NATO ultimately refused to offer Ukraine and Georgia MAPs, but also issued a statement agreeing that "these countries will become members of NATO". Putin voiced strong opposition to Georgia and Ukraine's NATO membership bids. By January 2022, the possibility of Ukraine joining NATO remained remote.
Euromaidan, Revolution of Dignity, and pro-Russian unrest
In 2009, Yanukovych announced his intent to again run for president in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, which he subsequently won. In November 2013, a wave of large, pro-European Union (EU) protests erupted in response to Yanukovych's sudden decision not to sign the EU–Ukraine Association Agreement, instead choosing closer ties to Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union. The Ukrainian parliament had overwhelmingly approved of finalizing the agreement with the EU, and Russia had put pressure on Ukraine to reject it.
Following months of protests as part of the Euromaidan movement, on 21 February 2014 Yanukovych and the leaders of the parliamentary opposition signed a settlement agreement that called for early elections. The following day, Yanukovych fled from the capital ahead of an impeachment vote that stripped him of his powers as president. On 23 February, the parliament adopted a bill to repeal the 2012 law which gave Russian language an official status. The bill was not enacted, however, the proposal provoked negative reactions in the Russian-speaking regions of Ukraine, intensified by Russian media saying that the ethnic Russian population was in imminent danger.
On 27 February, an interim government was established and early presidential elections were scheduled. The following day, Yanukovych resurfaced in Russia and in a press conference declared that he remained the acting president of Ukraine, just as Russia was beginning its overt military campaign in Crimea. Leaders of Russian-speaking eastern regions of Ukraine declared continuing loyalty to Yanukovych, causing the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine.
Russian military bases in Crimea
At the onset of the conflict, Russia had roughly 12,000 military personnel in the Black Sea Fleet, in several locations in the Crimean peninsula like Sevastopol, Kacha, Hvardiiske, Simferopol Raion, Sarych, and others. In 2005 a dispute broke out over control of the Sarych cape lighthouse near Yalta, and a number of other beacons. Russian presence was allowed by the basing and transit agreement with Ukraine. Under the agreements the Russian military in Crimea was constrained to a maximum of 25,000 troops; they were required to: respect the sovereignty of Ukraine, honor its legislation, not interfere in the internal affairs of the country, and show their "military identification cards" when crossing the international border. Early in the conflict, the agreement's sizeable troop limit allowed Russia to significantly reinforce its military presence under the plausible guise of security concerns, deploy special forces and other required capabilities to conduct the operation in Crimea.
According to the original treaty on the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet signed in 1997, Russia was allowed to have its military bases in Crimea until 2017, after which it would evacuate all military units including its portion of the Black Sea Fleet out of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. On 21 April 2010, former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych signed a new deal known as the Kharkiv Pact, to resolve the 2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute; it extended the stay to 2042 with an option to renew.
Declaration of military operations
No formal declaration of war has been issued in the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War. When Putin announced the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, he claimed to commence a "special military operation", side-stepping a formal declaration of war. The statement was, however, regarded as a declaration of war by the Ukrainian government and reported as such by many international news sources. While the Ukrainian parliament refers to Russia as a "terrorist state" in regard to its military actions in Ukraine, it has not issued a formal declaration of war on its behalf.
Discover more about Background related topics
Historical background of the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
1993 Russian constitutional crisis
First Chechen War
2004 Ukrainian presidential election
Russian annexation of Crimea (2014)
On 20 February 2014, Russia began an annexation of Crimea. On 22 and 23 February, Russian troops and special forces began moving into Crimea through Novorossiysk. On 27 February, Russian forces without insignias began their advance into the Crimean Peninsula. They took strategic positions and captured the Crimean Parliament, raising a Russian flag. Security checkpoints isolated the Crimean Peninsula from the rest of Ukraine and restricted movement within the territory.
In the following days, Russian soldiers secured key airports and a communications center. Russian cyberattacks shut down websites associated with the Ukrainian government, news media, and social media. Cyberattacks also enabled Russian access to the mobile phones of Ukrainian officials and members of parliament, further disrupting communications.
On 1 March, the Russian legislature approved the use of armed forces, leading to an influx of Russian troops and military hardware into the peninsula. In the following days, all remaining Ukrainian military bases and installations were surrounded and besieged, including the Southern Naval Base. After Russia formally annexed the peninsula on 18 March, Ukrainian military bases and ships were stormed by Russian forces. On 24 March, Ukraine ordered troops to withdraw; by 30 March, all Ukrainian forces had left the peninsula.
On 15 April, the Ukrainian parliament declared Crimea a territory temporarily occupied by Russia. After the annexation, the Russian government increased its military presence in the region and made nuclear threats. Putin said that a Russian military task force would be established in Crimea. In November, NATO stated that it believed Russia was deploying nuclear-capable weapons to Crimea. Since the annexation of Crimea, certain NATO members have been providing training for the Ukrainian army.
War in the Donbas (2014–2015)
Beginning in late February 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in major cities across the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine. The first protests across southern and eastern Ukraine were largely native expressions of discontent with the new Ukrainian government. Russian involvement at this stage was limited to voicing support for the demonstrations. Russia exploited this, however, launching a coordinated political and military campaign against Ukraine. Putin gave legitimacy to the separatists when he described the Donbas as part of "New Russia" (Novorossiya), and expressed bewilderment as to how the region had ever become part of Ukraine.
In late March, Russia continued to gather forces near the Ukrainian eastern border, reaching 30–40,000 troops by April. The deployment was used to threaten escalation and disrupt Ukraine's response. This threat forced Ukraine to divert forces to its borders instead of the conflict zone.
Ukrainian authorities cracked down on the pro-Russian protests and arrested local separatist leaders in early March. Those leaders were replaced by people with ties to the Russian security services and interests in Russian businesses. By April 2014, Russian citizens had taken control of the separatist movement, supported by volunteers and materiel from Russia, including Chechen and Cossack fighters. According to Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) commander Igor Girkin, without this support in April, the movement would have dissipated, as it had in Kharkiv and Odesa. A disputed referendum on the status of Donetsk Oblast was held on 11 May.
In April, armed conflict began in eastern Ukraine between Russian-backed separatist forces and Ukraine. The separatists declared the People's Republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. From 6 April, militants occupied government buildings in many cities and took control of border crossings to Russia, transport hubs, a broadcasting center, and other strategic infrastructure. Faced with continued expansion of separatist territorial control, on 15 April the interim Ukrainian government launched an "Anti-Terrorist Operation" (ATO), however, Ukrainian forces were poorly prepared and ill-positioned and the operation quickly stalled.
By the end of April, Ukraine announced it had lost control of the provinces of Donetsk and Luhansk. It claimed to be on "full combat alert" against a possible Russian invasion and reinstated conscription to its armed forces. Through May, the Ukrainian campaign focused on containing the separatists by securing key positions around the ATO zone to position the military for a decisive offensive once Ukraine's national mobilization had completed.
As conflict between the separatists and the Ukrainian government escalated in May, Russia began to employ a "hybrid approach", combining disinformation tactics, irregular fighters, regular Russian troops, and conventional military support. The First Battle of Donetsk Airport followed the Ukrainian presidential elections. It marked a turning point in conflict; it was the first battle between the separatists and the Ukrainian government that involved large numbers of Russian "volunteers".: 15 According to Ukraine, at the height of the conflict in the summer of 2014, Russian paramilitaries made up between 15% to 80% of the combatants. From June Russia trickled in arms, armor, and munitions.
On 17 July 2014, Russian controlled forces shot down a passenger aircraft Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 as it was flying over eastern Ukraine. Investigations and the recovery of bodies began in the conflict zone as fighting continued.
By the end of July, Ukrainian forces were pushing into cities, to cut off supply routes between the two, isolating Donetsk and attempting to restore control of the Russo-Ukrainian border. By 28 July, the strategic heights of Savur-Mohyla were under Ukrainian control, along with the town of Debaltseve, an important railroad hub. These operational successes of Ukrainian forces threatened the existence of the DPR and LPR statelets, prompting Russian cross-border shelling targeted against Ukrainian troops on their own soil, from mid-July onwards.
August 2014 Russian invasion
After a series of military defeats and setbacks for the separatists, who united under the banner of "Novorossiya", Russia dispatched what it called a "humanitarian convoy" of trucks across the border in mid-August 2014. Ukraine called the move a "direct invasion". Ukraine's National Security and Defence Council reported that convoys were arriving almost daily in November (up to 9 convoys on 30 November) and that their contents were mainly arms and ammunition. Strelkov claimed that in early August, Russian servicemen, supposedly on "vacation" from the army, began to arrive in Donbas.
By August 2014, the Ukrainian "Anti-Terrorist Operation" shrank the territory under pro-Russian control, and approached the border. Igor Girkin urged Russian military intervention, and said that the combat inexperience of his irregular forces, along with recruitment difficulties amongst the local population, had caused the setbacks. He stated, "Losing this war on the territory that President Vladimir Putin personally named New Russia would threaten the Kremlin's power and, personally, the power of the president".
In response to the deteriorating situation, Russia abandoned its hybrid approach, and began a conventional invasion on 25 August 2014. On the following day, the Russian Defence Ministry said these soldiers had crossed the border "by accident". According to Nikolai Mitrokhin's estimates, by mid-August 2014 during the Battle of Ilovaisk, between 20,000 and 25,000 troops were fighting in the Donbas on the separatist side, and only 40-45% were "locals".
On 24 August 2014, Amvrosiivka was occupied by Russian paratroopers, supported by 250 armoured vehicles and artillery pieces. The same day, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko referred to the operation as Ukraine's "Patriotic War of 2014" and a war against external aggression. On 25 August, a column of Russian military vehicles was reported to have crossed into Ukraine near Novoazovsk on the Azov sea coast. It appeared headed towards Ukrainian-held Mariupol, in an area that had not seen pro-Russian presence for weeks. Russian forces captured Novoazovsk. and Russian soldiers began deporting Ukrainians who did not have an address registered within the town. Pro-Ukrainian anti-war protests took place in Mariupol. The UN Security Council called an emergency meeting.
The Pskov-based 76th Guards Air Assault Division allegedly entered Ukrainian territory in August and engaged in a skirmish near Luhansk, suffering 80 dead. The Ukrainian Defence Ministry said that they had seized two of the unit's armoured vehicles near Luhansk, and reported destroying another three tanks and two armoured vehicles in other regions. The Russian government denied the skirmish took place, but on 18 August, the 76th was awarded the Order of Suvorov, one of Russia's highest awards, by Russian minister of defence Sergey Shoigu for the "successful completion of military missions" and "courage and heroism".
The speaker of Russia's upper house of parliament and Russian state television channels acknowledged that Russian soldiers entered Ukraine, but referred to them as "volunteers". A reporter for Novaya Gazeta, an opposition newspaper in Russia, stated that the Russian military leadership paid soldiers to resign their commissions and fight in Ukraine in the early summer of 2014, and then began ordering soldiers into Ukraine. Russian opposition MP Lev Shlosberg made similar statements, although he said combatants from his country are "regular Russian troops", disguised as units of the DPR and LPR.
In early September 2014, Russian state-owned television channels reported on the funerals of Russian soldiers who had died in Ukraine, but described them as "volunteers" fighting for the "Russian world". Valentina Matviyenko, a top United Russia politician, also praised "volunteers" fighting in "our fraternal nation". Russian state television for the first time showed the funeral of a soldier killed fighting in Ukraine.
Mariupol offensive and first Minsk ceasefire
On 3 September, Poroshenko said he and Putin had reached a "permanent ceasefire" agreement. Russia denied this, denying that it was a party to the conflict, adding that "they only discussed how to settle the conflict". Poroshenko then recanted. On 5 September Russia's Permanent OSCE Representative Andrey Kelin, said that it was natural that pro-Russian separatists "are going to liberate" Mariupol. Ukrainian forces stated that Russian intelligence groups had been spotted in the area. Kelin said 'there might be volunteers over there.' On 4 September 2014, a NATO officer said that several thousand regular Russian forces operating in Ukraine.
On 5 September 2014, the Minsk Protocol ceasefire agreement drew a line of demarcation between Ukraine and separatist-controlled portions of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
End of 2014 and Minsk II agreements
On 7 and 12 November, NATO officials reconfirmed the Russian presence, citing 32 tanks, 16 howitzer cannons and 30 trucks of troops entering the country. US general Philip M. Breedlove said "Russian tanks, Russian artillery, Russian air defence systems and Russian combat troops" had been sighted. NATO said it had seen an increase in Russian tanks, artillery pieces and other heavy military equipment in Ukraine and renewed its call for Moscow to withdraw its forces. The Chicago Council on Global Affairs stated that Russian separatists enjoyed technical advantages over the Ukrainian army since the large inflow of advanced military systems in mid-2014: effective anti-aircraft weapons ("Buk", MANPADS) suppressed Ukrainian air strikes, Russian drones provided intelligence, and Russian secure communications system disrupted Ukrainian communications intelligence. The Russian side employed electronic warfare systems that Ukraine lacked. Similar conclusions about the technical advantage of the Russian separatists were voiced by the Conflict Studies Research Centre. In the 12 November United Nations Security Council meeting, the United Kingdom's representative accused Russia of intentionally constraining OSCE observation missions' capabilities, pointing out that the observers were allowed to monitor only two kilometers of border, and drones deployed to extend their capabilities were jammed or shot down.
In January 2014, Donetsk, Luhansk, and Mariupol represented the three battle fronts. Poroshenko described a dangerous escalation on 21 January amid reports of more than 2,000 additional Russian troops, 200 tanks and armed personnel carriers crossing the border. He abbreviated his visit to the World Economic Forum because of his concerns.
A new package of measures to end the conflict, known as Minsk II, was agreed on 15 February 2015. On 18 February, Ukrainian forces withdrew from Debatlseve, in the last high-intensity battle of the Donbas war until 2022. In September 2015 the United Nations Human Rights Office estimated that 8000 casualties had resulted from the conflict.
A stable line of conflict (2015–2021)
After the Minsk agreements, the war settled into static trench warfare around the agreed line of contact, with few changes in territorial control. The conflict was marked by artillery duels, special forces operations, and trench warfare. Hostilities never ceased for a substantial period of time, but continued at a low level despite repeated attempts at ceasefire. In the months after the fall of Debaltseve, minor skirmishes continued along the line of contact, but no territorial changes occurred. Both sides began fortifying their position by building networks of trenches, bunkers and tunnels, turning the conflict into static trench warfare. The relatively static conflict was labelled a "frozen" by some, but Russia never achieved this as the fighting never stopped. Between 2014 and 2022 there were 29 ceasefires, each agreed to remain in force indefinitely. However, none of them lasted more than two weeks.
US and international officials continued to report the active presence of Russian military in eastern Ukraine, including in the Debaltseve area. In 2015, Russian separatist forces were estimated to number around 36,000 troops (compared to 34,000 Ukrainian), of whom 8,500–10,000 were Russian soldiers. Additionally, around 1,000 GRU troops were operating in the area. Another 2015 estimate held that Ukrainian forces outnumbered Russian forces 40,000 to 20,000. In 2017, on average one Ukrainian soldier died in combat every three days, with an estimated 6,000 Russian and 40,000 separatist troops in the region.
Cases of killed and wounded Russian soldiers were discussed in local Russian media. Recruiting for Donbas was performed openly via veteran and paramilitary organisations. Vladimir Yefimov, leader of one such organisation, explained how the process worked in the Ural area. The organisation recruited mostly army veterans, but also policemen, firefighters etc. with military experience. The cost of equipping one volunteer was estimated at 350,000 rubles (around $6500) plus salary of 60,000 to 240,000 rubles per month. The recruits received weapons only after arriving in the conflict zone. Often, Russian troops traveled disguised as Red Cross personnel. Igor Trunov, head of the Russian Red Cross in Moscow, condemned these convoys, saying they complicated humanitarian aid delivery. Russia refused to allow OSCE to expand its mission beyond two border crossings.
The volunteers were issued a document claiming that their participation was limited to "offering humanitarian help" to avoid Russian mercenary laws. Russia's anti-mercenary legislation defined a mercenary as someone who "takes part [in fighting] with aims counter to the interests of the Russian Federation".
In August 2016, the Ukrainian intelligence service, the SBU, published telephone intercepts from 2014 of Sergey Glazyev (Russian presidential adviser), Konstantin Zatulin, and other people in which they discussed covert funding of pro-Russian activists in Eastern Ukraine, the occupation of administration buildings and other actions that triggered the conflict. As early as February 2014, Glazyev gave direct instructions to various pro-Russian parties on how to take over local administration offices, what to do afterwards, how to formulate demands, and promised support from Russia, including "sending our guys".
2018 Kerch Strait incident
Russia gained de facto control of the Kerch Strait in 2014. In 2017, Ukraine appealed to a court of arbitration over the use of the strait. By 2018 Russia had built a bridge over the strait, limiting the size of ships that could pass through, imposed new regulations, and repeatedly detained Ukrainian vessels. On 25 November 2018, three Ukrainian boats traveling from Odesa to Mariupol were seized by Russian warships; 24 Ukrainian sailors were detained. A day later on 26 November 2018, the Ukrainian parliament overwhelmingly backed the imposition of martial law along Ukraine's coastal regions and those bordering Russia.
More than 110 Ukrainian soldiers were killed in the conflict in 2019. In May 2019, newly elected Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy took office promising to end the war in Donbas. In December 2019, Ukraine and pro-Russian separatists began swapping prisoners of war. Around 200 prisoners were exchanged on 29 December 2019. According to Ukrainian authorities, 50 Ukrainian soldiers were killed in 2020. Since 2019, Russia has issued over 650,000 internal Russian passports to Ukrainians.
Russian military buildup around Ukraine (2021–2022)
From March to April 2021, Russia commenced a major military build-up near the border, followed by a second build-up between October 2021 to February 2022 in Russia and Belarus. Throughout, the Russian government repeatedly denied it had plans to attack Ukraine.
In early December 2021, following Russian denials, the US released intelligence of Russian invasion plans, including satellite photographs showing Russian troops and equipment near the border. The intelligence reported a Russian list of key sites and individuals to be killed or neutralized. The US released multiple reports that accurately predicted the invasion plans.
Russian accusations and demands
In the months preceding the invasion, Russian officials accused Ukraine of inciting tensions, Russophobia, and repressing Russian speakers. They made multiple security demands of Ukraine, NATO, and other EU countries. On 9 December 2021 Putin said that "Russophobia is a first step towards genocide". Putin's claims were dismissed by the international community, and Russian claims of genocide were rejected as baseless.
In a 21 February speech, Putin questioned the legitimacy of the Ukrainian state, repeating an inaccurate claim that "Ukraine never had a tradition of genuine statehood". He incorrectly stated that Vladimir Lenin had created Ukraine, by carving a separate Soviet Republic out of what Putin said was Russian land, that Joseph Stalin extended Ukrainian territory with lands from other eastern European countries following the Second World War, and that Nikita Khrushchev "took Crimea away from Russia for some reason and gave it to Ukraine" in 1954.
Putin falsely claimed that Ukrainian society and government were dominated by neo-Nazism, invoking the history of collaboration in German-occupied Ukraine during World War II, and echoing an antisemitic conspiracy theory that cast Russian Christians, rather than Jews, as the true victims of Nazi Germany. Ukraine does suffer a far-right fringe, including the neo-Nazi linked Azov Battalion and Right Sector. Analysts described Putin's rhetoric as greatly exaggerated. Zelenskyy, who is Jewish, stated that his grandfather served in the Soviet army fighting against the Nazis; three of his family members were killed in the Holocaust.
During the second build-up, Russia issued demands to the US and NATO, insisting on a legally binding arrangement preventing Ukraine from ever joining NATO, and the removal of multinational forces stationed in NATO's Eastern European member states. These demands were rejected by the US and NATO. The demand for a formal treaty preventing Ukraine from joining NATO was rejected by Western officials as it would contravene the treaty's "open door" policy, although NATO made no efforts to comply with Ukraine's requests to join.
Prelude to full invasion
Fighting in Donbas escalated significantly from 17 February 2022 onwards. The Ukrainians and the pro-Russian separatists each accused the other of attacks. There was a sharp increase in artillery shelling by the Russian-led militants in Donbas, which was considered by Ukraine and its allies to be an attempt to provoke the Ukrainian army or create a pretext for invasion. On 18 February, the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics ordered mandatory emergency evacuations of civilians from their respective capital cities, although observers noted that full evacuations would take months. The Russian government intensified its disinformation campaign, with Russian state media promoting fabricated videos (false flags) on a nearly hourly basis purporting to show Ukrainian forces attacking Russia. Many of the disinformation videos were amateurish, and evidence showed that the claimed attacks, explosions, and evacuations in Donbas were staged by Russia.
On 21 February at 22:35 (UTC+3), Putin announced that the Russian government would diplomatically recognize the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics. The same evening, Putin directed that Russian troops deploy into Donbas, in what Russia referred to as a "peacekeeping mission". On 22 February, the Federation Council unanimously authorised Putin to use military force outside Russia. In response, Zelenskyy ordered the conscription of army reservists; The following day, Ukraine's parliament proclaimed a 30-day nationwide state of emergency and ordered the mobilisation of all reservists. Russia began to evacuate its embassy in Kyiv.
On the night of 23 February, Zelenskyy gave a speech in Russian in which he appealed to the citizens of Russia to prevent war. He rejected Russia's claims about neo-Nazis and stated that he had no intention of attacking the Donbas. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on 23 February that the separatist leaders in Donetsk and Luhansk had sent a letter to Putin stating that Ukrainian shelling had caused civilian deaths and appealing for military support.
Full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine (2022–present)
The Russian invasion of Ukraine began on the morning of 24 February, when Putin announced a "special military operation" to "demilitarise and denazify" Ukraine. Minutes later, missiles and airstrikes hit across Ukraine, including Kyiv, shortly followed by a large ground invasion along multiple fronts. Zelenskyy declared martial law and a general mobilisation of all male Ukrainian citizens between 18 and 60, who were banned from leaving the country.
Russian attacks were initially launched on a northern front from Belarus towards Kyiv, a north-eastern front towards Kharkiv, a southern front from Crimea, and a south-eastern front from Luhansk and Donetsk. In the northern front, amidst heavy losses and strong Ukrainian resistance surrounding Kyiv, Russia's advance stalled in March, and by April its troops retreated. On 8 April, Russia placed its forces in southern and eastern Ukraine under the command of General Aleksandr Dvornikov, and some units withdrawn from the north were redeployed to the Donbas. On 19 April, Russia launched a renewed attack across a 500 kilometres (300 mi) long front extending from Kharkiv to Donetsk and Luhansk. By 13 May, a Ukraine counter-offensive had driven back Russian forces near Kharkiv. By 20 May, Mariupol fell to Russian troops following a prolonged siege of the Azovstal steel works. Russian forces continued to bomb both military and civilian targets far from the frontline. The war caused the largest refugee and humanitarian crisis within Europe since the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s; the UN described it as the fastest-growing such crisis since World War II. In the first week of the invasion, the UN reported over a million refugees had fled Ukraine; this subsequently rose to over 7,405,590 by 24 September, a reduction from over eight million due to some refugees' return.
Ukrainian forces launched counteroffensives in the south in August, and in the northeast in September. On 30 September, Russia annexed four oblasts of Ukraine which it had partially conquered during the invasion. This annexation was generally unrecognized and condemned by the countries of the world. After Putin announced that he would begin conscription drawn from the 300,000 citizens with military training and potentially the pool of about 25 million Russians who could be eligible for conscription, one-way tickets out of the country nearly or completely sold out. The Ukrainian offensive in the northeast successfully recaptured the majority of Kharkiv Oblast in September. In the course of the southern counteroffensive, Ukraine retook the city of Kherson in November and Russian forces withdrew to the east bank of the Dnieper River.
The invasion was internationally condemned as a war of aggression. A United Nations General Assembly resolution demanded a full withdrawal of Russian forces, the International Court of Justice ordered Russia to suspend military operations and the Council of Europe expelled Russia. Many countries imposed new sanctions, which affected the economies of Russia and the world, and provided humanitarian and military aid to Ukraine. In September 2022, Putin signed a law that would punish anyone who resists conscription with a 10-year prison sentence resulting in an international push to allow asylum for Russians fleeing conscription.
According to The New York Times, as of February 2023, the "number of Russian troops killed and wounded in Ukraine is approaching 200,000."
Discover more about History related topics
Armed Forces of Ukraine
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
Little green men (Russo-Ukrainian War)
Capture of the Crimean Parliament
Capture of Southern Naval Base
Combatants of the war in Donbas
List of equipment used by Russian separatist forces of the war in Donbas
2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
Human rights violations
Violations of human rights and atrocity crimes have both occurred during the war. From 2014 to 2021, there were more than 3,000 civilian casualties, with most occurring in 2014 and 2015. The right of movement was impeded for the inhabitants of the conflict zone. Arbitrary detention was practiced by both sides in the first years of the conflict. It decreased after 2016 in government-held areas, while in the separatist-held ones it continued. The investigation into the abuses, including torture, committed by both sides made little progress. According to OHCHR the closure of three TV channels amounted to a violation of the freedom of expression. There were cases of conflict-related sexual violence, however OHCHR believes that "there are no grounds to believe that sexual violence has been used for strategic or tactical ends by Government forces or the armed groups in the eastern regions of Ukraine." OHCHR estimates that from 2014 to 2021 around 4,000 detainees were subjected to torture and ill-treatment, approximately 1,500 by government actors and 2,500 by separatist armed groups, and reckons that around 340 of them were also victims of sexual violence.
Discover more about Human rights violations related topics
Reactions to the Russian annexation of Crimea
Interim Ukrainian President Oleksandr Turchynov accused Russia of "provoking a conflict" by backing the seizure of the Crimean parliament building and other government offices on the Crimean peninsula. He compared Russia's military actions to the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, when Russian troops occupied parts of the Republic of Georgia and the breakaway enclaves of Abkhazia and South Ossetia were established under the control of Russian-backed administrations. He called on Putin to withdraw Russian troops from Crimea and stated that Ukraine will "preserve its territory" and "defend its independence". On 1 March, he warned, "Military intervention would be the beginning of war and the end of any relations between Ukraine and Russia." On 1 March, Acting President Oleksandr Turchynov placed the Armed Forces of Ukraine on full alert and combat readiness.
The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and IDPs was established by Ukrainian government on 20 April 2016 to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.
NATO and United States military response
On 4 March 2014, the United States pledged $1 billion in aid to Ukraine. Russia's actions increased tensions in nearby countries historically within its sphere of influence, particularly the Baltic and Moldova. All have large Russian-speaking populations, and Russian troops are stationed in the breakaway Moldovan territory of Transnistria. Some devoted resources to increasing defensive capabilities, and many requested increased support from the U.S. and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which they had joined in recent years. The conflict "reinvigorated" NATO, which had been created to face the Soviet Union, but had devoted more resources to "expeditionary missions" in recent years.
In addition to diplomatic support in its conflict with Russia, the U.S. provided Ukraine with US$1.5 billion in military aid during the 2010s. In 2018 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a provision blocking any training of Azov Battalion of the Ukrainian National Guard by American forces. In previous years, between 2014 and 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives passed amendments banning support of Azov, but due to pressure from the Pentagon, the amendments were quietly lifted.
The initial reaction to the escalation of tensions in Crimea caused the Russian and European stock market to tumble. The intervention caused the Swiss franc to climb to a 2-year high against the dollar and 1-year high against the Euro. The Euro and the US dollar both rose, as did the Australian dollar. The Russian stock market declined by more than 10 percent, while the Russian ruble hit all-time lows against the US dollar and the Euro. The Russian central bank hiked interest rates and intervened in the foreign exchange markets to the tune of $12 billion to try to stabilize its currency. Prices for wheat and grain rose, with Ukraine being a major exporter of both crops.
Later in March 2014, the reaction of the financial markets to the Crimea annexation was surprisingly mellow, with global financial markets rising immediately after the referendum held in Crimea, one explanation being that the sanctions were already priced in following the earlier Russian incursion. Other observers considered that the positive reaction of the global financial markets on Monday 17 March 2014, after the announcement of sanctions against Russia by the EU and the US, revealed that these sanctions were too weak to hurt Russia. In early August 2014, the German DAX was down by 6 percent for the year, and 11 percent since June, over concerns Russia, Germany's 13th biggest trade partner, would retaliate against sanctions.
Reactions to the Russian intervention in the Donbas
Ukrainian public opinion
A poll of the Ukrainian public, excluding Russian-annexed Crimea, was taken by the International Republican Institute from 12 to 25 September 2014. 89% of those polled opposed 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. As broken down by region, 78% of those polled from Eastern Ukraine (including Dnipropetrovsk Oblast) opposed said intervention, along with 89% in Southern Ukraine, 93% in Central Ukraine, and 99% in Western Ukraine. As broken down by native language, 79% of Russian speakers and 95% of Ukrainian speakers opposed the intervention. 80% of those polled said the country should remain a unitary country.
A poll of the Crimean public in Russian-annexed Crimea was taken by the Ukrainian branch of Germany's biggest market research organization, GfK, on 16–22 January 2015. According to its results: "Eighty-two percent of those polled said they fully supported Crimea's inclusion in Russia, and another 11 percent expressed partial support. Only 4 percent spoke out against it."
A joint poll conducted by Levada and the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology from September to October 2020 found that in the breakaway regions controlled by the DPR/LNR, just over half of the respondents wanted to join Russia (either with or without some autonomous status) while less than one-tenth wanted independence and 12% wanted reintegration into Ukraine. It contrasted with respondents in Kyiv-controlled Donbas, where a vast majority felt the separatist regions should be returned to Ukraine. According to results from Levada in January 2022, roughly 70% of those in the breakaway regions said their territories should become part of the Russian Federation.
Russian public opinion
An August 2014 survey by the Levada Centre reported that only 13% of those Russians polled would support the Russian government in an open war with Ukraine. Street protests against the war in Ukraine arose in Russia. Notable protests first occurred in March and large protests occurred in September when "tens of thousands" protested the war in Ukraine with a peace march in downtown Moscow on Sunday, 21 September 2014, "under heavy police supervision".
Reactions to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Ukrainian public opinion
In March 2022, a week after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, 98% of Ukrainians – including 82% of ethnic Russians living in Ukraine – said they did not believe that any part of Ukraine was rightfully part of Russia, according to Lord Ashcroft's polls which did not include Crimea and the separatist-controlled part of Donbas. 97% of Ukrainians said they had an unfavourable view of Russian President Vladimir Putin, with a further 94% saying they had an unfavourable view of the Russian Armed Forces.
At the end of 2021, 75% of Ukrainians said they had a positive attitude toward ordinary Russians, while in May 2022, 82% of Ukrainians said they had a negative attitude toward ordinary Russians.
Russian public opinion
An April 2022 survey by the Levada Centre reported that approximately 74% of the Russians polled supported the "special military operation" in Ukraine, suggesting that Russian public opinion has shifted considerably since 2014. According to some sources, a reason many Russians supported the "special military operation" has to do with the propaganda and disinformation. In addition, it has been suggested that some respondents did not want to answer pollsters' questions for fear of negative consequences. At the end of March, a poll conducted in Russia by the Levada Center concluded the following: When asked why they think the military operation is taking place, respondents said it was to protect and defend civilians, ethnic Russians or Russian speakers in Ukraine (43%), to prevent an attack on Russia (25%), to get rid of nationalists and "denazify" Ukraine (21%), and to incorporate Ukraine or the Donbas region into Russia (3%)."
On 28 April 2022, US President Joe Biden asked Congress for an additional $33 billion to assist Ukraine, including $20 billion to provide weapons to Ukraine. On 5 May, Ukraine's Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal announced that Ukraine had received more than $12 billion worth of weapons and financial aid from Western countries since the start of Russia's invasion on 24 February. On 21 May 2022, the United States passed legislation providing $40 billion in new military and humanitarian foreign aid to Ukraine, marking a historically large commitment of funds. In August 2022, U.S. defense spending to counter the Russian war effort exceeded the first 5 years of war costs in Afghanistan. The Washington Post reported that new U.S. weapons delivered to the Ukrainian war front suggest a closer combat scenario with more casualties. The United States looks to build "enduring strength in Ukraine" with increased arms shipments and a record-breaking $3 billion military aid package.
Russian military suppliers
After expending large amounts of heavy weapons and munitions over months, the Russian Federation received combat drones and loitering munitions from Iran, deliveries of tanks and other armoured vehicles from Belarus, and reportedly planned to trade for artillery ammunition from North Korea and ballistic missiles from Iran.
China may be providing Russia technology it needs for high-tech weapons, and the United States sanctioned a Chinese firm for providing satellite imagery to Russian mercenary forces fighting in Ukraine.
Discover more about International reactions related topics
Source: "Russo-Ukrainian War", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 20th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Ukrainian_War.
Get our FREE extension now!
2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine
National Guard of Ukraine
Donetsk People's Republic
Russian people's militias in Ukraine
War in Donbas (2014–2022)
Little green men (Russo-Ukrainian War)
Russian-occupied territories of Ukraine
Russian invasion of Ukraine
On conducting a special military operation
Outline of the Russo-Ukrainian War
- ^ Russian invasion took place between 20 February and 26 March, the breakaway self-declared republic unilaterally announced independence on 11 March, being annexed by Russia on 18 March.
- ^ Self-delcared republic since 7 April 2014; annexation by Russia announced on 30 September 2022.
- ^ Self-declared republic since 27 April 2014; annexation by Russia announced on 30 September 2022.
- ^ For further details, see Belarusian involvement in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
- ^ There remain "some contradictions and inherent problems" regarding the date on which the annexation began. Ukraine claims 20 February 2014 as "the beginning of the temporary occupation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia", citing the timeframe inscribed on the Russian medal "For the Return of Crimea", and in 2015 the Ukrainian parliament officially designated the date as such. On 20 February 2014, Vladimir Konstantinov who at that time was a chairman of the republican council of Crimea and representing the Party of Regions expressed his thoughts about secession of the region from Ukraine. On 23 February 2014 the Russian ambassador to Ukraine Mikhail Zurabov was recalled to Moscow due to a "worsening of [the] situation in Ukraine". In early March 2015, President Putin stated in a Russian movie about the annexation of Crimea that he ordered the operation to "restore" Crimea to Russia following an all-night emergency meeting on 22–23 February 2014, and in 2018 the Russian Foreign Minister claimed that the earlier "start date" on the medal was due to a "technical misunderstanding".
- ^ Russian: pоссийско-украинская война, romanized: rossiysko-ukrainskaya voyna; Ukrainian: російсько-українська війна, romanized: rosiisko-ukrainska viina.
- ^ Many countries have provided various levels of support to Ukraine short of becoming belligerents in the war, while Belarus has provided Russian forces territorial access for the 2022 invasion.
- ^ "Maps: Tracking the Russian Invasion of Ukraine". The New York Times. 14 February 2022. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
- ^ Revisiting Ukraine's Nuclear Past Will Not Help Secure Its Future, Mariana Budjeryn, Lawfare. 21 May 2021
- ^ Budjeryn, Mariana. "Issue Brief #3: The Breach: Ukraine's Territorial Integrity and the Budapest Memorandum" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- ^ Vasylenko, Volodymyr (15 December 2009). "On assurances without guarantees in a 'shelved document'". The Day. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- ^ Harahan, Joseph P. (2014). "With Courage and Persistence: Eliminating and Securing Weapons of Mass Destruction with the Nunn-Luger Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs" (PDF). DTRA History Series. Defense Threat Reduction Agency. ASIN B01LYEJ56H. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- ^ "Istanbul Document 1999". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 19 November 1999. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ Wiegrefe, Klaus (15 February 2022). "NATO's Eastward Expansion: Is Vladimir Putin Right?". Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ Hall, Gavin E. L. (14 February 2022). "Ukraine: the history behind Russia's claim that Nato promised not to expand to the east". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- ^ Leung, Rebecca (11 February 2009). "Yushchenko: 'Live And Carry On'". CBS News. CBS. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- ^ "Study: Dioxin that poisoned Yushchenko made in lab". Kyiv Post. London: Businessgroup. Associated Press. 5 August 2009. ISSN 1563-6429. Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
- ^ "Yushchenko to Russia: Hand over witnesses". Kyiv Post. Businessgroup. 28 October 2009. ISSN 1563-6429. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- ^ "The Supreme Court findings" (in Ukrainian). Supreme Court of Ukraine. 3 December 2004. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- ^ "Ukraine-Independent Ukraine". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (28 May 2014). "Russia and the 'Color Revolution'". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- ^ "Putin calls 'color revolutions' an instrument of destabilization – Dec. 15, 2011". Kyiv Post. Interfax Ukraine. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- ^ "Антиоранжевый митинг проходит на Поклонной горе" [Anti-orange rally takes place on Poklonnaya Hill] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 4 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- ^ Brown, Colin (3 April 2008). "EU allies unite against Bush over Nato membership for Georgia and Ukraine". The Independent. p. 24.
- ^ Evans, Michael (5 April 2008). "President tells summit he wants security and friendship". The Times. p. 46.
President Putin, in a bravura performance before the world's media at the end of the Nato summit, warned President Bush and other alliance leaders that their plan to expand eastwards to Ukraine and Georgia "didn't contribute to trust and predictability in our relations.
- ^ Wong, Edward; Jakes, Lara (13 January 2022). "NATO Won't Let Ukraine Join Soon. Here's Why". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
- ^ "Yanukovych tops list of presidential candidates in Ukraine – poll". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- ^ Harding, Luke (8 February 2010). "Yanukovych set to become president as observers say Ukraine election was fair". The Guardian. Kyiv. ISSN 1756-3224. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- ^ "Parliament passes statement on Ukraine's aspirations for European integration". Kyiv Post. 22 February 2013.
- ^ Dinan, Desmond; Nugent, Neil (eds.). The European Union in Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 3, 274.
- ^ "Rada removes Yanukovych from office, schedules new elections for May 25". Interfax-Ukraine. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ a b "Ukraine President Yanukovich impeached". Al Jazeera. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- ^ Feffer, John (14 March 2014). "Who Are These 'People,' Anyway?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ На отмену закона о региональных языках на Украине наложат вето [The abolition of the law on regional languages in Ukraine will be vetoed] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ Ayres, Sabra (28 February 2014). "Is it too late for Kyiv to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- ^ a b c d e f Kofman, Michael (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-9617-3. OCLC 990544142.
By March 26, the annexation was essentially complete, and Russia began returning seized military hardware to Ukraine.
- ^ Polityuk, Pavel; Robinson, Matt (22 February 2014). Roche, Andrew (ed.). "Ukraine parliament removes Yanukovich, who flees Kyiv in "coup"". Reuters. Gabriela Baczynska, Marcin Goettig, Peter Graff, Giles Elgood. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ "Yanukovich poshel po stopam Yushchenko – sudy opyat' otbirayut mayaki u rossiyskikh voyennykh" Янукович пошел по стопам Ющенко – суды опять отбирают маяки у российских военных [Yanukovych followed in Yushchenko's footsteps – courts again take away beacons from Russian military]. DELO (in Russian). 11 August 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ Stephen, Chris (16 January 2006). "Russian anger as Ukraine seizes lighthouse". Irish Times. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
- ^ Kimball, Spencer (11 March 2014). "Bound by treaty: Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- ^ "Янукович віддав крим російському флоту ще на 25 років". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ Putin's Ukraine invasion – do declarations of war still exist?, R. Pullen, C. Frost, The Conversation, 3 March 2022]
- ^ "Ukraine's envoy says Russia 'declared war'". The Economic Times. 24 February 2022.
- ^ 'No other option': Excerpts of Putin's speech declaring war, AlJazeera, 24 February 2022
- ^ Sheftalovic, Zoya (24 February 2022). "Battles flare across Ukraine after Putin declares war Battles flare as Putin declares war". Politico Europe.
- ^ Verkhovna Rada recognized Russia as a terrorist state, ukrinform.net, 15 April 2022
- ^ Cathcart, Will (25 April 2014). "Putin's Crimean Medal of Honor, Forged Before the War Even Began". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ "В России учредили медаль За возвращение Крыма". korrespondent.net (in Russian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ a b "The Russian Invasion of the Crimean Peninsula 2014–2015" (PDF). Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- ^ "10 facts you should know about russian military aggression against Ukraine". Ukraine government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- ^ "Armed men seize two airports in Ukraine's Crimea, Russia denies involvement — Yahoo News". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- ^ Birnbaum, Michael (15 March 2015). "Putin Details Crimea Takeover Before First Anniversary". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- ^ Mackinnon, Mark (26 February 2014). "Globe in Ukraine: Russian-backed fighters restrict access to Crimean city". Toronto: The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- ^ "Russia flexes military muscle as tensions rise in Ukraine's Crimea". CNN. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
A CNN team in the area encountered more than one pro-Russian militia checkpoint on the road from Sevastopol to Simferopol.
- ^ "Checkpoints put at all entrances to Sevastopol". Kyiv Post. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
Checkpoints were put up at all entrances to Sevastopol last night and the borders to the city are guarded by groups of people, police units, and traffic police.
- ^ a b "Russian parliament approves use of armed forces in Crimea". dw.com. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- ^ Jen Weedon, FireEye (2015). "Beyond 'Cyber War': Russia's Use of Strategic Cyber Espionage and Information Operations in Ukraine". In Kenneth Geers (ed.). Cyber War in Perspective: Russian Aggression against Ukraine. Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications. ISBN 978-9949-9544-5-2. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- ^ "Ukraine Parliament declares Crimea temporarily occupied territory". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- ^ ""Russia Threatens Nuclear Strikes Over Crimea"". The Diplomat. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- ^ "Putin: Russia to set up military force in Crimea". ITV. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ a b "Ukraine crisis: Russian troops crossed border, Nato says". BBC News. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "Doorstep statement".
NATO Allies have provided training to Ukrainian forces since 2014. In particular, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, have conducted significant training in Ukraine since the illegal annexation of Crimea, but also some EU NATO members have been part of these efforts.
- ^ a b Platonova, Daria (2022). The Donbas Conflict in Ukraine : elites, protest, and partition. Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 978-1-003-21371-0. OCLC 1249709944.
- ^ a b c Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. pp. 33–34.
- ^ Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 631–652. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- ^ Karber, Phillip A. (29 September 2015). "Lessons Learned" from the Russo-Ukrainian War (Report). The Potomac Foundation.
- ^ Freedman, Lawrence (2 November 2014). "Ukraine and the Art of Limited War". Survival. 56 (6): 13. doi:10.1080/00396338.2014.985432. ISSN 0039-6338. S2CID 154981360.
- ^ "Russia's buildup near Ukraine may reach 40,000 troops: U.S. sources". Reuters. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- ^ Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 38.
- ^ Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. pp. 43–44.
- ^ "Strelkov/Girkin Demoted, Transnistrian Siloviki Strengthened in 'Donetsk People's Republic'". Jamestown. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ a b "Pushing locals aside, Russians take top rebel posts in east Ukraine". Reuters. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- ^ Matsuzato, Kimitaka (22 March 2017). "The Donbass War: Outbreak and Deadlock". Demokratizatsiya. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 25 (2): 175–202. ISBN 978-1-4008-8731-6.
- ^ Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 647–648. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- ^ a b "Rebels appeal to join Russia after east Ukraine referendum". Reuters. 12 May 2014.
- ^ "Ukraine rebels hold referendums in Donetsk and Luhansk". BBC News. 11 May 2014.
- ^ "Rebels declare victory in East Ukraine vote on self-rule". Reuters. 11 May 2014.
- ^ Holcomb, Franklin (2017). The Kremlin's Irregular Army (PDF). Institute for the Study of War.
- ^ "Ukraine reinstates conscription as crisis deepens". 2 May 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- ^ Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 69.
- ^ Fedorov, Yury E. (15 January 2019). "Russia's 'Hybrid' Aggression Against Ukraine". Routledge Handbook of Russian Security. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-18122-8.
- ^ Karber, Phillip A. (29 September 2015). "Lessons Learned" from the Russo-Ukrainian War (Report). The Potomac Foundation. p. 34.
- ^ Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 43.
- ^ Loshkariov, Ivan D.; Sushentsov, Andrey A. (2 January 2016). "Radicalization of Russians in Ukraine: from 'accidental' diaspora to rebel movement". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. Informa UK Limited. 16 (1): 71–90. doi:10.1080/14683857.2016.1149349. ISSN 1468-3857. S2CID 147321629.
- ^ Higgins, Andrew; Clark, Nicola (9 September 2014). "Malaysian Jet Over Ukraine Was Downed by 'High-Energy Objects,' Dutch Investigators Say". The New York Times.
- ^ "Raw: Crews begin moving bodies at jet crash site". USA Today. Associated Press. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- ^ Miller, Nick (19 July 2014). "MH17: 'Unknown groups' use body bags". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- ^ Grytsenko, Oksana. "MH17: armed rebels fuel chaos as rotting corpses pile up on the roadside". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- ^ "ATO forces take over Debaltseve, Shakhtarsk, Torez, Lutuhyne, fighting for Pervomaisk and Snizhne underway – ATO press center". Interfax-Ukraine News Agency. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- ^ "Here's Why Putin Calling Eastern Ukraine 'Novorossiya' Is Important". The Huffington Post. 18 April 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (17 April 2014). "Away From Show of Diplomacy in Geneva, Putin Puts on a Show of His Own". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ Luhn, Alec; Roberts, Dan (23 August 2014). "Ukraine condemns 'direct invasion' as Russian aid convoy crosses border". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ^ Dolgov, Anna (21 November 2014). "Russia's Igor Strelkov: I Am Responsible for War in Eastern Ukraine". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ a b Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 44.
- ^ "Putin's Number One Gunman in Ukraine Warns Him of Possible Defeat". The Daily Beast. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- ^ Snyder, Timothy (3 April 2018). The road to unfreedom : Russia, Europe, America (First ed.). New York, NY. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-525-57446-0. OCLC 1029484935.
- ^ "Captured Russian troops 'in Ukraine by accident'". BBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- ^ Walker, Shaun (26 August 2014). "Russia admits its soldiers have been caught in Ukraine". The Guardian. Kyiv. Retrieved 20 October 2022.
- ^ Freedman, Lawrence (2 November 2014). "Ukraine and the Art of Limited War". Survival. 56 (6): 35. doi:10.1080/00396338.2014.985432. ISSN 0039-6338. S2CID 154981360.
- ^ Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 649. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- ^ "Herashchenko kazhe, shcho Rosiya napala na Ukrayinu shche 24 serpnya" Геращенко каже, що Росія напала на Україну ще 24 серпня [Gerashchenko says that Russia attacked Ukraine on August 24]. ukrinform.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- ^ "V Amvrosiyevku voshli rossiyskiye voyska bez znakov otlichiya" В Амвросиевку вошли российские войска без знаков отличия [Russian troops entered Amvrosievka without insignia]. Liga Novosti (in Russian). 24 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- ^ "Poroshenko: ATO Is Ukraine's Patriotic War". Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
President Petro Poroshenko considers the government's anti-terrorist operation (ATO) against separatists as Ukraine's patriotic war.
- ^ Gearin, Mary (24 August 2014). "Ukrainian POWs marched at bayonet-point through city". ABC (Australia). Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ Heintz, Jim (25 August 2014). "Ukraine: Russian Tank Column Enters Southeast". ABC News. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: 'Column from Russia' crosses border". BBC News. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ^ Nelson, Soraya Sarhaddi (26 August 2014). "Russian Separatists Open New Front in Southern Ukraine". National Public Radio (NPR). Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ^ Kramer, Andrew. "Ukraine Says Russian Forces Lead Major New Offensive in East". CNBC. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014.
Tanks, artillery and infantry have crossed from Russia into an unbreached part of eastern Ukraine in recent days, attacking Ukrainian forces and causing panic and wholesale retreat not only in this small border town but a wide swath of territory, in what Ukrainian and Western military officials are calling a stealth invasion.
- ^ Tsevtkova, Maria (26 August 2014). "'Men in green' raise suspicions of east Ukrainian villagers". Reuters.
Unidentified, heavily-armed strangers with Russian accents have appeared in an eastern Ukrainian village, arousing residents' suspicions despite Moscow's denials that its troops have deliberately infiltrated the frontier.
- ^ Lowe, Christian; Tsvetkova, Maria (26 August 2014). "Exclusive – In Ukraine, an armoured column appears out of nowhere". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- ^ Gowen, Annie; Gearan, Anne (28 August 2014). "Russian armored columns said to capture key Ukrainian towns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- ^ a b "NATO: 1000 rosyjskich żołnierzy działa na Ukrainie. A Rosja znów: Nie przekraczaliśmy granicy [NA ŻYWO]". gazeta.pl (in Polish). 28 August 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- ^ "BBC:Ukraine crisis: 'Thousands of Russians' fighting in east, August 28". BBC News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- ^ "U.S. says Russia has 'outright lied' about Ukraine". USA Today. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- ^ "Сили АТО активно наступають. Терористи-найманці несуть чималі втрати". Міністерство оборони України.
- ^ a b c Sanderson, Bill (21 September 2014). "Leaked transcripts reveal Putin's secret Ukraine attack – New York Post". New York Post.
- ^ a b Morgan, Martin (5 September 2014). "Russia 'will react' to EU sanctions". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- ^ Alfred, Charlotte (6 September 2014). "Russian Journalist: 'Convincing Evidence' Moscow Sent Fighters To Ukraine". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- ^ Warketin, Alexander (29 August 2014). "Disowned and forgotten: Russian soldiers in Ukraine". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- ^ "Russian TV shows funeral of soldier killed 'on leave' in Ukraine". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 5 September 2014. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ В Кремле и Киеве разъяснили заявление о прекращении огня в Донбассе (in Russian). Interfax. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: Putin hopes for peace deal by Friday". BBC News. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ "Kremlin denies that Poroshenko and Putin agreed on ceasefire (UPDATES)". kyivpost.com. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- ^ MacFarquhar, Neil (3 September 2014). "Putin Lays Out Proposal to End Ukraine Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- ^ Walker, Shaun; Luhn, Alec; Willsher, Kim (3 September 2014). "Vladimir Putin drafts peace plan for eastern Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ "Russian ambassador anticipates 'liberation' of Mariupol in Ukraine". cnn.com. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ Croft, Adrian (4 September 2014). Faulconbridge, Guy (ed.). "Russia has 'several thousand' combat troops in Ukraine: NATO officer". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ "Russia Sends Dozens Of Tanks Into Ukraine". Sky News. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- ^ "Lithuania's statement at the UN Security Council briefing on Ukraine". Permanent Mission of the Republic of Lithuania to UN in New York. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- ^ "NATO sees increase of Russian tanks and artillery in Ukraine". Ukraine Today. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- ^ Giles, Keir (6 February 2015). "Ukraine crisis: Russia tests new weapons". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine — Security Council, 7311th meeting" (PDF). United Nations. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
- ^ "Pro-Russian rebels officially labelled terrorists by Ukraine government". CBC News. 27 January 2015.
- ^ Miller, Michael Weiss (26 January 2015). "Putin Is Winning the Ukraine War on Three Fronts". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ Francine Lacqua (21 January 2015). "Ukraine Talks Start as Poroshenko Warns of an Escalation". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: Leaders agree peace roadmap". BBC News. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- ^ "UN News – Close to 8,000 people killed in eastern Ukraine, says UN human rights report". UN News Service Section. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- ^ "Go Inside the Frozen Trenches of Eastern Ukraine". Time. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
- ^ Brown, Daniel. "Here's what it's like inside the bunkers Ukrainian troops are living in every day". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
- ^ Tsvetkova, Maria (21 July 2015). "Ceasefire brings limited respite for east Ukrainians". Euronews. Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- ^ Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. pp. 52–54.
- ^ Whitmore, Brian (26 July 2016). "The Daily Vertical: Ukraine's Forgotten War (Transcript)". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- ^ (in Ukrainian) The longest truce in Donbas. Does it really exist, Ukrayinska Pravda (7 September 2020)
- ^ Bender, Jeremy (11 February 2015). "US Army commander for Europe: Russian troops are currently fighting on Ukraine's front lines". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- ^ "Preserving Ukraine's Independence, Resisting Russian Aggression: What the United States and NATO Must Do" (PDF). Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- ^ Laurence Peter (6 February 2015). "Ukraine 'can't stop Russian armour'". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- ^ In Ukraine It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas, and a Lot Less Like Russia, The Daily Signal (4 December 2017) Kurt Volker: The Full Transcript, Politico (27 November 2017)
- ^ "Kyiv says there are about 6,000 Russian soldiers, 40,000 separatists in Donbas". Kyiv Post. 11 September 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- ^ Miller, Christopher (30 January 2017). "Anxious Ukraine Risks Escalation In 'Creeping Offensive'". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- ^ Alec Luhn (19 January 2015). "They were never there: Russia's silence for families of troops killed in Ukraine". Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- ^ a b Quinn, Allison (25 June 2015). "Russia trolls world by saying it can not stop its citizens from fighting in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ James Rupert (5 January 2015). "How Russians Are Sent to Fight in Ukraine". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- ^ "Head of Sverdlovsk special forces veterans union: 'I help to send volunteers to war in Ukraine'". Kyiv Post. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- ^ Ilya Kozakov (24 December 2014). "Глава фонда свердловских ветеранов спецназа: "Я помогаю добровольцам отправиться воевать на Украину"" [Head of spetsnaz veteran fund in Sverdlovsk: "I'm helping volunteers go to the war in Ukraine"]. E1.ru. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- ^ "Russians Used Humanitarian Convoys to Send Militants into Ukraine, Russian Organizer Says". The Interpreter Magazine. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- ^ "Red Cross Official Says Moscow Used 'Humanitarian' Convoys to Ship Arms to Militants in Ukraine". The Interpreter Magazine. 28 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- ^ Theise, Eugen (24 June 2015). "OSCE caught in the crossfire of the Ukraine propaganda war". Deutsche Welle.
- ^ Беседы "Сергея Глазьева" о Крыме и беспорядках на востоке Украины. Расшифровка — Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- ^ Whitmore, Brian (26 August 2016). "Podcast: The Tale Of The Tape". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- ^ Uapositon (29 August 2016). "English translation of audio evidence of Putin's Adviser Glazyev and other Russian politicians involvement in war in Ukraine". Uaposition. Focus on Ukraine. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- ^ Umland, Andreas. "Glazyev Tapes: What Moscow's interference in Ukraine means for the Minsk Agreements". Raam op Rusland (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ Larter, David B.; Bodner, Matthew (28 November 2018). "The Sea of Azov won't become the new South China Sea (and Russia knows it)". Defense News.
- ^ "Russia-Ukraine sea clash in 300 words". BBC News. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- ^ "The Kerch Strait incident". International Institute for Strategic Studies. December 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
- ^ "Kiev declares martial law after Russian seizure of Ukrainian ships in Black Sea". The Independent. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- ^ a b "Two Ukrainian Soldiers Killed Over Bloody Weekend In Donbas". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 February 2020.
- ^ Betz, Bradford (29 December 2019). "Ukraine, pro-Russian separatists swap prisoners in step to end 5-year war". Fox News.
- ^ "Ukraine and pro-Russian separatists exchange prisoners". BBC News. 29 December 2019.
- ^ "France's Macron, Germany's Merkel welcome prisoner swap in Ukraine". Reuters. 29 December 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
- ^ Ukraine government and separatists begin prisoners swap. Al Jazeera English. 29 December 2019. Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2022 – via YouTube.
- ^ "Ukraine conflict: Moscow could 'defend' Russia-backed rebels". BBC News. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ "Kremlin defends Russian military buildup on Ukraine border". The Guardian. 9 April 2021.
- ^ "Zelenskiy: Russian passports in Donbass are a step towards 'annexation'". Reuters. 20 May 2021.
- ^ Schogol, Jeff (22 February 2022). "Here's what those mysterious white 'Z' markings on Russian military equipment may mean". Task & Purpose. North Equity. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
[B]ottom line is the 'Z' markings (and others like it) are a deconfliction measure to help prevent fratricide, or friendly fire incidents.
- ^ Taylor, Adam (24 February 2022). "Russia's attack on Ukraine came after months of denials it would attack". The Washington Post. Photograph by Evgeniy Maloletka (Associated Press). Nash Holdings. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
On Sunday ... "There is no invasion. There is no such plans," Antonov said.
- ^ "Putin attacked Ukraine after insisting for months there was no plan to do so. Now he says there's no plan to take over". CBS News. Kharkiv: CBS (published 22 February 2022). 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- ^ Harris, Shane; Sonne, Paul (3 December 2021). "Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
[U].S. intelligence has found the Kremlin is planning a multi-frontal offensive as soon as early next year involving up to 175,000 troops ... .
- ^ a b Merchant, Normaan (25 February 2022). "US intel predicted Russia's invasion plans. Did it matter?". Associated Press. Photographs by Alexei Alexandrov and Alex Brandon (AP Photo). Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ "Putin Says Conflict in Eastern Ukraine 'Looks Like Genocide'". The Moscow Times. 10 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ "Путин заявил о геноциде на Донбассе" [Putin announced the genocide in the Donbas]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ a b Stanley, Jason (26 February 2022). "The antisemitism animating Putin's claim to 'denazify' Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin address fact-checked". BBC News. 22 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Hinton, Alexander (24 February 2022). "Putin's claims that Ukraine is committing genocide are baseless, but not unprecedented". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Disinformation About the Current Russia-Ukraine Conflict – Seven Myths Debunked". Directorate-General for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations (Press release). 24 January 2022. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- ^ Montgomery, Nancy (24 February 2022). "173rd Airborne Brigade battalion heads to Latvia as Ukraine comes under Russian attack". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Extracts from Putin's speech on Ukraine". Reuters. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ Düben, Björn Alexander (1 July 2020). "'There is no Ukraine': Fact-Checking the Kremlin's Version of Ukrainian History". LSE International History. London School of Economics. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- ^ Perrigo, Billy (22 February 2022). "How Putin's Denial of Ukraine's Statehood Rewrites History". Time. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ a b Abbruzzese, Jason (24 February 2022). "Putin says he is fighting a resurgence of Nazism. That's not true". NBC News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ a b Campbell, Eric (3 March 2022). "Inside Donetsk, the separatist republic that triggered the war in Ukraine". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
- ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (3 March 2022). "Historians on What Putin Gets Wrong About 'Denazification' in Ukraine". Time. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- ^ Berger, Miriam (24 February 2022). "Putin says he will 'denazify' Ukraine. Here's the history behind that claim". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- ^ a b Li, David K.; Allen, Jonathan; Siemaszko, Corky (24 February 2022). "Putin using false 'Nazi' narrative to justify Russia's attack on Ukraine, experts say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Lawler, Dave; Basu, Zachary (24 February 2022). "Ukrainian President Zelensky says Putin has ordered invasion as country prepares for war". Axios. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Harris, Shane; Sonne, Paul (3 December 2021). "Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
- ^ Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle; Balmforth, Tom (17 December 2021). "Russia demands NATO roll back from East Europe and stay out of Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Szayna, Thomas S. (29 October 1997). "The Enlargement of NATO and Central European Politics". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- ^ Coyer, Cassandre (25 February 2022). "Why is Ukraine not in NATO and is it too late to join? Here's what experts, NATO say". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ MacKinnon, Mark; Morrow, Adrian (18 February 2022). "Biden 'convinced' Putin will invade Ukraine as Donbas region ordered evacuated". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
- ^ Brown, David (17 February 2022). "Ukraine: How big is Russia's military build-up?". BBC News. Photograph by the Russian Defence Ministry; Graphics by Sandra Rodriguez Chillida and Prina Shah. BBC. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Talmazan, Yuliya; Shabad, Rebecca; Williams, Abigail (17 February 2022). "Ukraine, West accuse Russia of trying to create pretext for invasion after shelling in east". NBC News. NBC. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022 – via MSN.
- ^ Khurshudyan, Isabelle; Hendrix, Steve (19 February 2022). "In Ukraine's war-weary east, intensifying shelling and battered homes signal attempts at provocation by Russia". Washington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
- ^ Ponomarenko, Illia (18 February 2022). "47 shelling incidents leave 5 injured in Donbas". The Kyiv Independent. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- ^ Volvach, Yaroslava (18 February 2022). "How Russian proxy forces are attempting to provoke the Ukrainian army and are lying about a new Ukrainian offensive". NV.UA. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- ^ "Russian-backed separatists announce civilian evacuation from eastern Ukraine as escalation stokes Russian invasion fears". NBC News. 18 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Smith, Alexander (18 February 2022). "Warning siren sounds in rebel-held capital in east Ukraine -Reuters witness". MSN News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine conflict: Rebels declare general mobilisation as fighting grows". BBC News. 19 February 2022. Archived from the original on 19 February 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Light, Felix (20 February 2022). "In the Closest Russian City to Ukraine's Separatist Region, There Are Few Signs of Refugees". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- ^ a b Gilbert, David (21 February 2022). "Russia's 'Idiotic' Disinformation Campaign Could Still Lead to War in Ukraine". Vice Media. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- ^ Bellingcat Investigation Team (23 February 2022). "Documenting and Debunking Dubious Footage from Ukraine's Frontlines". Bellingcat. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Harding, Luke; Roth, Andrew; Walker, Shaun (21 February 2022). "'Dumb and lazy': the flawed films of Ukrainian 'attacks' made by Russia's 'fake factory'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- ^ "Address by the President of the Russian Federation". President of Russia. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- ^ "Extracts from Putin's speech on Ukraine". Reuters. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- ^ Kottasová, Ivana; Qiblawi, Tamara; Regan, Helen (21 February 2022). "Putin orders troops into separatist-held parts of Ukraine". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Philp, Catherine; Wright, Oliver; Brown, Larissa (22 February 2022). "Putin sends Russian tanks into Ukraine". The Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Hodge, Nathan (26 February 2022). "Russia's Federation Council gives consent to Putin on use of armed forces abroad, Russian agencies report". CNN. Moscow. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- ^ Zinets, Natalia; Williams, Matthias (22 February 2022). "Ukrainian president drafts reservists but rules out general mobilisation for now". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Kingsley, Thomas (23 February 2022). "Ukraine to introduce a state of emergency and tells its citizens to leave Russia immediately". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine's Parliament approves state of emergency". Reuters. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ D'agata, Charlie; Redman, Justine; Ott, Haley (23 February 2022). "Ukraine calls up reservists, declares national emergency as U.S. and allies hit Russia with new sanctions". CBS News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Litvinova, Dasha (23 February 2022). "Russia evacuates embassy in Ukraine as crisis escalates". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- ^ Zelenskyy, Volodymyr (23 February 2022). Ukrayina prahne myru! I robytʹ dlya tsʹoho vse! Україна прагне миру! І робить для цього все! [Ukraine seeks peace! And does everything for this!] (Video) (in Ukrainian). Ukraine. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Alt URL
- ^ Sonne, Paul (24 February 2022). "Ukraine's Zelensky to Russians: 'What are you fighting for and with whom?'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ "Zelensky's Last-Ditch Plea for Peace". Foreign Policy. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ Cruz Bustillos, Dominic (24 February 2022). "Full Translation: Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy's Feb. 23 Speech". Lawfare. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Kremlin Says Ukraine Rebels Have Asked Russia for 'Help' Against Kyiv". The Moscow Times. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- ^ Nikolskaya, Polina; Osborn, Andrew (24 February 2022). "Russia's Putin authorises 'special military operation' against Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- ^ Grunau, Andrea; von Hein, Matthias; Theise, Eugen; Weber, Joscha (25 February 2022). "Fact check: Do Vladimir Putin's justifications for going to war against Ukraine add up?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (3 March 2022). "Historians on What Putin Gets Wrong About 'Denazification' in Ukraine". Time. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- ^ "Russia attacks Ukraine". CNN International. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Kirby, Paul (9 March 2022). "Why is Russia invading Ukraine and what does Putin want?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
- ^ "Ukrainian president signs decree on general mobilisation of population -Interfax". Reuters. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Zelensky signs decree declaring general mobilization". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine rejects Russian demand to surrender port city of Mariupol in exchange for safe passage". CBS News. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine refuses to surrender Mariupol as scope of human toll remains unclear". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- ^ "Trending news: BBC: Putin replaces military commander in Ukraine – The Moscow Times". Hindustan News Hub. 8 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
- ^ Arraf, Jane; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Landler, Mark (19 April 2022). "Ukraine Says Russia Begins Assault in the East After Raining Missiles Nationwide". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- ^ "Russia says remaining 531 Azovstal defenders surrender, steelworks siege over". Yahoo!News. 20 May 2022.
- ^ Sommerville, Quentin (11 May 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia pushed back from Kharkiv – report from front line". BBC. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
- ^ Myre, Greg (26 June 2022). "Russia bombs Kyiv in a weekend missile barrage across Ukraine". NPR. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- ^ "Russia hits Lviv again as Putin's campaign of terror focuses on Ukraine's shell-shocked east". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
- ^ Rutter, Jill (7 March 2022). "Protecting Ukrainian refugees: What can we learn from the response to Kosovo in the 90s?". British Future. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "IntelBrief: China Seeks to Balance Its Interests as Russia's War on Ukraine Intensifies". The Soufan Center. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
Over a week into the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the war has raged on, spurring the most serious humanitarian crisis in Europe since the wars in the Balkans in the 1990s.
- ^ Beaumont, Peter (6 March 2022). "Ukraine has fastest-growing refugee crisis since second world war, says UN". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
- ^ "Situation Ukraine Refugee Situation". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
- ^ "Liz Truss mulls seizure of Russian assets in UK to give to Ukraine". the Guardian. 3 July 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
- ^ Dickson, Janice (30 September 2022). "Putin signs documents to illegally annex four Ukrainian regions, in drastic escalation of Russia's war". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine war latest: Putin declares four areas of Ukraine as Russian". BBC News.
- ^ "Russians Are Fleeing the Threat of Conscription". 21 September 2022.
- ^ "Russians rush for flights out amid partial reservist call-up". NPR. 21 September 2022.
- ^ "UN resolution against Ukraine invasion: Full text". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
The General Assembly ... [d]eplores in the strongest terms the aggression by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in violation of Article 2 (4) of the Charter
- ^ Scheffer, David J. (17 March 2022). "Can Russia Be Held Accountable for War Crimes in Ukraine?". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
Russia's invasion of Ukraine constitutes the crime of aggression under international law.
- ^ Chernova, Anna; Cotovio, Vasco; Thompson, Mark (28 February 2022). "Sanctions slams Russian economy". CNN. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- ^ "House approves $40B in Ukraine aid, beefing up Biden request". Associated Press. 11 May 2022.
- ^ "Russians Protest Putin's Conscription". Foreign policy. 26 September 2022.
- ^ "It's a Mistake To Turn Away Russian Civilians Fleeing Conscription". 26 September 2022.
- ^ "Soaring Death Toll Gives Grim Insight Into Russian Tactics". The New York Times. 2 February 2023.
- ^ "Conflict-related civilian casualties in Ukraine" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ "Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 1 August 2021 – 31 January 2022" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. p. 1. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ "Address by Ms. Nada Al-Nashif, Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights 47th session of the Human Rights Council Item 10: Oral report on Ukraine". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ a b "Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine 1 August 2021 – 31 January 2022" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. p. 2. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine 2021". Amnesty International. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ "Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Ukraine" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ Arbitrary detention, torture and ill-treatment in the context of armed conflict in eastern Ukraine, 2014–2021 (Report). OHCHR. 2 July 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
- ^ a b "Kyiv's gas strategy: closer cooperation with Gazprom or a genuine diversification". Centre for Eastern Studies. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013.
- ^ "Russia's gas fight with Ukraine". BBC News. 31 October 2014.
- ^ "Russia, Ukraine escalate 'gas war' as Europe draws 'map of fear'". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2019.
- ^ Gent, Stephen E. (2021). Market power politics : war, institutions, and strategic delays in world politics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-19-752984-3. OCLC 1196822660.
- ^ "Russia-Ukraine gas deal secures EU winter supply". BBC News. 31 October 2014.
- ^ "Explosion on Ukraine gas pipeline". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
- ^ "Blast at Ukraine gas pipeline said due to bomb, security increased". Reuters. Kyiv. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
- ^ "Russia's gas pipelines to Europe by 2018". TASS. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ "Gas supplies to bypass Ukraine from 2019 — Gazprom". TASS. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ Pirani, Simon; Yafimava, Katja (February 2016). "Russian Gas Transit Across Ukraine Post-2019 – pipeline scenarios, gas flow consequences, and regulatory constraints". Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. ISBN 978-1-78467-054-2.
- ^ "Russia, Ukraine sign gas transit deal ahead of deadline". Deutsche Welle. 31 December 2021.
- ^ Makogon, Sergiy (1 October 2021). "Europe is under attack from Putin's energy weapon". Atlantic Council.
- ^ "TurkStream natural gas pipeline to impact region's gas flow". Daily Sabah. 23 October 2019.
- ^ "Russia Launches Into New Export Territory With TurkStream Natural-Gas Pipeline". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 January 2020.
- ^ "Biden Says He Waived Nord Stream Sanctions Because It's Finished". Bloomberg. 25 May 2021.
- ^ "Putin-Biden Summit Set for June 16 in Geneva". The Moscow Times. 25 May 2021.
- ^ "Exclusive: Zelensky "surprised" and "disappointed" by Biden pipeline move". Axios. 6 June 2021.
- ^ Woodruff, Betsy Swan; Ward, Alexander; Desiderio, Andrew (20 July 2021). "U.S. urges Ukraine to stay quiet on Russian pipeline". Politico. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- ^ "U.S.-German Deal on Russia's Nord Stream 2 Pipeline Expected Soon". The Wall Street Journal. 20 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- ^ Shalal, Andrea (20 July 2021). "Germany to announce deal on Nord Stream 2 pipeline in coming days -sources". Reuters. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- ^ "Nord Stream 2: Ukraine and Poland slam deal to complete controversial gas pipeline". Euronews. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- ^ Williams, Aime; Olearchyk, Roman (21 July 2021). "Germany and US reach truce over Nord Stream 2 pipeline". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
- ^ Rettman, Andrew (23 August 2021). "Nord Stream 2 overshadows EU leaders' Ukraine trip".
- ^ "Ukraine insists Nord Stream 2 is 'dangerous' despite German reassurances". Politico. 22 August 2021.
- ^ "Ukraine gas chief urges Europe to resist Russia pressure on Nord Stream 2". Financial Times. 1 November 2021.
- ^ "Ukraine demands sanctions on Russia's Gazprom after Kyiv loses gas imports". Reuters. 1 October 2021.
- ^ Кім Зеттер, Wired (17 March 2016). "Хакерська атака Росії на українську енергосистему: як це було". Texty.org. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- ^ "Statement from the Press Secretary". whitehouse.gov. 15 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021 – via National Archives.
- ^ Christopher Miller (2 November 2016). "Inside The Ukrainian 'Hacktivist' Network Cyberbattling The Kremlin". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 3 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
- ^ Diyak, Ivan. "P'yata kolona v Ukrayini: zahroza derzhavnosti" П'ята колона в Україні: загроза державності. [The fifth column in Ukraine: the threat of statehood.]. Велика рідня (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- ^ "Rosiysʹka "p'yata kolona" prosytʹ sud zaboronyty Yanukovychu pidpysuvaty uhodu pro asotsiatsiyu z YES" Російська "п'ята колона" просить суд заборонити Януковичу підписувати угоду про асоціацію з ЄС [The Russian "fifth column" is asking the court to prohibit Yanukovych from signing the association agreement with the EU]. tyzhden.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- ^ "Onlayn kazyno Ukrayiny 2021 X Internet-kazyno na hroshi" Онлайн казино України 2021 Ξ Інтернет-казино на гроші [Online casino of Ukraine 2021 Ξ Internet casino for money]. www.gazeta.lviv.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- ^ "Ukraine War: Russia Is Running an Orwellian Propaganda Campaign". Haaretz. 27 February 2022.
- ^ "Russia TV stations air 'impostor' protester in two guises". BBC News. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ a b Pomerantsev, Peter (9 September 2014). "Russia and the Menace of Unreality". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Rudenko, Olga (30 April 2014). "Russia cranks out propaganda as militants hang on in Ukraine". USA Today. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ a b c Young, Cathy (24 July 2014). "Putin's Pal". Slate. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Williams, Carol J. (18 June 2014). "U.N. warns pro-Russia separatists leading Ukrainians down 'dead end'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Ash, Lucy (29 January 2015). "How Russia outfoxes its enemies". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Agence France-Presse. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Crosbie, Jack (17 February 2022). "'Mass Graves' and Shelled Schools: A Dangerous New Phase of the Ukraine Crisis is Here". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ a b Fisher, Max (19 February 2022). "Putin's Baseless Claims of Genocide Hint at More Than War". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ "Eastern Ukraine conflict: Summary killings, misrecorded and misreported". Amnesty International. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
- ^ "'My Country Thirsts For Blood': Russian Artist, Jailed For War 'Fakes,' Speaks Out From Custody". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 July 2022.
- ^ "Use Only Official Sources About Ukraine War, Russian Media Watchdog Tells Journalists". The Moscow Times. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ "Do not call Ukraine invasion a 'war', Russia tells media, schools". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
- ^ "Even Russia's Kremlin-backed media is going off message and beginning to question Putin's war on Ukraine". Fortune. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Putin Signs Law Introducing Jail Terms for 'Fake News' on Army". The Moscow Times. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
- ^ "Channelling Goebbels: The obscenity of Russian state TV news, as it conceals war crimes for Putin". inews.co.uk. 6 April 2022.
- ^ "Navalny Calls for Sanctions Against Russian State Media 'Warmongers'". The Moscow Times. 6 March 2022.
- ^ "Attacking Ukraine, Putin calls for 'denazification' of country with a Jewish leader". Times of Israel. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ Bulos, Nabih (17 February 2022). "Russian disinformation kicks into high gear as Ukraine crisis drags on". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- ^ Antonova, Natalia (1 June 2022). "The 'Death Cult' Keeping Russia in Ukraine". The Bulwark.
- ^ Team, ODS. "Elimination of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance" (PDF). documents-dds-ny.un.org.
- ^ Ljubicic, Milica (9 March 2022). "Ruska rezolucija u UN-u poslužila da se SAD i Ukrajina predstave kao nacističke države | Raskrikavanje". raskrikavanje.rs (in Serbian). Raskrikavanje. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- ^ "Explanation of Vote at the Third Committee Adoption of the Combating Glorification of Nazism". United States Mission to the United Nations. 12 November 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- ^ Gault, Matthew (12 July 2022). "Shitposting Shiba Inu Accounts Chased a Russian Diplomat Offline". Vice.
- ^ "NATO jets scramble in response to Russian aircraft over Baltic and Black Sea". NATO. 29 April 2022.
- ^ Livingstone, Helen (26 April 2022). "Russia accuses Nato of 'proxy war' in Ukraine as US hosts crucial defence summit: Ukraine dismisses Sergei Lavrov's war comments as diplomats gather in Germany for US-hosted talks to navigate 'critical' phase". The Guardian.
- ^ "Russia doesn't consider itself to be at war with NATO, Lavrov says". Washington Post. 29 April 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine: Boris Johnson rejects 'NATO proxy war' allegations, as Russia cuts gas supplies". Euronews. 27 April 2022.
- ^ Macmillan, Jade (25 March 2022). "With NATO and the US in a 'proxy war' with Russia, ex-CIA boss Leon Panetta says Joe Biden's next move is crucial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- ^ "Dam leaves Crimea population in chronic water shortage". Al-Jazeera. 4 January 2017.
- ^ "Turchynov: Russia starts aggression in Crimea". Kyiv Post. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- ^ Henderson, Barney (1 March 2014). "Ukraine live: Prime Minister of Ukraine says Russian military invasion would lead to war". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- ^ Coker, Margaret; Kolyandr, Alexander (1 March 2014). "Ukraine Puts Military on Full Alert After Russian invasion Threat". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ (in Ukrainian) The Cabinet decided to create the Ministry of temporarily occupied territories and internally displaced persons, Ukrayinska Pravda (20 April 2016)
- ^ "U.S. pledges $1 billion in aid to Ukraine". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- ^ a b Scislowska; Pablo Gorondi; Karel Janicek; Jovana Gec; Corneliu Rusnac (12 March 2014). "Russian aggression unnerves other neighbours". The Chronicle Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- ^ a b "Russia's Neighbors Want Stronger Defenses After Ukraine Incursion". Global Security Newswire. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- ^ Gearan, Anne (1 April 2014). "NATO chief recommits to defending Eastern European, Baltic nations". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- ^ "How U.S. Military Aid Has Helped Ukraine Since 2014". NPR. December 2019.
- ^ Kheel, Rebecca (27 March 2018). "Congress bans arms to Ukraine militia linked to neo-Nazis". The Hill.
- ^ "Congress Has Removed a Ban on Funding Neo-Nazis From Its Year-End Spending Bill". The Nation. 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- ^ Sokol, Sam (18 January 2016). "US lifts ban on funding 'neo-Nazi' Ukrainian militia". Jerusalem Post.
- ^ Wearden, Graeme (3 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis sends stock markets sliding; Russia's MICEX tumbles 11% – as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ a b Chua, Ian (3 March 2014). Pullin, Richard (ed.). "Yen holds ground as Ukraine jitters keep risk at bay". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- ^ "What is Russia doing in Ukraine, and what can West do about it?". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine Crisis Sends Russian Markets, Ruble Plummeting". NBC News.
- ^ Tim Sullivan (4 March 2014). "Putin: troops to bases; warning shots in Crimea". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- ^ Dreibus, Tony (3 March 2014). "Wheat, Corn Prices Surge on Ukraine Crisis". The Wall Street Journal.
- ^ Jolly, David (17 March 2014). "Markets Worldwide Brush Off Crimea Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ Elliott, Larry (17 March 2014). "Market reaction suggests sanctions over Crimea are slap on the wrist for Putin". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ "German economy hammered by Russian sanctions". CNBC. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- ^ a b c "IRI Ukraine pre-election poll shows strong opposition to Russian aggression, support for Kyiv Government" (Press release). International Republican Institute. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (6 February 2015). "One Year Later, Crimeans Prefer Russia". Bloomberg News.
Eighty-two percent of those polled said they fully supported Crimea's inclusion in Russia, and another 11 percent expressed partial support. Only 4 percent spoke out against it.
- ^ "Sotsial'no-politicheskiye nastroyeniya zhiteley Kryma" Социально-политические настроения жителей Крыма [Socio-Political Moods of Crimean Residents] (PDF). GfK Ukraine (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
82% крымчан полностью поддерживают присоединение Крыма к России, 11% – скорее поддерживают, и 4% высказались против этого. Среди тех, кто не поддерживает присоединение Крыма к России, больше половины считают, что присоединение было не полностью законным и его нужно провести в соответствии с международным правом[82% of Crimeans fully support the annexation of Crimea to Russia, 11% rather support it, and 4% were against it. Among those who do not support the annexation of Crimea to Russia, more than half believe that the annexation was not completely legal and should be carried out in accordance with international law]
- ^ "Poll: 82% of Crimeans support annexation". UNIAN. 4 February 2015.
A total of 82% of the population of the Crimea fully support Russia's annexation of the peninsula, according to a poll carried out by the GfK Group research institute in Ukraine, Ukrainian online newspaper Ukrainska Pravda reported on Wednesday. Another 11% of respondents said that they rather support the annexation of Crimea, while 4% were against it.
- ^ O'Loughlin, John; Sasse, Gwendolyn; Toal, Gerard; Bakke, Kristin M. (12 February 2021). "A new survey of the Ukraine-Russia conflict finds deeply divided views in the contested Donbas region". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
- ^ O'Loughlin, John; Sasse, Gwendolyn; Toal, Gerard; Minakov, Mikhail (23 February 2022). "Public Opinion in the Divided Donbas: Results of a January 2022 Survey on Both Sides of the Contact Line". Wilson Center.
- ^ Antonova, Natalia (5 September 2014). "Putin walks a tightrope as evidence mounts of Russians dying in Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- ^ "Dozens Arrested at Moscow Anti-war Protest". Voice of America. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ "Russian anti-war protesters detained in Moscow". Agence France-Presse. 2 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Demirjian, Karoun (21 September 2014). "Russian peace march draws tens of thousands in support of Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- ^ "Ukrainians want to stay and fight, but don't see Russian people as the enemy. A remarkable poll from Kyiv". European Leadership Network. 14 March 2022.
- ^ "Perception index of the Russian-Ukrainian war: results of a telephone survey conducted on May 19-24, 2022". Kyiv International Institute of Sociology. May 2022.
- ^ "Russians with Ukrainian Relatives Trust Their TVs More Than Their Family". Newsweek. 12 May 2022.
- ^ "'Pure Orwell': how Russian state media spins invasion as liberation". The Guardian. 25 February 2022.
- ^ "Russians in the dark about true state of war amid country's Orwellian media coverage". CNN. 3 April 2022.
- ^ "In Russia, opinion polls are a political weapon". openDemocracy. 9 March 2022.
- ^ Yaffa, Joshua (29 March 2022). "Why Do So Many Russians Say They Support the War in Ukraine?". The New Yorker.
- ^ "Russian Public Accepts Putin's Spin on Ukraine Conflict". Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 12 April 2022.
- ^ "War in Ukraine: U.S. dramatically upgrades its aid package to Kyiv". Le Monde. 29 April 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine gets over $12 billion in weapons, financial aid since start of Russian invasion- Ukraine's PM". Reuters. 5 May 2022.
- ^ Fram, Alan (11 May 2022). "House approves $40B in Ukraine aid, beefing up Biden request". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 May 2022.
- ^ Pallaro, Bianca; Parlapiano, Alicia (20 May 2022). "Four Ways to Understand the $54 Billion in U.S. Spending on Ukraine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- ^ a b "New weapons for Ukraine suggest preparation for closer combat" washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
- ^ "Iran agrees to supply missiles as well as drones to Russia". The Guardian. 18 October 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
- ^ "British Defense Ministry: Russia loses 40 armored assault vehicles a day in Ukraine". Meduza. 3 November 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
- ^ Parfonov, Hlib (9 November 2022). "Grouping of Russian Units in Belarus Continues to Swell". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 19 (167).
- ^ "North Korean ammo will stretch Russia's supply, but with clear limits and drawbacks". NPR. Associated Press. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
- ^ "Ukraine war: What support is China giving Russia?". BBC News. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
- ^ a b McDermott, Roger N. (2016). "Brothers Disunited: Russia's use of military power in Ukraine". In Black, J.L.; Johns, Michael (eds.). The Return of the Cold War: Ukraine, the West and Russia. London. pp. 99–129. doi:10.4324/9781315684567-5. ISBN 978-1-138-92409-3. OCLC 909325250.
- ^ "7683rd meeting of the United Nations Security Council. Thursday, 28 April 2016, 3 p.m. New York".
Mr. Prystaiko (Ukraine): ... In that regard, I have to remind the Council that the official medal that was produced by the Russian Federation for the so-called return of Crimea has the dates on it, starting with 20 February, which is the day before that agreement was brought to the attention of the Security Council by the representative of the Russian Federation. Therefore, the Russian Federation started – not just planned, but started – the annexation of Crimea the day before we reached the first agreement and while President Yanukovych was still in power.
- ^ "'Няша' Поклонська обіцяє бійцям 'Беркута' покарати учасників Майдану". www.segodnya.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ "Спікер ВР АРК вважає, що Крим може відокремитися від України". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- ^ "Putin describes secret operation to seize Crimea". Yahoo News. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- ^ "Russia's Orwellian 'diplomacy'". unian.info. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Bowen, Andrew (2017). "Coercive Diplomacy and the Donbas: Explaining Russian Strategy in Eastern Ukraine". Journal of Strategic Studies. 42 (3–4): 312–343. doi:10.1080/01402390.2017.1413550. S2CID 158522112.
- Bremmer, Ian (1994). "The Politics of Ethnicity: Russians in the New Ukraine". Europe-Asia Studies. 46 (2): 261–283. doi:10.1080/09668139408412161.
- Derix, Steven. Zelensky: Ukraine's President and His Country (2022) excerpt
- Hagendoorn, A.; Linssen, H.; Tumanov, S. V. (2001). Intergroup Relations in States of the former Soviet Union: The Perception of Russians. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-84169-231-9.
- Legvold, Robert (2013). Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51217-6.
- Marples, David R. ed. The War in Ukraine's Donbas: Origins, Contexts, and the Future (2022) excerpt