Get Our Extension

Rochester, New York

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Rochester
(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood
(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood
Flag of Rochester
Official seal of Rochester
Official logo of Rochester
Nickname(s): 
"The Flour City", "The Flower City", "The World's Image Center"
Location in Monroe County and the State of New York
Location in Monroe County and the State of New York
Rochester is located in New York
Rochester
Rochester
Rochester is located in the United States
Rochester
Rochester
Rochester is located in North America
Rochester
Rochester
Coordinates: 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139Coordinates: 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
RegionWestern New York; Genesee Valley
MetroRochester Metropolitan Statistical Area
CountyMonroe
Founded1788; 235 years ago (1788)
Incorporated as a villageMarch 21, 1817; 205 years ago (1817-03-21) (as Rochesterville)[1]
Incorporated as a cityApril 28, 1834; 188 years ago (1834-04-28)
Named forNathaniel Rochester
Government
 • TypeStrong mayor-council
 • MayorMalik Evans (D)
 • City Council
Members' List
Area
 • City37.17 sq mi (96.27 km2)
 • Land35.76 sq mi (92.62 km2)
 • Water1.41 sq mi (3.65 km2)  3.6%
Highest elevation
702 ft (214 m)
Lowest elevation
230 ft (70 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City211,328
 • RankUS: 108th NY: 4th
 • Density5,909.45/sq mi (2,281.62/km2)
 • Urban
704,327 (US: 62nd)
 • Urban density2,413.5/sq mi (931.9/km2)
 • Metro
1,067,486 (US: 52nd)
DemonymRochesterian
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP codes
146xx (14604=downtown)
Area code585
FIPS code36-63000
GNIS feature ID0962684
InterstatesI-390.svg I-490.svg I-590.svg
Websitecityofrochester.gov

Rochester (/ˈrɒɛstər, -ɪs-/) is a city in the U.S. state of New York, the seat of Monroe County, and the fourth-most populous in the state after New York City, Buffalo, and Yonkers, with a population of 211,328 at the 2020 United States census.[3] Located in Western New York, the city of Rochester forms the core of a larger metropolitan area with a population of 1 million people, across six counties. The city was one of the United States' first boomtowns, initially due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, and then as a manufacturing center, which spurred further rapid population growth.[4]

Rochester rose to prominence as the birthplace and home of some of America's most iconic companies, in particular Eastman Kodak, Xerox, and Bausch & Lomb (along with Wegmans, Gannett, Paychex, Western Union, French's, Constellation Brands, Ragú, and others), by which the region became a global center for science, technology, and research and development. This status has been aided by the presence of several internationally renowned universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) and their research programs; these schools, along with many other smaller colleges, have played an increasingly large role in Greater Rochester's economy.[5] Rochester has also played a key part in US history as a hub for certain important social and political movements, especially abolitionism[6] and the women's rights movement.[7]

Today, Rochester's economy is defined by technology and education (aided by a highly educated workforce, research institutions, and other strengths born in its past).[8] While the city experienced some significant population loss as a result of deindustrialization, strong growth in the education and healthcare sectors boosted by elite universities and the slower decline of bedrock companies such as Eastman Kodak and Xerox (as opposed to the rapid fall of heavy industry with steel companies in Buffalo and Pittsburgh) resulted in a much less severe contraction than in most Rust Belt metro areas. The Rochester metropolitan area is the third-largest regional economy in New York, after the New York City metropolitan area and the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Area.[9] Rochester's gross metropolitan product is US$50.6 billion—above those of Albany and Syracuse, but below that of Buffalo.[10]

Rochester is also known for its culture, in particular its music culture; institutions such as the Eastman School of Music (considered to be one of the most prestigious conservatories in the world) and the Rochester International Jazz Festival anchor a vibrant music industry, ranked as one of the top-10 music scenes in the US in terms of the concentration of musicians and music-related business.[11] It is the site of multiple major festivals every year (such as the Lilac Festival, the aforementioned Jazz Festival, the Rochester Fringe Festival, and others that draw hundreds of thousands of attendees each) and is home to several world-famous museums such as The Strong National Museum of Play and the George Eastman Museum, which houses the oldest photography collection in the world and one of the largest.[12]

The Rochester metro is ranked highly in terms of livability and quality of life[13] and is often considered to be one of the best places in America for families[14][15] due to low cost of living, highly ranked public schools and a low unemployment rate. It is considered to be a global city, ranked by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as having sufficiency status.[16]

Discover more about Rochester, New York related topics

County seat

County seat

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is in use in Canada, China, Hungary, Romania, Taiwan, and the United States. The equivalent term shire town is used in the US state of Vermont and in some other English-speaking jurisdictions. County towns have a similar function in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as historically in Jamaica.

Buffalo, New York

Buffalo, New York

Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York behind New York City and the seat of Erie County. It lies in Western New York, at the eastern end of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, near the United States border with Canada. With a population of 278,349 according to the 2020 census, Buffalo is the 78th-largest city in the United States. Buffalo and the city of Niagara Falls together make up the two-county Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which had an estimated population of 1.1 million in 2020, making it the 49th largest MSA in the United States.

2020 United States census

2020 United States census

The United States census of 2020 was the twenty-fourth decennial United States census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 census, this was the first U.S. census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the paper response form used for previous censuses. The census was taken during the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected its administration. The census recorded a resident population of 331,449,281 in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, an increase of 7.4 percent, or 22,703,743, over the preceding decade. The growth rate was the second-lowest ever recorded, and the net increase was the sixth highest in history. This was the first census where the ten most populous states each surpassed 10 million residents as well as the first census where the ten most populous cities each surpassed 1 million residents.

Boomtown

Boomtown

A boomtown is a community that undergoes sudden and rapid population and economic growth, or that is started from scratch. The growth is normally attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can also be applied to communities growing very rapidly for different reasons, such as a proximity to a major metropolitan area, huge construction project, or attractive climate.

Bausch & Lomb

Bausch & Lomb

Bausch + Lomb is an eye health products company based in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the world's largest suppliers of contact lenses, lens care products, pharmaceuticals, intraocular lenses, and other eye surgery products. The company was founded in Rochester, New York, in 1853 by optician John Bausch and cabinet maker turned financial backer Henry Lomb. Until its sale in 2013, Bausch + Lomb was one of the oldest continually operating companies in the United States.

Gannett

Gannett

Gannett Co., Inc. is an American mass media holding company headquartered in Tysons, Virginia, in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. It is the largest U.S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation.

French's

French's

French's is an American brand of prepared mustard, condiments, fried onions, and other food items that was created by Robert Timothy French. French's "Cream Salad Brand" mustard debuted to the world at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. By 1921, French's Mustard had adopted its trademark flag and begun advertising to the general public. French's is now owned by McCormick & Company.

Constellation Brands

Constellation Brands

Constellation Brands, Inc. is an American producer and marketer of beer, wine, and spirits. A Fortune 500 company, Constellation is the largest beer import company in the US, measured by sales, and has the third-largest market share of all major beer suppliers. It also has investments in medical and recreational cannabis. Based in Victor, New York, Constellation has about 40 facilities and approximately 9,000 employees.

Abolitionism

Abolitionism

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, is the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people.

Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially of heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area

Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area

The Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area, designated by the United States Census Bureau, encompassing two counties — Erie and Niagara in Western New York. It has a population of almost 1.2 million people. It is the second-largest metropolitan area in the state of New York, centering on the urbanized area of Buffalo.

Eastman School of Music

Eastman School of Music

The Eastman School of Music is the music school of the University of Rochester, a private research university in Rochester, New York. It was established in 1921 by industrialist and philanthropist George Eastman.

History

The Seneca tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy lived in and around Rochester until losing claim to the area in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797.[17]

Nineteenth century

Rochester's development followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after Britain's defeat. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.[18][19]

Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan-descended immigrants from New England, who were looking for new agricultural land. They were the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century.[20] On November 8, 1803, Colonel Nathaniel Rochester (1752–1831), Major Charles Carroll, and Colonel William Fitzhugh, Jr. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (40-ha) tract from the state in western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville.

By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, it consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km2) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened. In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was rerouted south of Rochester by 1918 when the Barge Canal was completed.[21] By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200, and in 1834, it was rechartered as a city.

Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City". By 1838, it was the largest flour-producing city in the United States.[22] Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boom town".

In 1830–31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Grandison Finney. The revival inspired other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, who was converted in the Rochester meetings, gave this account of Finney's meetings there: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the shop, in the office, and on the street. The only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable; the only circus into a soap and candle factory. Grog shops were closed; the Sabbath was honored; the sanctuaries were thronged with happy worshippers; a new impulse was given to every philanthropic enterprise; the fountains of benevolence were opened, and men lived to good."[23]

By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the Flower City. Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland.[24]

In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star in Rochester.[25] A former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, he gained a circulation over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe, and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is in Highland Park off South Avenue.[26]

Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester. The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, in 1920, which guaranteed the right of women to vote, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see.[27] Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House.[28]

At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, championing the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops. Rochester also had significant unrest in labor, race, and antiwar protests.

After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, including inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak, and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who launched Bausch & Lomb in 1861. Not only did they create new industries, but Eastman also became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music, and other local institutions.

Twentieth century

In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions. It was the base of Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch and Co. Carriagemaker James Cunningham and Sons founded the pioneer automobile company Cunningham.[29]

Rochester in the late 1930s
Rochester in the late 1930s

The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900, and 295,750 in 1920. By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester's population as 97.6% White and 2.3% Black.[30] With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2018, the city's population had declined to 206,284 (although the metropolitan area was considerably larger) with 46.58% recorded as White and 40.71% as Black or African American.[31][32]

Rochester's black population tripled to more than 25,000 during the 1950s. Casually employed by the city's iconic industries, most African Americans in the city held low-pay and low-skill jobs, and lived in substandard housing. Discontent exploded in the 1964 Rochester race riot. Triggered by the attempted arrest of a 19-year-old intoxicated black male at a street block party, order was restored after three days, and only after Governor Nelson Rockefeller called out the New York National Guard. By the time the disturbance was over, five were dead (four in a helicopter crash) and 350 were injured. Almost a thousand people were arrested and 204 stores were either looted or damaged.[33][34]

In the wake of the riots, the Rochester Area Churches, together with black civil rights leaders, invited Saul Alinsky of the Industrial Areas Foundation to help the community organize. With the Reverend Franklin Florence, who had been close to Malcolm X, they established FIGHT (Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today), which successfully brought pressure to bear on Eastman Kodak to help open up employment and city governance.[35][36]

Discover more about History related topics

History of Rochester, New York

History of Rochester, New York

This article documents the history of Rochester, New York, in western New York State. Settlement began in the late 18th century, and the city flourished with the opening of the Erie Canal. It became a major manufacturing center, and attracted many Italians, Germans, Irish and other immigrants, as well as a dominant group of Yankees of New England origin. The Yankees made Rochester the center of multiple reform movements, such as abolitionism and women's rights. It was famous as the center of the American photography industry, with headquarters of Eastman Kodak. In the 1970s it became fashionable to call the industrial cities along the Great Lakes 'rustbelt cities' following the move away from steel, chemical and other hard goods manufacturing. Rochester, with the presence of Ritter-Pfaulder, Bausch and Lomb, Eastman Kodak, Xerox, Gannett and other major industries, defied the trend for many decades following WWII.

American Revolution

American Revolution

The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution that occurred in British America between 1765 and 1791. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies formed independent states that defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), gaining independence from the British Crown and establishing the United States as the first nation-state founded on Enlightenment principles of liberal democracy.

Iroquois

Iroquois

The Iroquois, officially the Haudenosaunee, are an Iroquoian-speaking confederacy of First Nations peoples in northeast North America/Turtle Island. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy. The English called them the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora people from the southeast were accepted into the confederacy, which became known as the Six Nations.

Haldimand Proclamation

Haldimand Proclamation

The Haldimand Proclamation was a decree that granted land to the Mohawk who had served on the British side during the American Revolution. The decree was issued by the Governor of the Province of Quebec, Frederick Haldimand, on October 25, 1784, three days after the Treaty of Fort Stanwix was signed between others of the Six Nations and the American government. The granted land had to be purchased from the Mississaugas of the Credit whose traditional territory spans much of modern day Southwestern Ontario. On May 22, 1784 Col. John Butler was sent to negotiate the sale of approximately 3,000,000 acres of land located between Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Erie for £1180.00 from the Mississaugas of the Credit. Of the land ceded, some 550,000 acres were granted to the Mohawk nation in the Haldimand Proclamation. The sale by the Mississaugas of the Credit is also referred to as the "Between the Lakes Treaty."

Grand River (Ontario)

Grand River (Ontario)

The Grand River, formerly known as The River Ouse, is a large river in Ontario, Canada. It lies along the western fringe of the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario which overlaps the eastern portion of southwestern Ontario, sometimes referred to as Midwestern Ontario, along the length of this river. From its source near Wareham, Ontario, it flows south through Grand Valley, Fergus, Elora, Waterloo, Kitchener, Cambridge, Paris, Brantford, Caledonia, and Cayuga before emptying into the north shore of Lake Erie south of Dunnville at Port Maitland. One of the scenic and spectacular features of the river is the falls and Gorge at Elora.

Nathaniel Rochester

Nathaniel Rochester

Nathaniel Rochester was an American Revolutionary War soldier and land speculator, most noted for founding the settlement which would become Rochester, New York.

Hagerstown, Maryland

Hagerstown, Maryland

Hagerstown HAY-gərz-town is a city in Washington County, Maryland, United States, and the county seat of Washington County. The population of Hagerstown city proper at the 2020 census was 43,527, and the population of the Hagerstown metropolitan area was 293,844. Hagerstown ranks as Maryland's sixth-largest incorporated city and is the largest city in the Panhandle.

Hectare

Hectare

The hectare is a non-SI metric unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides (1 hm2), or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectares and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres.

Erie Canal

Erie Canal

The Erie Canal is a historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River and Lake Erie. Completed in 1825, the canal was the first navigable waterway connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, vastly reducing the costs of transporting people and goods across the Appalachians. In effect, the canal accelerated the settlement of the Great Lakes region, the westward expansion of the United States, and the economic ascendancy of New York State. It has been called "The Nation's First Superhighway."

Hudson River

Hudson River

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the New York Harbor between New York City and Jersey City, eventually draining into the Atlantic Ocean at Lower New York Bay. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Farther north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Even as far north as the city of Troy, the flow of the river changes direction with the tides.

Boomtown

Boomtown

A boomtown is a community that undergoes sudden and rapid population and economic growth, or that is started from scratch. The growth is normally attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can also be applied to communities growing very rapidly for different reasons, such as a proximity to a major metropolitan area, huge construction project, or attractive climate.

Charles Grandison Finney

Charles Grandison Finney

Charles Grandison Finney was an American Presbyterian minister and leader in the Second Great Awakening in the United States. He has been called the "Father of Old Revivalism." Finney rejected much of traditional Reformed theology, teaching that people have complete free will to choose salvation.

Geography

High Falls in 2009
High Falls in 2009

Rochester is located at 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139 (43.165496, −77.611504) in Upstate New York.[37] The city is about 73 miles (120 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 87 miles (140 km) west of Syracuse. Albany, the state capital, is 226 miles (360 km) to the east; it sits on Lake Ontario's southern shore. The Genesee River bisects the city. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is northwest 168 miles (270 km) and New York City is about 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96 km2), of which 35.8 square miles (93 km2) are land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) are covered by water (3.42%).

The Genesee River in 2013
The Genesee River in 2013

Rochester's geography was formed by the ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch. The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass. This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt. Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb's Hill. Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a "kame delta". A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called "kame moraine".[38][39]

The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario (one of the five freshwater Great Lakes), the Genesee River with its waterfalls and gorges, Irondequoit Bay, Sodus Bay, Braddock Bay, Mendon Ponds, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes.[39]

Rochester has 537 miles (864 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses. The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York. Other water sources include Canadice Lake and Lake Ontario. The 30-year annual average snowfall is just above 100 in (2.5 m).[40] The monthly daily average ranges from 24.7 °F (−4.1 °C) in January to 70.8 °F (21.6 °C) in July. The high amount of snow Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city's proximity to Lake Ontario (see lake-effect snow).

Neighborhoods

Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward, 14621 Community, Beechwood, Browncroft, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place, High Falls District, Highland Park, Maplewood (10th Ward), Marketview Heights, Mt. Read, North Winton Village, Neighborhood of the Arts , Lyell-Otis, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg, Susan B. Anthony, university-Atlantic, Upper Monroe, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations. Also, living spaces are available in downtown Rochester.

Browncroft

The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery. The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops. The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks. The Browncroft Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.[41]

Lyell-Otis

Historically an Italian-American neighborhood, this area of the City of Rochester is now home to citizens from across the globe.[42] There have recently been efforts to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood, as the area has opportunity for redevelopment and renewal.[43][44][45][46][47][48]

The Lyell-Otis neighborhood is in the City of Rochester, in the Northwest Quadrant. Bordering the suburbs of Gates and Greece, the Lyell-Otis boundaries are the Erie Canal (the City Line) on the west, Lyell Avenue on the south, Driving Park Boulevard on the north, and the old subway bed (long since filled-in, which previously was where the Erie Canal flowed) on the east - almost to Dewey Avenue.

19th Ward

The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, and the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester.[49] Now known by its slogan "Urban by Choice", in the early 19th century, the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel Isaac Castle. By the early 1820s, however, the area was overshadowed by developments in the north that would become downtown Rochester. Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee, the area was home to skilled boatsmen who assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as "The Rapids". In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew. By 1930, it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development. Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches. In the 1960s, property values fell as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight accelerated by school busing, blockbusting, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use, and neglected property further diminishing property values.[50]

To respond to these issues, the 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965 and is now known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity. The "Brooks Landing" development along the Genesee River at the former "rapids" is bringing new economic development to the community, including an 88-room hotel, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) office building, 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of new retail, two restaurants, and Brue Coffee shop.[51] Residential development is also increasing with completion of a 170-bed University of Rochester student housing tower at Brooks Landing in 2014, and 29 new market-rate homes nearby.

Located in the 19th Ward are the Arvine Heights Historic District, Chili–West Historic District, Inglewood and Thurston Historic District, and Sibley–Elmdorf Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[52][53][54]

Charlotte

Genesee River and the historic Aqueduct Downtown
Genesee River and the historic Aqueduct Downtown

Charlotte (shar-LOT) is a lakefront community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario. It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians. A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to-Toronto ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005. The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been revamped. It now houses the restaurant California Rollin', a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian along with offices for the marina created around it. In summer 2016 a proposed redevelopment project for the Port of Rochester was put on hold due to the developers failing to meet financial obligations as set by the city.[55]

Susan B. Anthony Neighborhood

This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District.[56] It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The center of the residential area is Susan B. Anthony Square, a 0.84-acre (3,400 m2) park shown on city maps from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers. Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B. Anthony House, which was the suffragist's residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage factory built in 1848 on Canal Street. James Cunningham Son & Co. sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined. The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham's headquarters for more than 100 years.[57]

Swillburg

This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S. Clinton Avenue on the west, Field St on the south, and Interstate 490 on the east.[58] The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th-century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine.[59] The area has one of the highest rates of home-ownership in the city.[60]

The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street.

Marketview Heights

Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the weekends.[61][62]

Homestead Heights

Homestead Heights is in northeast Rochester. It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial. Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border. The neighborhood is approximately 2–214 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay.

Climate

Rochester lies in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfa)[63] and has four distinct seasons. Winters are cold (temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) on 4.2 nights annually) similar to other US cities of the same latitude. However, Rochester receives vast amounts of snow (primarily lake effect snow resulting from its location on the southern shores of Lake Ontario), ranking among the snowiest large cities on earth[64] and occasionally setting records for annual snowfall among large US metros.[65] Spring sees plentiful rain with the rising temperatures, and occasional late snowstorms depending on the year. Summers are warm and sunny; there are occasional short periods of high heat and humidity but in general, Rochester is set apart from most of the continental US by comparatively cool, comfortable summers (ranking among the top five coolest summers among large metros alongside Seattle, Portland, Oregon, and neighboring Buffalo[66]). Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, cooling temperatures and occasionally an excess of rain depending on the year, though precipitation is generally plentiful and dispersed fairly evenly throughout the year.

Climate data for Rochester, New York (Greater Rochester Int'l), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1871−present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 74
(23)
73
(23)
86
(30)
93
(34)
94
(34)
100
(38)
102
(39)
99
(37)
99
(37)
91
(33)
81
(27)
72
(22)
102
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 57.2
(14.0)
55.1
(12.8)
67.1
(19.5)
79.9
(26.6)
86.7
(30.4)
90.5
(32.5)
92.1
(33.4)
90.4
(32.4)
87.7
(30.9)
80.0
(26.7)
68.5
(20.3)
57.5
(14.2)
93.4
(34.1)
Average high °F (°C) 33.4
(0.8)
35.2
(1.8)
43.6
(6.4)
55.5
(13.1)
69.4
(20.8)
77.9
(25.5)
82.5
(28.1)
80.5
(26.9)
73.6
(23.1)
61.2
(16.2)
49.1
(9.5)
38.5
(3.6)
58.5
(14.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 26.2
(−3.2)
27.4
(−2.6)
35.2
(1.8)
46.8
(8.2)
58.8
(14.9)
67.6
(19.8)
72.3
(22.4)
70.7
(21.5)
63.6
(17.6)
52.2
(11.2)
41.5
(5.3)
32.0
(0.0)
49.5
(9.7)
Average low °F (°C) 19.0
(−7.2)
19.6
(−6.9)
26.8
(−2.9)
37.1
(2.8)
48.2
(9.0)
57.4
(14.1)
62.2
(16.8)
61.0
(16.1)
53.6
(12.0)
43.3
(6.3)
34.0
(1.1)
25.4
(−3.7)
40.6
(4.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −0.8
(−18.2)
0.5
(−17.5)
8.4
(−13.1)
24.1
(−4.4)
34.4
(1.3)
43.9
(6.6)
50.7
(10.4)
49.2
(9.6)
39.6
(4.2)
29.7
(−1.3)
18.6
(−7.4)
7.7
(−13.5)
−3.7
(−19.8)
Record low °F (°C) −17
(−27)
−22
(−30)
−9
(−23)
7
(−14)
26
(−3)
35
(2)
42
(6)
36
(2)
28
(−2)
19
(−7)
1
(−17)
−16
(−27)
−22
(−30)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.55
(65)
2.13
(54)
2.49
(63)
2.99
(76)
2.86
(73)
3.37
(86)
3.56
(90)
3.31
(84)
3.18
(81)
3.22
(82)
2.76
(70)
2.67
(68)
35.09
(891)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 27.4
(70)
23.1
(59)
17.9
(45)
3.0
(7.6)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
8.1
(21)
22.3
(57)
102.0
(259)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 19.6 16.4 15.4 13.4 12.4 11.5 11.2 10.3 11.1 13.9 14.9 18.1 168.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 17.6 15.0 10.1 3.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 5.7 13.5 65.2
Average relative humidity (%) 74.0 74.1 71.0 67.0 67.2 69.4 69.7 74.3 76.8 74.5 76.3 77.5 72.6
Average dew point °F (°C) 16.3
(−8.7)
17.2
(−8.2)
25.0
(−3.9)
34.0
(1.1)
45.1
(7.3)
55.0
(12.8)
59.9
(15.5)
59.7
(15.4)
53.4
(11.9)
42.3
(5.7)
33.3
(0.7)
22.8
(−5.1)
38.7
(3.7)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 108.3 118.1 177.7 216.5 266.5 297.6 314.4 273.4 212.3 154.4 81.5 77.5 2,298.2
Percent possible sunshine 37 40 48 54 59 65 68 63 57 45 28 28 52
Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990)[67][68][69]

Discover more about Geography related topics

Buffalo, New York

Buffalo, New York

Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York behind New York City and the seat of Erie County. It lies in Western New York, at the eastern end of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, near the United States border with Canada. With a population of 278,349 according to the 2020 census, Buffalo is the 78th-largest city in the United States. Buffalo and the city of Niagara Falls together make up the two-county Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), which had an estimated population of 1.1 million in 2020, making it the 49th largest MSA in the United States.

Albany, New York

Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York, also the seat and largest city of Albany County. Albany is on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and about 135 miles (220 km) north of New York City.

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York. The Canada–United States border spans the centre of the lake.

Genesee River

Genesee River

The Genesee River is a tributary of Lake Ontario flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York in the United States. The river contains several waterfalls in New York at Letchworth State Park and Rochester.

Ice sheet

Ice sheet

In glaciology, an ice sheet, also known as a continental glacier, is a mass of glacial ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi). The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the Last Glacial Period at Last Glacial Maximum, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered much of North America, the Weichselian ice sheet covered Northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice Sheet covered southern South America.

Kame

Kame

A kame, or knob, is a glacial landform, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier. Kames are often associated with kettles, and this is referred to as kame and kettle or knob and kettle topography. The word kame is a variant of comb, which has the meaning "crest" among others. The geological term was introduced by Thomas Jamieson in 1874.

Moraine

Moraine

A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris, sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a glacier or ice sheet. It may consist of partly rounded particles ranging in size from boulders down to gravel and sand, in a groundmass of finely-divided clayey material sometimes called glacial flour. Lateral moraines are those formed at the side of the ice flow, and terminal moraines were formed at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier. Other types of moraine include ground moraines and medial moraines.

Great Lakes

Great Lakes

The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the mid-east region of North America that connect to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River. There are five lakes, which are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario and are in general on or near the Canada–United States border. Hydrologically, lakes Michigan and Huron are a single body joined at the Straits of Mackinac. The Great Lakes Waterway enables modern travel and shipping by water among the lakes.

Glacial geology of the Genesee River

Glacial geology of the Genesee River

The Genesee River flows northward from its source in northern Pennsylvania to enter Lake Ontario at Rochester, New York.

Canyon

Canyon

A canyon, or gorge, is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces, eventually wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will gradually reach a baseline elevation, which is the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains. The processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at significantly different elevations, particularly through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering.

Irondequoit Bay

Irondequoit Bay

Irondequoit Bay is a large body of water located in northeastern Monroe County, New York. The bay, roughly 0.5 miles (0.80 km) wide and 4 miles (6.4 km) in length, is fed by Irondequoit Creek to the south and flows into Lake Ontario at its northern end. On average, the surface of Irondequoit Bay rests at 245 feet (75 m) above sea level and is 80 feet (24 m) deep at its deepest point a short distance north of the Irondequoit Bay Bridge carrying the six-lane New York State Route 104 over the bay.

Braddock Bay

Braddock Bay

Braddock Bay, sometimes improperly referred to as Braddock's Bay, is a small bay of Lake Ontario located in Monroe County northwest of Rochester, New York in the United States. Braddock Bay is renowned for being an excellent bird-watching location, as raptors and other birds congregate there when migrating north in spring.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18101,001
18201,50250.0%
18309,207513.0%
184020,191119.3%
185036,40380.3%
186048,20432.4%
187062,38629.4%
188089,36643.2%
1890133,89649.8%
1900162,60821.4%
1910218,14934.2%
1920295,75035.6%
1930328,13210.9%
1940324,975−1.0%
1950332,4882.3%
1960318,611−4.2%
1970296,233−7.0%
1980241,741−18.4%
1990231,636−4.2%
2000219,474−5.3%
2010210,565−4.1%
2020211,3280.4%
Historical Population Figures[70]
U.S. Decennial Census[71]
2019 Estimate[72]

Population

As of the 2020 Census, the population of Rochester was 211,328. Like most Rust Belt cities, the city has experienced a sustained population decline over the last 60 years. In 2020, for the first time in 200 years, Rochester dropped to fourth most populous city in the state behind Yonkers.[73]

Race, disability, and income

Racial composition 2020[74] 2010[74] 1990[30] 1970[30] 1940[30]
White 35% 43.7% 61.1% 82.4% 97.6%
—Non-Hispanic 33% 37.6% 58.3% 80.2%[75] n/a
Black or African American 38% 41.7% 31.5% 16.8% 2.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 19.8% 16.4% 8.7% 2.8%[75] (X)
Asian 3.9% 3.1% 1.8% 0.2%

As of the 2020 United States census, Rochester had a population of 211,328, of which 38.0% were non-Hispanic Black, 33.0% were non-Hispanic White, 19.8% were Hispanic/Latino, 3.9% were Asian, 0.2% were Native American or Pacific Islander, and 5.1% were mixed or other.[76]

According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 43.7% White or White American, 41.7% Black, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race, and 4.4% from two or more races. 16.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans.[77] Non-Hispanic Whites were 37.6% of the population in 2010,[74] compared to 80.2% in 1970.[30]

Although losing population since 1950, over the course of the past 50 years Rochester has become a major center for immigration, particularly for arrivals from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Caribbean. Rochester had the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans of any major city in the United States in 2013,[78] one of the four largest Turkish American communities,[79] one of the largest Jamaican American communities in any major U.S. city[80] and a large concentration of Polish Americans along with nearby Buffalo, New York.[81] Rochester's Bhutanese and Nepalese communities are among the largest (top 3) in the United States, concentrated primarily in Jones Square and Edgerton with growth fueled by recently arrived migrants and refugees.[82] In addition, Rochester was ranked number 9 in the nation for the largest Italian population in the United States in 2018.[83]

In 1997, Rochester was reported to have the largest per capita deaf population in the United States,[84] likely because it is home to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf.

In 2010, of 88,999 households, 30.0% had children under 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were not families. Of all households, 37.1% were made up of individuals, and 9.2% had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.36, and the average family size was 3.19. The age distribution was 28.1% under 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 31. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median income for a city household was $27,123, and for a family was $31,257. Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,588. About 23.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.5% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

By the 1920s and 1930s, Rochester's population was roughly half Protestant and half Catholic, although a significant Jewish population was also present.[85] In 1938, the city had 214 religious congregations, two-thirds of which had been founded after 1880.[85] At that time, the city added, on average, 2.6 new congregations per year, many founded by immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe.[85] During peak immigration from 1900 to 1920, dozens of churches were established, including four Roman Catholic churches with Italian clergy, three Roman Catholic churches with Slavic clergy, a Greek Orthodox Church, a Polish Baptist church, 15 Jewish synagogues, and four small Italian Protestant mission churches (Baptist, Evangelical, Methodist, and Presbyterian).[85] Additionally, several Buddhist temples are in the city, one Cambodian, two Lao, and one Vietnamese.

Crime

In 2012, Rochester had 2,061 reported violent crimes, compared to a national average rate of 553.5 violent crimes in cities with populations larger than 100,000.[86] That same year, Rochester had 827 personal-crime incidents and 11,054 property-crime incidents.

In 2018, Rochester reported 28 murders (13.9 per 100,000 residents).[87] In 2012, 95 sexual assaults, 816 robberies, 1,104 aggravated assaults, 2,978 burglaries, 7,694 larceny thefts, 111 forcible rape, 622 auto thefts, and 152 acts of arson occurred.

On November 12, 2021, Rochester Mayor Lovely Warren declared a state of emergency due to a rising violent crime rate in the city. As of November 12, there were 71 reported murders in Rochester so far, making 2021 the deadliest year in the city's recorded history. The Rochester police chief said, to date, 247 local violent offenders have been arrested in 2021, 134 of which for firearms related offenses. Of those arrests, 65 are facing federal prosecution and 61 face state prosecution. According to the police chief, the mayor has reached out to the governor for additional state assistance in the fight against local violence as the police chief said the RPD resources, and the Persons In Crisis Team, have been stretched thin — a request that Governor Kathy Hochul approved, according to The RPD Chief.[88]

On July 21, 2022, Rochester Mayor Malik Evans declared a state of emergency due to ongoing gun violence. Between the beginning of the calendar year and July 21, Rochester recorded 34 homicides in which a gun was involved.[89]

Discover more about Demographics related topics

1810 United States census

1810 United States census

The United States census of 1810 was the third census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of whom 1,191,362 were slaves.

1820 United States census

1820 United States census

The United States census of 1820 was the fourth census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The 1820 census included six new states: Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Maine. There has been a district wide loss of 1820 census records for Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory and New Jersey.

1830 United States census

1830 United States census

The United States census of 1830, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

1840 United States census

1840 United States census

The United States census of 1840 was the sixth census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1840, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 – an increase of 32.7 percent over the 12,866,020 persons enumerated during the 1830 census. The total population included 2,487,355 slaves. In 1840, the center of population was about 260 miles (418 km) west of Washington, near Weston, Virginia.

1850 United States census

1850 United States census

The United States census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves.

1860 United States census

1860 United States census

The United States census of 1860 was the eighth census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,322 in 33 states and 10 organized territories. This was an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,069,876 persons enumerated during the 1850 census. The total population included 3,953,762 slaves.

1870 United States census

1870 United States census

The United States census of 1870 was the ninth United States census. It was conducted by the Census Bureau from June 1, 1870, to August 23, 1871. The 1870 census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.6% increase from 1860.

1880 United States census

1880 United States census

The United States census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city—New York City—recorded a population of over one million.

1890 United States census

1890 United States census

The United States census of 1890 was taken beginning June 2, 1890, but most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in 1921 when a building caught fire and in the subsequent disposal of the remaining damaged records. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier.

1900 United States census

1900 United States census

The United States census of 1900, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.01% from the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 census.

1910 United States census

1910 United States census

The United States census of 1910, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 census. The 1910 census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

1920 United States census

1920 United States census

The United States census of 1920, conducted by the Census Bureau during one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 census.

Economy

Kodak is headquartered in Rochester.
Kodak is headquartered in Rochester.
Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester, the largest employer in the six-county metropolitan area
Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester, the largest employer in the six-county metropolitan area

Rochester is home to a number of Fortune 1000 and international businesses, including Paychex ([90] Fortune #662), as well as several national and regional companies, such as Carestream Health. Xerox was founded in Rochester in 1906 as the Haloid Company,[91] and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now in Norwalk, Connecticut. Bausch & Lomb moved to Bridgewater, New Jersey, in 2014.[92] The Gannett newspaper company and Western Union were founded in Rochester by Frank Gannett and Hiram Sibley, respectively, but have since moved to other cities.

The median single-family house price was $135,000 in the second quarter of 2015 in greater Rochester, an increase of 5.4% from a year earlier, according to the National Association of Realtors.[93]

Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester and Finger Lakes areas. Since the 2000s, as established companies in Rochester downsized, Rochester and Monroe County's economy has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the capital necessary for business foundation. The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging, as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high-technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University.[94]

Other organizations such as High Tech Rochester provide local startups with mentorship, office space, and other resources.[95] Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta have imaging programs.[96] In 2006, the University of Rochester became the Rochester area's largest employer, surpassing the Eastman Kodak Company.[97]

A white hot Garbage Plate from Nick Tahou Hots
A white hot Garbage Plate from Nick Tahou Hots

One food product Rochester calls its own is the "white hot", a variant of the hot dog or smoked bratwurst made by the local Zweigle's company and other companies.[98][99] Another local specialty is the "Garbage Plate", a trademark of Nick Tahou Hots that traditionally includes macaroni salad, home fries, and two hot dogs or cheeseburgers topped with mustard, onions, and their famous meat hot sauce. Many area restaurants feature copies or variations with the word "plate" commonly used as a general term. Rochester was home to French's Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street.[100]

The Ragú brand of pasta sauce used to be produced in Rochester. Some of the original facility still exists and produces products for other labels (including Newman's Own) as Private Label Foods.[101]

Other local franchises include: Bill Gray's, DiBella's, Tom Wahl's, American Specialty Manufacturing (producers of Boss Sauce), Salvatore's Old Fashioned Pizzeria, Mark's Pizzeria, Cam's Pizzeria, Pontillo's Pizzeria, Perri's Pizzeria, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Abbott's Frozen Custard. Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, which originated in Syracuse, also operates its second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad station on the Genesee River.

Discover more about Economy related topics

Kodak

Kodak

The Eastman Kodak Company is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey. It is best known for photographic film products, which it brought to a mass market for the first time.

Rush Rhees Library

Rush Rhees Library

Rush Rhees Library is the main academic library of the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York. It is one of the most visible and recognizable landmarks on the university's River Campus. Construction began in 1927 with the other original River Campus buildings and the library was dedicated in 1930. It is named after Benjamin Rush Rhees, the university's third president. A major addition was added in 1970, which now houses the main computer lab, additional stacks and office space. Rush Rhees is the flagship of the River Campus Libraries System, which holds about 3 million volumes. The library featured an elevator completely original from 1930 until 2021 when it received a full modernization.

Rochester metropolitan area, New York

Rochester metropolitan area, New York

The Rochester metropolitan area, denoted the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area by the United States Census Bureau, is a metropolitan statistical area consisting of six counties in Western New York, anchored by the city of Rochester, New York. Many counties are mainly rural with various farming communities scattered throughout the metropolitan area. As of the Census 2019 estimates, the MSA had a population of 1,069,644. The Rochester MSA is the 3rd largest in New York state.

Fortune 1000

Fortune 1000

The Fortune 1000 are the 1,000 largest American companies ranked by revenues, as compiled by the American business magazine Fortune. It only includes companies which are incorporated or authorized to do business in the United States, and for which revenues are publicly available. The Fortune 500 is the subset of the list that is its 500 largest companies.

Carestream Health

Carestream Health

Carestream Health, formerly Eastman Kodak Company's Health Group, is an independent subsidiary of Onex Corporation which is one of Canada's largest corporations.

Norwalk, Connecticut

Norwalk, Connecticut

Norwalk is a city located in southwestern Connecticut, United States, in southern Fairfield County, on the northern shore of Long Island Sound. Norwalk lies within both the New York metropolitan area and the Bridgeport metropolitan area.

Bausch & Lomb

Bausch & Lomb

Bausch + Lomb is an eye health products company based in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the world's largest suppliers of contact lenses, lens care products, pharmaceuticals, intraocular lenses, and other eye surgery products. The company was founded in Rochester, New York, in 1853 by optician John Bausch and cabinet maker turned financial backer Henry Lomb. Until its sale in 2013, Bausch + Lomb was one of the oldest continually operating companies in the United States.

Frank Gannett

Frank Gannett

Frank Ernest Gannett was an American publisher who founded the media corporation Gannett Company. He began his career in 1906 as half owner of the Elmira Gazette. He soon added newspapers in Ithaca, Rochester, Utica, and other cities in upstate New York. At the time of his death, the chain included twenty-two daily newspapers, four radio stations, and three television stations, largely based in the state of New York.

Hiram Sibley

Hiram Sibley

Hiram W. Sibley, was an American industrialist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist who was a pioneer of the telegraph in the United States.

National Association of Realtors

National Association of Realtors

The National Association of Realtors (NAR) is an American trade association for those who work in the real estate industry. It has over 1.4 million members, making it one of the biggest trade associations in the USA including NAR's institutes, societies, and councils, involved in all aspects of the residential and commercial real estate industries. The organization holds a U.S. trademark over the term "realtor", limiting the use of the term to its members. NAR also functions as a self-regulatory organization for real estate brokerage. The organization is headquartered in Chicago.

Seed money

Seed money

Seed money, sometimes known as seed funding or seed capital, is a form of securities offering in which an investor invests capital in a startup company in exchange for an equity stake or convertible note stake in the company. The term seed suggests that this is a very early investment, meant to support the business until it can generate cash of its own, or until it is ready for further investments. Seed money options include friends and family funding, seed venture capital funds, angel funding, and crowdfunding.

Photographic processing

Photographic processing

Photographic processing or photographic development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image. Photographic processing transforms the latent image into a visible image, makes this permanent and renders it insensitive to light.

Government and politics

Rochester is governed by a mayor serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of four district members and five at-large members. Rochester has a Strong mayor-council form of government.[102] Mayor Malik Evans was sworn in as mayor at midnight on January 1, 2022. The city's police department is the Rochester Police Department.

Neighborhood Service Centers

Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester had been handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team (NET). Rather than using a centralized code-enforcement office, 10 sectors in Rochester were assigned a total of six NET offices by the city government. However, complaints have been made about the lack of consistency in the manner and severity of enforcement between NET offices. On July 16, 2008, the city announced two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network.[103] Following the restructuring, the remaining offices were renamed Neighborhood Service Centers. Now, one office per city quadrant helps resolve quality-of-life issues, works with neighborhood groups, and paves the way for appropriate housing and economic development.[104] Most code enforcement processes were consolidated into the Bureau of Inspection and Compliance within the Department of Neighborhood and Business Development located centrally in City Hall.

Representation at the federal level

The city is covered by New York's 25th congressional district currently represented by Democrat Joe Morelle of Irondequoit, Monroe County, in Congress. From 1987 until 2018, the city was represented by longtime Democrat Louise M. Slaughter of Fairport, Monroe County, in Congress.

Representation at the state level

New York State Senate

After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, the city was split between three state senate districts:

District Area of the city Senator Party First took office Residence
55 Northeastern[105] Samra Brouk Democratic 2021 Rochester, Monroe County
56 Northwestern[106] Jeremy Cooney Democratic 2021 Rochester, Monroe County
61 Southern[107] Edward Rath III Republican 2021 Amherst, Erie County

New York State Assembly

After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between three state assembly districts:

District Areas of the city Assemblyperson Party First took office Residence
136 Brighton, Irondequoit, northwest portion and easternmost tip of the City of Rochester[108] Sarah Clark Democratic 2020 Rochester, Monroe County
137 Gates, center of the City of Rochester[109] Demond Meeks Democratic 2020 Rochester, Monroe County
138 A question-mark-shaped region sandwiched between districts 136 and 137[110] Harry B. Bronson Democratic 2011 Rochester, Monroe County

Courts

Rochester is part of

Rochester City Court consists of ten full-time judges, each of whom is elected to a 10-year term by the citizens of the City of Rochester.

History

Created in 1876, the Court was initially named the "Municipal Court of the City of Rochester" and had two judges.[111] Originally, city courts throughout the state were self-regulating, and prescribed their own rules of procedure and bounds of jurisdiction.[112] Rochester City Court was governed by the Rochester City Court Act, which was a part of the Charter of the City of Rochester.[113]

In 1935, Judge Jacob Gitelman introduced weekend sentencing. He was the first judge in New York State to do so.[114] In 1964, the New York State Constitution was amended to require uniform jurisdiction, practice, and procedure for the city courts, to be regulated by the state legislature.[112]

The court's first African-American judge, Reuben K. Davis, was appointed to the city court bench in March 1967.[115]

In the 1980s, the court heard cases involving the prosecution of the "Topfree Seven," women who intentionally bared their chests once a year in order to protest the criminalization of female nudity. Judge Herman J. Walz ruled that the women could not be prosecuted under New York's public nudity statute because their act of going topless in order to protest the law was imbued with First Amendment protections.[116] The decision was later affirmed by the New York Court of Appeals.[117][118][119]

By 1995, Rochester City Court had eight judges. A ninth was added in 2001.[120] The Court was brought to its current complement of ten judges in 2014[121]

Jurisdiction

In New York State, the 61 city courts[122] outside of New York City handle the arraignment of felonies, try misdemeanors and lesser offenses, and try civil lawsuits involving claims of up to $15,000. Rochester City Court also hears small claims matters up to $5,000.[123] Rules of practice and procedure within all city courts are prescribed by the Uniform City Court Act.[124]

Rochester City Court, like all city courts, follows the individual assignment system ("IAS"). This means that each case is assigned to a judge when the case is first initiated, and, with a few exceptions, stays under the supervision of that particular judge until the case is resolved.[125]

The New York State Unified Court System is a unified state court system that functions under the Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals who is the ex officio Chief Judge of New York. All city courts throughout the state are part of the Unified Court System.[126]

Judges Each judge must be a city resident and must have been an attorney in New York for at least five years.[127] Judges have a mandatory retirement age of 70. Vacancies on the court are filled by the mayor, and judges so appointed must run for a full term at the next general election.[128]

The Interior of a Rochester City Court Courtroom
The Interior of a Rochester City Court Courtroom
Judge Took office /
Length of service
Term expiration /
Mandatory retirement
College Law school
Melissa L. Barrett December 15, 2018
4 years, 1 month
December 31, 2029 University of Albany University at Buffalo Law School
Charles F. Crimi Jr. January 1, 2008
15 years
December 31, 2024 Georgetown University Albany Law School
Maija C. Dixon January 1, 2008
15 years
December 31, 2026 University of Rochester University at Buffalo Law School
Jack Elliott December 17, 2003
19 years, 1 month
December 31, 2023 Nazareth College University of Dayton School of Law
Theresa D. Johnson (Chief Judge) January 1, 1991
32 years
December 31, 2023 Yale University Boalt Hall School of Law
Michael C. Lopez January 1, 2020
3 years
December 31, 2028 SUNY Brockport University of Wisconsin, Madison
LaToya S. Lee January 12, 2022
1 year
December 31, 2032 SUNY Buffalo Albany
Nicole D. Morris December 17, 2019
3 years, 1 month
December 31, 2029 SUNY Buffalo University at Buffalo Law School
Van H. White July 7, 2022
6 months
December 31, 2032 State University of New York at Albany Georgetown Law Center
Jacquelyn Grippe January 1, 2023
0 months
December 31, 2032 Antioch College Syracuse University College of Law

Former notable judges

Representation at the county level

Rochester is represented by districts 7, 16, and 21–29 in the Monroe County legislature (a 29-seat body with legislators elected to two-year terms).[129] Rochester is also under the jurisdiction of the county executive (currently Democrat Adam Bello) along with the rest of Monroe County. The District Attorney is also elected at the county level along with several other offices (such as Sheriff and Clerk) which in part govern the city.

Politics

Historical

Rochester has played an important role in both regional and national politics at various points over the past 150 years (particularly as a hub for American Progressivism and sweeping social and cultural movements). It was one of the key centers of Abolitionism and a top destination for freed and escaped slaves, most notably Frederick Douglass, who settled in Rochester and did most of his work and writings there, including publishing The North Star. Many other prominent abolitionists hailed from and/or operated in the area, such as Thomas James, Austin Stewart and many others.[130][131][132]

Around the same time, Rochester and the wider Finger Lakes region was the birthplace of the Women's Suffrage movement. A critical suffragettes' convention was held in 1848 in nearby Seneca Falls, and Rochester was the home base of Susan B. Anthony[133] (the most prominent American leader in the fight for women's voting rights) along with other notable Suffragettes like Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Abigail Bush[134] and Amy Post.[135] The city itself played host to the Rochester Women's Rights Convention in 1848.

The dawn of the 20th century in Rochester saw rapid growth, driven in large part by waves of immigrants arriving from Ireland, Italy, Poland and elsewhere[136] which (as in other American cities) had a major impact on the political landscape. The surge in new arrivals, along with increased industrialization resulted in the city becoming a hotbed of labor activism.[137] From the 1920s and continuing into the post-war era Rochester grew into a power center for newly formed industrial unions,[138] which steadily began accumulating influence within local and state government. It was only one of a very few American cities where the labor movement was powerful enough to mount a General Strike (and one of even fewer where it was successful) when in 1946 when an estimated 50,000 workers across multiple sectors walked off in support of hundreds of city employees fired for attempting to unionize.[139] After that point local unions played a decisive role in area politics, primarily by partnering with the area Democratic Party.

Later, Rochester saw the arrival of a great many black southerners as part of the Great Migration and large numbers of Hispanics (primarily from Puerto Rico.[140] This coincided with White flight, leading to dramatic changes in the social, cultural and demographic makeup of Rochester (changes that were reflected in the city's politics). Racism, Segregation, Redlining and similar problems caused a great deal of racial tension and resentment, culminating in the 1964 Rochester race riot (as well as the city's black community playing a role in the national Civil rights movement).

Present day

The ethnic and economic makeup of Metro Rochester (with poorer blacks, Hispanics and Asian-Americans heavily concentrated either within the city proper or a few inner-ring suburbs and wealthier white residents predominantly in the suburbs) continues to impact the area's modern day political situation. Like in many other large American cities, traditionally the city government has been completely dominated by the Democratic Party whereas the suburbs have reliably voted for Republican officials (at least on the local and state level). In recent decades the result of this has almost always been Democratic control of city government, Republican control of county government and Rochester's state senate seats and Democratic control of Rochester's primary congressional district (with a similar overall pattern in area state assembly districts). Fusion Voting has allowed several third parties to have some impact on the local and state level; the Working Families Party plays a role particularly in city politics, and the Conservative Party endorses candidates primarily in the suburbs.

In recent years, the urban area's traditional partisan dynamic appears to have begun shifting in the Democratic Party's favor (see Blue Wave). A Democrat won the 2017 race for county sheriff for the first time in decades, in 2019 Democrat Adam Bello was elected county executive after over 30 years of Republican control, in 2020 democrats Samra Brouk and Jeremy Cooney flipped state senate districts long held by the GOP and the traditionally Republican county legislature is now split 15–14. It is not possible to say whether or not this trend will continue; though it is in keeping with a broader national trend of increased Democratic success in suburban areas.[141][142][143][144][145]

Discover more about Government and politics related topics

List of mayors of Rochester, New York

List of mayors of Rochester, New York

The following is the complete list of the mayors of the city of Rochester, New York.

Mayor

Mayor

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. A mayor's duties and responsibilities may be to appoint and oversee municipal managers and employees, provide basic governmental services to constituents, and execute the laws and ordinances passed by a municipal governing body. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.

Malik Evans

Malik Evans

Malik D. Evans is an American politician and banker who is the 71st and current Mayor of Rochester, New York. A member of the Democratic Party, Evans previously served on the Rochester City Council as an at-large member and on the Rochester City School Board including several years as its president.

New York's 25th congressional district

New York's 25th congressional district

New York’s 25th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives. It is currently represented by Democrat Joseph Morelle. Since 2023, the district has been located within Monroe County and part of Orleans County, centered on the city of Rochester.

Irondequoit, New York

Irondequoit, New York

Irondequoit is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. As of 2019, the coterminous town-CDP had a total population of 50,055. Irondequoit is a suburb of the city of Rochester, lying just north and east of the city limits. The name is of Iroquois origin and means "where the land meets the water".

Louise Slaughter

Louise Slaughter

Dorothy Louise Slaughter was an American politician elected to 16 terms as a United States Representative from New York, serving from 1987 until her death in 2018. She served as the Dean of the New York Congressional Delegation for the last few terms as Congresswoman before her death.

Fairport, New York

Fairport, New York

Fairport is a village located in the Town of Perinton, which is part of Monroe County, New York, United States. Fairport is a suburb 9 miles (14 km) east of Rochester. It is also known as the "Crown Jewel of the Erie Canal". In 2005, it was named as one of the "Best Places to Live" by Money Magazine. The population of the Village of Fairport was 5,353 as of the 2010 census.

New York's 55th State Senate district

New York's 55th State Senate district

New York's 55th State Senate district is one of 63 districts in the New York State Senate. It has been represented by Democrat Samra Brouk since 2021, succeeding Republican Rich Funke.

New York's 56th State Senate district

New York's 56th State Senate district

New York's 56th State Senate district is one of 63 districts in the New York State Senate. It has been represented by Democrat Jeremy Cooney since 2021, succeeding Republican Joseph Robach.

Jeremy Cooney

Jeremy Cooney

Jeremy Cooney is an American politician from the state of New York. A Democrat, Cooney represents the 56th district of the New York State Senate, covering parts of the City of Rochester, the Town of Brighton, and the western suburbs of Monroe County. His term of office began on January 1, 2021.

Edward Rath III

Edward Rath III

Edward August Rath III is an American politician serving as a member of the New York State Senate from the 61st district. Elected in November 2020, he assumed office on January 6, 2021.

Amherst, New York

Amherst, New York

Amherst is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. Amherst is an inner ring suburb of Buffalo. As of 2020, the town had a total population of 129,595. This represents an increase from 122,366 as reported in the 2010 census.

Fire department

Rochester is protected by about 500 professional firefighters in the Rochester Fire Department (RFD). It is the third-largest fire department in the state of New York. It operates from 16 fire stations throughout the city, under the command of two battalion chiefs and a deputy chief per shift. The department operates 13 engines, six ladders, one heavy rescue, two hazardous material units, a fireboat, and a salvage unit (Rochester Protectives), as well as many other special and support units. Usually, 87 front-line members work each shift, including chief officers and fire investigation (not including staff divisions such as Fire Safety, the Training Academy, and Supply Depot). RFD responds to around 40,000 emergency calls annually. Around 90% of RFD personnel are certified NY State EMTs and roughly 50% of the calls each year are for EMS. The RFD also operates its own apparatus repair division at the Public Safety Training Facility. The chief of department is Willie Jackson.[146]

Education

The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District, which encompasses all public primary and secondary education. The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member board of education. Also, parochial and private primary and secondary schools are located within the city. Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years. However, the high-school graduation rate for African-American males is lower in Rochester than in any city in the United States (9%).[147] Rochester also offers 15 free public charter schools with 26 locations serving students K–12.

Colleges and universities

Nazareth College
Nazareth College

Rochester and the surrounding region host a high concentration of colleges and universities, which drive much of the economic growth in the five-county area. The University of Rochester is the only large research institution primarily within the city limits, although Monroe Community College and SUNY Brockport operate campuses downtown. The Highland Park neighborhood is home to Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School (part of whose facility is leased by Ithaca College's Department of Physical Therapy) and an office maintained by the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations.

University of Rochester

The University of Rochester is the metropolitan area's oldest and most prominent institution of higher learning, and one of the country's top research centers. It was ranked as the 34th-best university in the nation by U.S. News & World Report for 2021[148] and was deemed "one of the new Ivies" by Newsweek.[149] The nursing school has received many awards and honors[150] and the Simon School of Business is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories.[151]

The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music, which was ranked the number-one music school in America. It was founded and endowed by George Eastman in his years as a philanthropist.[152] He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak.

Former colleges

Four institutions began operations in the city and later moved to Rochester's inner-ring suburbs:

Rochester was the host of the Barleywood Female University, a short-lived women's college from 1852 to 1853. The Lutheran seminary that became Wagner College was established in the city in 1883 and remained for some 35 years before moving to Staten Island.[156]

Secondary education

The Rochester City School District operates 13 public secondary schools, each serving grades 7–12. In addition, six charter secondary schools operate.

Charter schools

Rochester is home to a number of charter schools, serving grades Kindergarten - 12.

Rochester's Charter Schools
Charter School Grades Served Location
Academy of Health Sciences Charter School 5-8 1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613
Citizenship & Science Academy Charter School of Rochester K-3 (expanding to 12) 151 E. Henrietta Rd., Rochester, NY 14620
Discovery Charter School K-6 133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615
Eugenio María de Hostos Charter School - Zimbrich Campus K-5 27 Zimbrich St., Rochester, NY 14621
Eugenio María de Hostos Charter School - Joseph Campus 6-8 1069 Joseph Ave., Rochester, NY 14621
Eugenio María de Hostos Charter School - Kodak Campus 9-12 5th Floor – Building 10, 343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650
Exploration Elementary Charter School K-5 1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613
Genesee Community Charter School at Rochester Museum & Science Center K-6 657 East Ave., Rochester, NY 14607
Genesee Community Charter School - Flour City Campus K-3 (expanding to 6) 657 East Ave., Rochester, NY 14607
Innova Girls Academy Charter School K-2 (expanding to 6) (location to be announced)
Renaissance Academy Charter School of the Arts K-6 299 Kirk Rd., Rochester, NY 14612
Rochester Academy Charter School - Elementary School K-5 310 Hinchey Rd., Rochester 14624
Rochester Academy Charter School - Middle School 6-8 841 Genesee St., Rochester, NY 14611
Rochester Academy Charter School - High School 9-12 1757 Latta Rd., Rochester, NY 14612
Rochester Academy of Science Charter School (RocSci) K-2 & 9 (expanding to 12) 545 Humboldt St., Rochester, NY 14610
Rochester Prep Charter School - Elementary School K-4 899 Jay St., Rochester, NY 14611
Rochester Prep Charter School - Elementary School - West Campus K-4 305 Andrews St., Rochester, NY 14604
Rochester Prep Charter School - Elementary School 3 K-4 85 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621
Rochester Prep Charter School - Middle Schools Brooks Campus 5-8 630 Brooks Ave., Rochester, NY 14619
Rochester Prep Charter School - Middle School West Campus 5-8 432 Chili Ave., Rochester, NY 14611
Rochester Prep Charter School - Middle School 3 5-7 (expanding to 8) 85 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621
Rochester Prep Charter School - High School 9-12 14 Mark St., Rochester, NY 14605
University Prep Charter School for Young Men 7-12 1290 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613
Urban Choice Charter School K-8 545 Humboldt St., Rochester, NY 14610
Vertus High School 9-12 21 Humboldt St., Rochester, NY 14609
Young Women's College Prep Charter School 7-12 133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615

Private schools

Bishop Kearny

Former schools

Discover more about Education related topics

Rochester City School District

Rochester City School District

The Rochester City School District is a public school district that serves approximately 24,900 students in the city of Rochester, New York. It is currently operating with a budget of $983 million, which comes out to approximately $39,500 per student. This is, according to Census Bureau data, $14,000 more than the New York State average of $25,500 per student, and two and a half times the national average of $14,500 per student.

Monroe Community College

Monroe Community College

Monroe Community College is a public community college in Monroe County, New York. It is part of the State University of New York. The college has two campuses; the main campus in the town of Brighton, and the Downtown Campus in the City of Rochester. The college also has off-site learning at the Applied Technologies Center, Monroe County Public Safety Training Facility and online.

Downtown Rochester

Downtown Rochester

Downtown Rochester is the economic center of Rochester, New York, and the largest in Upstate New York, employing more than 50,000 people, and housing more than 6,000.

Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School

Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School

Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School is a seminary in Rochester, New York affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA.

Ithaca College

Ithaca College

Ithaca College is a private college in Ithaca, New York. It was founded by William Egbert in 1892 as a conservatory of music and is set against the backdrop of the city of Ithaca, Cayuga Lake, waterfalls, and gorges. The college is best known for its large list of alumni who have played prominent roles in the media and entertainment industries.

Eastman School of Music

Eastman School of Music

The Eastman School of Music is the music school of the University of Rochester, a private research university in Rochester, New York. It was established in 1921 by industrialist and philanthropist George Eastman.

George Eastman

George Eastman

George Eastman was an American entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and helped to bring the photographic use of roll film into the mainstream. After a decade of experiments in photography, he patented and sold a roll film camera, making amateur photography accessible to the general public for the first time. Working as the treasurer and later president of Kodak, he oversaw the expansion of the company and the film industry.

Philanthropy

Philanthropy

Philanthropy is a form of altruism that consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on material gain; and with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, notably focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is a philanthropist.

Empire State College

Empire State College

Empire State College is a public university headquartered in Saratoga Springs, New York. It is part of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. Empire State College is a multi-site institution offering associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, and distance degrees worldwide through the Center for Distance Learning. The college has approximately 10,000 undergraduate students and has an acceptance rate of 51%. The college is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

Irondequoit, New York

Irondequoit, New York

Irondequoit is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. As of 2019, the coterminous town-CDP had a total population of 50,055. Irondequoit is a suburb of the city of Rochester, lying just north and east of the city limits. The name is of Iroquois origin and means "where the land meets the water".

Brighton, Monroe County, New York

Brighton, Monroe County, New York

Brighton is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 37,137 at the 2020 census.

Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is a private research university in the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York, metropolitan area. The university was founded in 1829 and is the tenth largest private university in the United States in terms of full-time students. It is internationally known for its science, computer, engineering, and art programs, as well as for the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a leading deaf-education institution that provides educational opportunities to more than 1000 deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

Culture and recreation

The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions. These include the Garth Fagan Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the Rochester City Ballet, George Eastman Museum International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Contemporary Art Center, Rochester Museum & Science Center, the Rochester Broadway Theater League, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium, Hochstein School of Music & Dance, the Auditorium Theater, and numerous arts organizations. Geva Theatre Center is the city's largest professional theater.

Murphy's Law, a large, iconic bar and club at the corner of East and Alexander in the East End
Murphy's Law, a large, iconic bar and club at the corner of East and Alexander in the East End

The East End Theater is on East Main Street in the theater district. The Rochester Association of Performing Arts is a non-profit organization that provides educational theater classes to the community.

Nightlife

Rochester's East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city's nightlife. It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is occupied by nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants. The Eastman School of Music, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also within the neighborhood. The Eastman Theatre is host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events.

The Little Theatre in the East End
The Little Theatre in the East End
Monroe Avenue bars at night
Monroe Avenue bars at night

There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city. "Southeast" is the center of Rochester's prosperous arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shops). Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas, like the Village Gate, which give space to contemporary bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night. Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is filled with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges. These neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students, and Rochester's large LGBT community.

The South Wedge district, directly south of downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many modern cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester several blocks away from the neighborhoods. The "Wedge" is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits; its numerous nightspots keep the streets active with college students and young professionals, many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing and proximity to many of the region's major hospitals, parks, and colleges.

Park lands

Rochester's parks include Highland, Cobb's Hill, Durand Eastman, Genesee Valley, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, Turning Point, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.[157] The city's Victorian-era Mt. Hope Cemetery includes the final resting places of Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglass, George B. Selden, and many others. Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre and neighboring Riverside Cemetery.

Throughout its history, Rochester has acquired several nicknames; it has been known as "the World's Image Center",[158] "the Flour City", "the Flower City".[22] As a legacy of its time as "The Flower City", Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive.

Festivals

Rochester hosts a number of cultural festivals every year, including:

Media

Former Federal Building, now Rochester City Hall since the 1970s
Former Federal Building, now Rochester City Hall since the 1970s

The Democrat and Chronicle, a Gannett newspaper, is Rochester's main daily newspaper. There are numerous other publications and magazines that cater to many of the city's different people groups or special interests such as Insider magazine, City Newspaper, Rochester Business Journal, and the Minority Reporter. Former publications serving the city include the Rochester Post Express[167] and Rochester Evening Journal.[168] Rochester is also served by several local television and radio stations, with WROC-TV as the oldest television station serving the Rochester metro area.

Several movies have been filmed at least in part in Rochester, including The Amazing Spiderman 2 (2013),[169] The Tomorrow Man (2019),[170] and Wonder Boys (2000).[170]

Points of interest

Circle at Bausch & Lomb headquarters with the Xerox Tower in the background
Circle at Bausch & Lomb headquarters with the Xerox Tower in the background
Former City Hall in the City Hall Historic District
Former City Hall in the City Hall Historic District

Sports

Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 "best golf city" in America by Golf Magazine in 2007,[172] and the fifth-best "sports town" in the country by Scarborough Research in September 2008.

Professional sports

Rochester has several professional sports teams:[173]

Frontier Field, including the Rochester skyline
Frontier Field, including the Rochester skyline
Club Sport Began play League Venue Titles
Rochester Red Wings Baseball 1899 IL Frontier Field 20
Rochester Americans Ice hockey 1956 AHL Blue Cross Arena 6
Rochester New York FC Soccer 1996 MLS Next Pro John L. DiMarco Field 5
Rochester RazorSharks Basketball 2005 PBL Blue Cross Arena 8
Rochester Knighthawks Indoor lacrosse 2019 NLL Blue Cross Arena 0
Flower City Union Soccer 2021 NISA Marina Auto Stadium 0

In addition, there are numerous other amateur and club sports such as rowing and rugby. Rochester and its surrounding area also has a rich golf history and has hosted numerous professional tournaments on its local golf courses.[174] The city also boasts other facilities such as 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts. The Rochester Royals (now the Sacramento Kings) were a professional basketball team in Rochester from 1945 to 1957 with roots as an amateur team dating back to 1923. They won the NBA title in 1951, defeating the New York Knicks in 7 games.

College sports

Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U.S. which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports. Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III level. The only exceptions are the RIT men's and women's ice hockey teams, which compete at the Division I level, and the University of Rochester men's squash team, which is consistently ranked top 5 in Division I. RIT and UR's other sports, as well as both institutions as a whole, are in Division III. The men's team made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010[175] and the women's team won the Division III national championship in 2012, just before switching over to Division I.[176][177]

As of the 2014–2015 academic year, the only college in the Rochester area not officially classified at the Division III level is Roberts Wesleyan College, which completed its transition from membership in the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA); Roberts Wesleyan was granted full membership in NCAA Division II beginning with the 2014–15 year.[178]

Discover more about Culture and recreation related topics

Garth Fagan

Garth Fagan

Gawain Garth Fagan, CD is a Jamaican modern dance choreographer. He is the founder and artistic director of Garth Fagan Dance, a modern dance company based in Rochester, New York.

George Eastman Museum

George Eastman Museum

The George Eastman Museum, also referred to as George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film, the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography and one of the world's oldest film archives, opened to the public in 1949 in Rochester, New York.

Memorial Art Gallery

Memorial Art Gallery

The Memorial Art Gallery is the civic art museum of Rochester, New York. Founded in 1913, it is part of the University of Rochester and occupies the southern half of the University's former Prince Street campus. It is a focal point of fine arts activity in the region and hosts the biennial Rochester-Finger Lakes Exhibition and the annual Clothesline Festival.

Hochstein School of Music & Dance

Hochstein School of Music & Dance

The Hochstein School is an all ages school of music and dance in Rochester, New York The school was founded in 1920.

Geva Theatre Center

Geva Theatre Center

Geva Theatre Center is a regional, not-for-profit, professional theatre company based in Rochester, New York. It is housed in an 1868 building, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, located in Rochester at 75 Woodbury Boulevard. The Center has full seasons of programming, in addition to discussions based on plays and staged readings, and community outreach.

Eastman School of Music

Eastman School of Music

The Eastman School of Music is the music school of the University of Rochester, a private research university in Rochester, New York. It was established in 1921 by industrialist and philanthropist George Eastman.

Eastman Theatre

Eastman Theatre

Kodak Hall at Eastman Theatre is the largest performance venue at the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, located in downtown Rochester, New York.

Little Theatre (Rochester, New York)

Little Theatre (Rochester, New York)

The Little Theatre in Rochester, New York, commonly known as "The Little" is a movie theatre located on historic East Avenue in downtown Rochester, New York and a modest non-profit multiplex specializing in art film, including independent and foreign productions outside the United States.

Hookah lounge

Hookah lounge

A hookah lounge is an establishment where patrons share shisha from a communal hookah or from one placed at each table or a bar.

Durand Eastman Park

Durand Eastman Park

Durand Eastman Park is a 977-acre (3.95 km2) park located partly in Rochester, and partly in Irondequoit, New York. It is administered by the Monroe County Parks Department under agreements with the City of Rochester and the Town of Irondequoit.

Genesee Valley Park

Genesee Valley Park

Genesee Valley Park, originally named "South Park," is located in the south side of Rochester, New York along the shores of the Genesee River. The New York State Barge Canal crosses the Genesee River within the park. The University of Rochester is located near the park's north entrance.

Frederick Law Olmsted

Frederick Law Olmsted

Frederick Law Olmsted was an American landscape architect, journalist, social critic, and public administrator. He is considered to be the father of landscape architecture in the USA. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his partner Calvert Vaux. Olmsted and Vaux's first project was Central Park, which led to many other urban park designs, including Prospect Park in what was then the City of Brooklyn and Cadwalader Park in Trenton, New Jersey. He headed the preeminent landscape architecture and planning consultancy of late nineteenth-century America, which was carried on and expanded by his sons, Frederick Jr. and John C., under the name Olmsted Brothers.

Transportation

Maritime transport

Packet boats on the Genesee River
Packet boats on the Genesee River

There is marine freight service at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry Spirit of Ontario I built in Australia, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto across Lake Ontario. Canadian American Transportation Systems (CATS) was the company in charge of the Fast Ferry operations. The Spirit of Ontario I had a delayed arrival on April 29, 2004, as a result of hitting a pier in New York City on April 5, 2004, and was finally officially christened on June 16, 2004, at the Port of Rochester. The Fast Ferry was bought by the City of Rochester in an attempt to save the project. The Fast Ferry operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42.5 million. The project was initially well received by the inhabitants of Rochester.

Considerable effort was spent by inhabitants of Rochester to build up the waterfront to embrace the idea as well as to capitalize on potential tourism which was estimated to be an additional 75,000 tourists per month. In the first three months of operation, the fast ferry had carried about 140,000 people between Rochester and Toronto. A second Fast Ferry was proposed by CATS on August 27, 2004, which would have cost an additional $100 million. There were a number of problems concerning the ship's engine, the lack of mutual building up of waterfronts in Toronto and the inability of the city to put pressure on the company responsible for the production of the Fast Ferry. This resulted in the failure of the project. It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik, a German company, for $30 million.

Air transport

Aerial View of the Greater Rochester International Airport
Aerial View of the Greater Rochester International Airport

Rochester is served by the Frederick Douglass Greater Rochester International Airport (GRIA). Scheduled air service is provided by American, Allegiant, Delta, Frontier, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit, and United.[179]

In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights.[180] This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester's ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999.[181][182]

FedEx founder Fred Smith has stated in several articles that Xerox's development of the copier, and its need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that led him to pioneer the overnight delivery business in 1971.[183][184] Because Xerox manufactured its copiers in Rochester,[185] the city was one of the original 25 cities FedEx served on its first night of operations on April 17, 1973.[186]

In 2016, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced a $63.4 million project to renovate the GRIA.[187] The renovations include a large canopy extending over both main entrances, solar panels, a rainwater collection system, and modern communication and security enhancements.[188] All construction was completed by October 2018.[189]

Rails and mass transit

Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station
Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station

Rail service to Rochester is provided by the Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station, served by Amtrak's Empire Service between New York City and Niagara Falls, the Maple Leaf between New York City and Toronto, and the Lake Shore Limited between New York City/Boston and Chicago. Prior to 1965, Rochester had a smaller station reminiscent of New York City's "Grand Central Terminal". It was among Claude Fayette Bragdon's best works in Rochester, New York. The current station is modeled after Bragdon's work and named in honor of former longtime congresswomen Louise Slaughter.[190]

Rochester used to be a major stop on several railroad lines. It was served by the New York Central Railroad which served Chicago and Buffalo to the west and Albany and New York City to the east and southeast. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway (absorbed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad) served Buffalo and Pittsburgh until 1955. A rail route to Salamanca in southern New York State afforded connections in Salamanca to southwestern and southeastern New York State.[191] The last long-distance train in a southern direction was the Northern Express/Southern Express that went to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, via Canandaigua, Elmira and Williamsport; service ended in 1971.[192] Also serving Rochester was the Erie Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad.

Amtrak (passenger) and freight lines provide rail service to Rochester. Rochester has intercity and transcontinental bus service via Greyhound and Trailways.

Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary. RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System). All RTS routes are based out of the RTS Transit Center on Mortimer Street.

The Broad Street Aqueduct was used as a subway tunnel.
The Broad Street Aqueduct was used as a subway tunnel.

From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail underground transit system called the Rochester Subway. It was the smallest city in the world to have one.[193] The subway, which was operated by the Rochester Transit Corporation, was shut down in 1956.[194] The eastern half of the subway past Court Street became the Eastern Expressway with the western end of the open cut being filled in 1976. The tunnel was last used for freight service by Gannett Company to bring paper to the printing presses for the Democrat and Chronicle in 1997. Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnel.[195] One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system.[196]

The former canal and subway tunnel have become a frequent source of debate. Homeless people trespass in the tunnels. The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely.[197][193] The plan to fill the tunnels in completely generated criticism, as the cost of filling would not generate or leverage economic development. The western end of the tunnel was filled in to the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad turnout in 2010 as part of a redevelopment of the above street and the eastern end of the tunnel is undergoing redevelopment. The Broad Street aqueduct and most famous part of the tunnel is on the National Register of Historic Places being added in 1976.[198]

Major highways and roads

Main Street looking east
Main Street looking east

Three exits off the New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) serve Rochester. Rochester has an extensive system of limited-access highways (called 'expressways' or just 'highways', but never 'freeways') which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway.

Rochester's expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east. The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate rapid travel between the suburbs and downtown,[199] and also because it was built when the city's population was over 330,000, whereas today it is a full third less.[200]

The Outer Loop circles just outside the city limits while the former Inner Loop once circled around the immediate downtown area within the city (the easternmost sector was closed in 2015). From the west are Lake Ontario State Parkway, NY-531 and I-490; Interstate 390 feeds from the south; and NY-104, NY-441, and I-490 approach from the east.

In 2016, the City of Rochester launched the Pace Car Program. "Pace Car drivers sign a pledge to drive within the speed limit, drive courteously, yield to pedestrians and be mindful of bicyclists and others on the street."[201]

Later expressway proposals

In the early 1970s, the Genesee Expressway Task Force, City leaders, and NYSDOT studied the feasibility of connecting the outer and inner Loops with a new southern expressway. The proposed route extended north from the I-390 and I-590 interchange in Brighton, cutting through Rochester's Swillburg neighborhood. In 1972, consultants Berger Lehman Associates recommended a new 'Busway', an expressway with dedicated bus lanes, similar to Bus Rapid Transit.[202] The expressway extension was never built.

Three Interstate Highways run through the City of Rochester:

I-390.svg Interstate 390 (Genesee Expressway)

  • I-390 runs south–north, crossing I-90 (exit 46) and routing north through Rochester's western suburbs. Its northern end is at I-490, however, it continues north as NY-390 until it merges into the Lake Ontario State Parkway. South of I-90, I-390 runs to Avoca, where it meets with U.S. Route 15 and the Southern Tier Expressway, I-86.

I-490.svg Interstate 490 (Western/Eastern Expressway)

I-590.svg Interstate 590

  • I-590 runs south–north through Rochester's eastern suburbs. Its southern end is at I-390, while the northern terminus is at I-490; the highway continues north to the shore of Lake Ontario as NY-590.
  • In decreasing usage is the term "Can of Worms", referring to the previously dangerous at-grade intersection of Interstate 490 and expressway NY-590 on the eastern edge of the Rochester city limits, bordering the suburb of Brighton. In the 1980s, a multimillion-dollar project created a system of overpasses and ramps that reduced the danger but resulted in the loss of certain exits.

New York State Route Expressways:

NY-104.svg New York State Route 104 (Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)

  • NY 104 – Just east of the NY 590 interchange, NY 104 becomes the Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway and crosses the Irondequoit Bay Bridge. On the other side of the Bay Bridge, in the town of Webster, NY 104 has exits before returning to an at-grade highway at Basket Road.

NY-390.svg New York State Route 390

  • NY 390 is an extension of Interstate 390 from the I-390/I-490 interchange in Gates. The northern terminus is at the Lake Ontario State Parkway in Greece, less than a mile from the Lake Ontario shoreline.

NY-590.svg New York State Route 590

  • NY 590 is a limited-access extension of Interstate 590 that runs from an interchange between Interstate 490 and I-590 on the Brighton/Rochester border. The northern terminus is at Culver Road in Irondequoit, near Sea Breeze (the western shore of Irondequoit Bay at Lake Ontario).

Rochester Inner Loop.svg Inner Loop

  • The Inner Loop Runs from Interstate 490 to Main Street on the north end and from 490 to Monroe Avenue at the south end. Formerly a loop, the eastern end was demolished and replaced with a surface road between 2014 and 2017. Unsigned reference New York State Route 940T begins and ends at Interstate 490, and the rest of the Loop is part of I-490 between exits 13 and 15, including the Frederick Douglass–Susan B. Anthony Memorial Bridge. This expressway is commonly used to define the borders of downtown Rochester.

New York State Parkways:

Lake Ontario State Pkwy Shield.svg Lake Ontario State Parkway

  • Lake Ontario State Parkway travels from Lakeside Beach State Park in Carlton, Orleans County. The eastern end is at Lake Avenue in the city of Rochester in Monroe County.

Discover more about Transportation related topics

Genesee River

Genesee River

The Genesee River is a tributary of Lake Ontario flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York in the United States. The river contains several waterfalls in New York at Letchworth State Park and Rochester.

Charlotte, Rochester, New York

Charlotte, Rochester, New York

Charlotte is a neighborhood in Rochester, in the U.S. state of New York, located along the western bank of the mouth of the Genesee River along the southern shore of Lake Ontario. It is the home of the Port of Rochester and Charlotte High School.

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the U.S. state of New York. The Canada–United States border spans the centre of the lake.

Ferry

Ferry

A ferry is a ship, watercraft or amphibious vehicle used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.

Canadian American Transportation Systems

Canadian American Transportation Systems

Canadian American Transportation Systems, or "CATS", was a company based in Rochester, New York which initiated a passenger/vehicle ferry service on Lake Ontario, connecting Rochester with Toronto.

Förde Reederei Seetouristik

Förde Reederei Seetouristik

FRS or Fast Reliable Seaways (FRS) is a German transportation company specialising in passenger ferry and freight transportation. Originally a regional passenger ferry operator founded in 1866, it has expanded in recent years to an international business group and became one of Europe's leading ferry operators. FRS provides conventional ferries, as well as high speed ferries. With 59 vessels and approximately 2,000 employees worldwide, FRS is transporting 7.9 million passengers and 2.1 million vehicles per year. The company group with its headquarters in Northern Germany, Flensburg, comprises 17 subsidiaries located in Europe, North Africa, Middle East and North America. Focussing on national and international ferry and catamaran operations, FRS is also specializing in Offshore Logistics, Port Management, Crewing and Maritime Consulting.

Greater Rochester International Airport

Greater Rochester International Airport

Frederick Douglass - Greater Rochester International Airport is a public airport located within the City of Rochester, three miles (4.8 km) southwest of Downtown, in Monroe County, New York, United States. It is owned and operated by Monroe County. It is the fifth-busiest airport in the state of New York and the third-busiest outside of the New York City metropolitan area. The airport is home to the 642nd Aviation Support Battalion, part of the 42nd Infantry Division.

American Airlines

American Airlines

American Airlines is a major US-based airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the largest airline in the world when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenue passenger mile. American, together with its regional partners and affiliates, operates an extensive international and domestic network with almost 6,800 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of the Oneworld alliance, the third-largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines is one of the major airlines of the United States and a legacy carrier. One of the world's oldest airlines in operation, Delta is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, including Delta Connection, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves 325 destinations in 52 countries on six continents. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance.

Frontier Airlines

Frontier Airlines

Frontier Airlines is a major ultra-low-cost U.S. airline headquartered in Denver, Colorado. It operates flights to over 100 destinations throughout the United States and 31 international destinations, and employs more than 3,000 staff. The carrier is a subsidiary and operating brand of Indigo Partners, LLC, and maintains a hub at Denver International Airport with numerous focus cities across the US.

Cheapflights

Cheapflights

Cheapflights is a travel fare metasearch engine. The website is part of the Kayak.com subsidiary of Booking Holdings.

FedEx

FedEx

FedEx Corporation, formerly Federal Express Corporation and later FDX Corporation, is an American multinational conglomerate holding company focused on transportation, e-commerce and business services based in Memphis, Tennessee. The name "FedEx" is a syllabic abbreviation of the name of the company's original air division, Federal Express, which was used from 1973 until 2000. FedEx today is best known for its air delivery service, FedEx Express, which was one of the first major shipping companies to offer overnight delivery as a flagship service. Since then, FedEx also started FedEx Ground, FedEx Office, FedEx Supply Chain, FedEx Freight, and various other services across multiple subsidiaries, often meant to respond to its main competitor, UPS. FedEx is also one of the top contractors of the US government and assists in the transport of some United States Postal Service packages through their Air Cargo Network contract.

Notable people

See List of people from Rochester, New York

Notable individuals who were born in and/or lived in Rochester include American social reformer and women's rights activist Susan B. Anthony, African-American social reformer and abolitionist Frederick Douglass, and Kodak founder George Eastman.

Discover more about Notable people related topics

List of people from Rochester, New York

List of people from Rochester, New York

Rochester, New York in the United States, and its suburbs, is or has been home to many famous individuals. These people include businessmen, civil rights activists, politicians, entertainers, educators, athletes and much more. Three prominent Rochesterians in the national consciousness are abolitionist Frederick Douglass, suffragist Susan B. Anthony, and inventor-philanthropist George Eastman.

Susan B. Anthony

Susan B. Anthony

Susan B. Anthony was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, becoming famous for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. Accordingly, he was described by abolitionists in his time as a living counterexample to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave. It was in response to this disbelief that Douglass wrote his first autobiography.

Kodak

Kodak

The Eastman Kodak Company is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey. It is best known for photographic film products, which it brought to a mass market for the first time.

George Eastman

George Eastman

George Eastman was an American entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and helped to bring the photographic use of roll film into the mainstream. After a decade of experiments in photography, he patented and sold a roll film camera, making amateur photography accessible to the general public for the first time. Working as the treasurer and later president of Kodak, he oversaw the expansion of the company and the film industry.

Sister cities

Rochester has twelve sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International. They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006):[203]

Rochester's sister cities are:[204]

Discover more about Sister cities related topics

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also includes overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain over 68 million people.

Germany

Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of almost 84 million within its 16 constituent states. Germany borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern and Western Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, it consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. It has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. Italy covers an area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi), with a population of about 60 million. It is the third-most populous member state of the European Union, the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the tenth-largest country in the continent by land area. Italy's capital and largest city is Rome.

Caltanissetta

Caltanissetta

Caltanissetta is a comune in the central interior of Sicily, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Caltanissetta. Its inhabitants are called Nisseni.

Israel

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia. Situated between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea, it is bordered by Lebanon to the north, by Syria to the northeast, by Jordan to the east, by Egypt to the southwest, and by the Palestinian territories — the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest — with which it shares legal boundaries. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

Rehovot

Rehovot

Rehovot is a city in the Central District of Israel, about 20 kilometers south of Tel Aviv. In 2019 it had a population of 143,904.

Poland

Poland

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of 38 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Kraków

Kraków

Kraków, or Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, the city dates back to the seventh century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town with Wawel Royal Castle was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978, one of the world's first sites granted the status.

Mali

Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 21.9 million. 67% of its population was estimated to be under the age of 25 in 2017. Its capital and largest city is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert. The country's southern part is in the Sudanian savanna, where the majority of inhabitants live, and both the Niger and Senegal rivers pass through. The country's economy centres on agriculture and mining. One of Mali's most prominent natural resources is gold, and the country is the third largest producer of gold on the African continent. It also exports salt.

Bamako

Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a 2009 population of 1,810,366 and an estimated 2022 population of 2.81 million. It is located on the Niger River, near the rapids that divide the upper and middle Niger valleys in the southwestern part of the country.

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Hamamatsu

Hamamatsu

Hamamatsu is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 December 2019, the city had an estimated population of 791,707 in 340,591 households, making it the prefecture's largest city, and a population density of 508/km2 (1,320/sq mi). The total area of the site was 1,558.06 km2 (601.57 sq mi).

Source: "Rochester, New York", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rochester,_New_York.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for Rochester kept January 1871 to September 1940 at downtown and at Greater Rochester Int'l since October 1940. For more information, see Threadex
References
  1. ^ "RootsWeb.com Home Page". www.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  2. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  3. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Rochester city, New York". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  4. ^ Publications, Rochester History Alive; Kling, Warren (April 1, 2008). America's First Boomtown - Rochester, NY: The Early Years and the Notables Who Shaped It. Rochester History Alive Publications. ISBN 9780981510705. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  5. ^ "Fisher, RIT, U of R named among best universities in U.S." 13 WHAM News. WHAM-TV. September 10, 2018. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  6. ^ "Abolition - Freethought Trail - New York". freethought-trail.org. Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  7. ^ McKelvey, Blake (July 1948). "Woman's Rights in Rochester: A Century of Progress" (PDF). Rochester History. X (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  8. ^ "Rochester can become US growth engine, says MIT economist". NewsCenter. April 8, 2019. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  9. ^ Daneman, Matthew, "Our manufacturing roots sprout jobs" Archived January 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Democrat and Chronicle (March 2, 2008) (archived copy Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine)
  10. ^ The United States Conference of Mayors & The Council on Metro Economies & the New American City, U.S. Metro Economies: GMP & Employment 2013–2015 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, prepared by IHS Global Insight (U.S.A.) [Lexington, Mass.: IHS Global Insight (U.S.A.), 2014‑06], app., table 1, pp. 1–9.
  11. ^ "The Geography of America's Music Scenes". Bloomberg.com. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  12. ^ "History of George Eastman House". George Eastman House website. Archived from the original on January 14, 2010. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
  13. ^ ""Facts on Rochester"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2012.
  14. ^ Levy, Francesca (June 7, 2010). "America's Best Places to Raise a Family". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on January 17, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  15. ^ "Best Cities for Families". Kiplinger. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  16. ^ "GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2018". www.lboro.ac.uk. GaWC. 2018. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  17. ^ Oklahoma State University Library. "Treaty of Big Tree". Digital.library.okstate.edu. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  18. ^ Sam, Bleiweis (2013). The Downfall of the Iroquois (PDF). Emory University. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  19. ^ Catapano, Andrea Lucielle (2007). The Rising of the Ongwehònwe: Sovereignty, Identity, and Representation on the Six Nations Reserve (PDF). Stony Brook University. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  20. ^ History of Rochester and Monroe County, New York: From the Earliest Historic Times to the Beginning of 1907, Volume 1 by William Farley Peck page 181
  21. ^ "Erie Canal Time Machine - 1918: The Barge Canal". New York State Archives. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Desrochers, Pierre; Shimizu, Hiroko (June 5, 2012). The Locavore's Dilemma: In Praise of the 10,000-mile Diet. PublicAffairs. pp. 68. ISBN 978-1-58648-940-3. flour producing cities 1838.
  23. ^ Hyatt, Eddie (2002), 2000 Years Of Charismatic Christianity, Lake Mary, FL: Charisma House, p. 126, ISBN 978-0-88419-872-7
  24. ^ Blake McKelvey, "The Germans of Rochester: Their Traditions and Contributions" Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Rochester History, Vol. 20, No. 1 (January 1958), pp. 7–8.
  25. ^ "The Reputation of Abraham Lincoln". C-SPAN.org. Archived from the original on December 17, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
  26. ^ "Frederick Douglass" Archived April 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, History, University of Rochester
  27. ^ "Senators to Vote on Suffrage Today; Fate of Susan B. Anthony Amendment Hangs in Balance on Eve of Final Test". New York Times. September 26, 1918. Archived from the original on December 25, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  28. ^ "Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State: New York" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  29. ^ Like many early companies, its production was small, about 400 a year including hearses, designed by Volney Lacey. G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  30. ^ a b c d e "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  31. ^ "United States Census Bureau Quick Facts Rochester, NY". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  32. ^ "Rochester, New York Population 2019". World Population Review. Archived from the original on December 2, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  33. ^ Goodman, James (July 20, 2014). "Riots revisited: 3 days that shook Rochester". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  34. ^ Hosmer, Howard C. A Panoramic History of Rochester and Monroe County, New York, 1979. Windsor Publishers.
  35. ^ Goodman, James; Sharp, Brian (July 20, 2014). "Riots spawned FIGHT, other community efforts". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  36. ^ R. D. G. Wadhwani. "Kodak, FIGHT, and the Definition of Civil Rights in Rochester, New York: 1966-1967". The Historian. Vol. 60, No. 1 (FALL), pp. 59-75
  37. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  38. ^ Broad, William J. (June 5, 2018). "How the Ice Age Shaped New York". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  39. ^ a b Fairchild, H. L. (1896). "Kame Areas in Western New York South of Irondequoit and Sodus Bays". The Journal of Geology. 4 (2): 129–159. Bibcode:1896JG......4..129F. doi:10.1086/607458. ISSN 0022-1376. JSTOR 30054321. S2CID 129916017. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  40. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  41. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
  42. ^ "Lona History Page". Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  43. ^ "Little Italy". Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  44. ^ "Historic info". Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  45. ^ "Blog". Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  46. ^ "Subway info". Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  47. ^ "Little Italy". May 23, 2017. Archived from the original on January 1, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  48. ^ "Government data". Archived from the original on December 31, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  49. ^ "19th Ward Community Association". 19wca.org. Archived from the original on June 20, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  50. ^ Rochester's 19th Ward. 2005. Michael Leavy and Glenn Leavy.
  51. ^ "Rochester City Newspaper". City Newspaper. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  52. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/01/15 through 6/05/15. National Park Service. June 12, 2015.
  53. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 6/29/15 through 7/02/15. National Park Service. July 10, 2015.
  54. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 8/31/15 through 9/04/15. National Park Service. September 11, 2015.
  55. ^ "Port of Rochester Project Now On Hold, Charlotte Residents Say It's Great News". Time Warner Cable News. June 30, 2016. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  56. ^ LaFrank, Kathleen (September 1988). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on November 22, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
  57. ^ "James Cunningham Son & Co". carriagemuseumlibrary.org. Carriage Museum of America. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  58. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 18, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  59. ^ "SOUTHEAST NEIGHBORHOODS - SWILLBURG". Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  60. ^ IV. Neighborhoods by the Numbers - City of Rochester, Interface Studio LLC, 2006, pp. 56–62, archived from the original on August 7, 2020, retrieved February 28, 2020
  61. ^ "NORTHEAST NEIGHBORHOODS - MARKETVIEW HEIGHTS". CityofRochester.gov. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  62. ^ "PUBLIC MARKET". CityofRochester.gov. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  63. ^ Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007.
  64. ^ Kuhne, Michael (January 23, 2016) [January 21, 2016]. "Top 10 snowiest major cities around the world". AccuWeather. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  65. ^ "Snowiest Cities in United States - Current Results". www.currentresults.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  66. ^ "Coolest US Cities in Summer - Current Results". www.currentresults.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  67. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  68. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  69. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for ROCHESTER/ROCHESTER-MONROE CO,NY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  70. ^ "Census" (PDF). United States Census. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2010. page 36
  71. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  72. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Rochester city, New York". Census.gov. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
  73. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Yonkers city, New York". www.census.gov. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  74. ^ a b c "Rochester (city), New York". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  75. ^ a b From 15% sample
  76. ^ "Explore Census Data".
  77. ^ "Rochester (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  78. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2013 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  79. ^ Kaya, Ilhan (2005). "Identity and Space: The Case of Turkish Americans*". Geographical Review. 95 (3): 425–440. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2005.tb00374.x. ISSN 1931-0846. S2CID 146744475.
  80. ^ "Ancestry Map of Jamaican Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
  81. ^ Axelson, Ben (February 28, 2018). "Which Upstate NY cities are the most Irish, Italian, Polish? 30 ancestries, ranked". newyorkupstate. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  82. ^ "The Demographic Statistical Atlas of the United States - Statistical Atlas". statisticalatlas.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  83. ^ "The 50 U.S. cities with the most Italian Americans". National Italian American Foundation. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  84. ^ "Making History: A Black Man's Hands Speak Eloquently". The New York Times. May 24, 2003. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  85. ^ a b c d Form, William (September 2000). "Italian Protestants: Religion, Ethnicity, and Assimilation". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 39 (3): 307–320. doi:10.1111/0021-8294.00026. JSTOR 1387816.
  86. ^ "Offenses Reported to Law Enforcement by State by City 100,000 and over in population Montana through Ohio". Uniform Crime Reports. Archived from the original on April 5, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  87. ^ Altheimer, Irshad. "Rochester Homicide Statistics for 2018" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  88. ^ "Mayor Warren declares state of emergency due to ongoing violence in Rochester". Rochester First.com. November 12, 2021. Archived from the original on November 14, 2021. Retrieved November 14, 2021.
  89. ^ "PROCLAMATION OF A LOCAL STATE OF EMERGENCY" (PDF). City Of Rochester. July 21, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  90. ^ "Fortune 500". Fortune. Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  91. ^ "Xerox Corporation Fact Book: Company facts, history, information". Xerox.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  92. ^ Tobin, Tom (June 6, 2014). "Bausch + Lomb tower in downtown Rochester to be sold for $15 million". Democrat & Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 25, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  93. ^ http://www.realtor.org/sites/default/files/reports/2015/embargoes/2015-q2-metro-home-prices/metro-home-prices-q2-2015-single-family-2015-08-11.pdf Archived September 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Accessed October 29, 2015.
  94. ^ "High Tech Rochester adds 4 businesses". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on November 10, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  95. ^ http://www.htr.org/ Archived August 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, High Tech Rochester website
  96. ^ [The Society for Imaging Science and Technology] "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), the Society for Imaging Science and Technology website
  97. ^ Economic Development Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, University of Rochester "Connections" website
  98. ^ "Zweigle's - Recipes using our products". www.zweigles.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  99. ^ "Boardwalk Hot Dog (Brooklyn)". Men's Journal. June 23, 2014. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  100. ^ "Whatever Happened To ... French's?". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  101. ^ Morrell (May 30, 2015). "Whatever Happened to ... Ragu?". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 10, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  102. ^ "City of Rochester | Meet Rochester's City Councilmembers". Cityofrochester.gov. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  103. ^ City Begins NET Consolidation, WXXI – June 17, 2008.
  104. ^ https://www.cityofrochester.gov/article.aspx?id=8589939519 Archived April 9, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Neighborhood Service Centers
  105. ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 55" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  106. ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 56" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  107. ^ W, Eric (March 2, 2012). "Senate District 61" (PDF). View 2012 Senate District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  108. ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 136" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  109. ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 137" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  110. ^ W, Eric (January 25, 2012). "Assembly District 138" (PDF). View Proposed 2012 Assembly District Maps. Albany, New York: The New York State Legislative Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  111. ^ Scott, Henry (1909). The Courts of the State of New York. New York: Wilson Publishing Co. p. 473.
  112. ^ a b Latwin, Joseph (Fall 1990). "City Courts: Organization and Civil Jurisdiction". Westchester Bar Journal, 279.
  113. ^ H.G. Fischer & Co. v Lincoln Rochester Trust Co., 195 Misc 983, 985 (Rochester City Court, 1949).
  114. ^ https://roccitylibrary.org/wp-content/uploads/2013.004-Gitelman.pdf
  115. ^ "Celebrating Black History Month in the 7th Judicial District" (PDF). The Legacy.
  116. ^ "Judge Rules Women Free To Bare Breasts To Get A Message Across". Associated Press.
  117. ^ Bauder, David. "NY's Highest Court Throws Out Charges Against Topless Protesters". Associated Press.
  118. ^ People v Santorelli, 80 NY2d 875 (1992), affg People v Craft, 134 Misc 2d 121 (Rochester City Court, 1986).
  119. ^ Fahringer, H P (1993). "EQUAL IN ALL THINGS: DRAWING THE LINE ON NUDITY". Criminal Law Bulletin. 29 (2): 137–146.
  120. ^ L.2001, c. 584, §§ 3 to 6, effective December 28, 2001
  121. ^ L.2013, c. 548 §§ 1 to 4, effective April 1, 2014
  122. ^ Latwin, Joseph (Fall 1990). "City Courts: Organization and Civil Jurisdiction". Westchester Bar Journal. 17.
  123. ^ "SmallClaimsAppRocCityCourt | NYCOURTS.GOV" (PDF). ww2.nycourts.gov.
  124. ^ UCCA § 102
  125. ^ Latwin, Joseph (Fall 1990). "City Courts: Organization and Civil Jurisdiction". Westchester Bar Journal, 280.
  126. ^ N.Y. Const. Art. VI, § 17(a).
  127. ^ "Legislation". NY State Senate.
  128. ^ UCCA § 2104 (e)(2)(i)
  129. ^ "Legislative District Map" (PDF). Rochester, New York: Monroe County Board of Elections. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  130. ^ "Upstate's forgotten abolitionists: The former slave who wrote his autobiography". February 22, 2021. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  131. ^ "Upstate's forgotten abolitionists: Former slave Thomas James founded Black churches in Rochester and Syracuse". February 25, 2021. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  132. ^ "Abolition - Freethought Trail - New York". Archived from the original on May 23, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  133. ^ "Susan B. Anthony". Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  134. ^ "Abigail Bush". Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  135. ^ "Amy Post". Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  136. ^ "Selected Resources in Local History & Genealogy about Rochester's Immigrants" (PDF). Rochester Public Library. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  137. ^ "Rochester's long history of organized labor". Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  138. ^ "Labor History". Archived from the original on January 29, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  139. ^ "The 1946 General Strike of Rochester New York". Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  140. ^ "Rochester, New York Population History | 1840 - 2019". Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  141. ^ "Todd Baxter unseats Monroe County Sheriff Patrick O'Flynn". Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  142. ^ "Bello's win makes him first Democrat to lead Monroe County in decades". November 6, 2019. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  143. ^ "Democrats flip Monroe County, but New York's blue wave ebbs slightly". Politico. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  144. ^ "Democrats poised for key wins locally". November 4, 2020. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  145. ^ "Riding the blue wave". October 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  146. ^ WHAM (December 20, 2018). "Longtime city firefighter appointed new chief in Rochester". WHAM. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  147. ^ "Rochester's Best Schools: Ratings, Reviews, and Grades – Zillow School Information". Zillow.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  148. ^ "Best Colleges 2014: University of Rochester". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013. University of Rochester's ranking in the 2014 edition of Best Colleges is National Universities, 32.
  149. ^ "America's 25 New Elite 'Ivies', August 21, 2008". Newsweek. August 30, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2010.
  150. ^ "Rankings, Achievements & Honors – School of Nursing". Archived from the original on May 31, 2009.
  151. ^ "Rankings & Distinctions | Simon Business School". www.simon.rochester.edu. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015.
  152. ^ "University of Rochester Rises in U.S. News Rankings" Archived May 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, University of Rochester Press Releases
  153. ^ "Empire State College in Rochester". Saratoga Springs, New York: Empire State College. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2011. In 1999, the center moved from Prince Street to 1475 Winton Road North, where it celebrates 30 years of service, of excellence and innovation.
  154. ^ "The Inauguration of Anne M. Kress; About MCC". Brighton, Monroe County, New York: Monroe Community College. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2011. In June 1968, MCC moved to a new, modern campus at 1000 East Henrietta Road. The college opened its Damon City Campus, located at Main Street and Clinton Avenue, in January 1992.
  155. ^ "History of RIT". Rochester Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
  156. ^ "College graduates fuel Rochester's fame". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York. April 24, 2010. ISSN 1088-5153. Archived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2013. What is now Staten Island's Wagner College was founded in Rochester in 1883 as the Lutheran Proseminary. It operated out of two homes in its first three years until Rochester builder John George Wagner donated the money that the college used to start its own campus on Oregon Street near downtown. In 1886, the school was renamed in honor of Wagner, and in 1918, it moved to Staten Island... Alt URL Archived April 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ Wickes, Majorie; O'Connell, Tim (April 1988). "The Legacy of Frederick Law Olmsted" (PDF). Rochester History. Rochester Public Library. L (2). ISSN 0035-7413. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 8, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2007.
  158. ^ "Photography & Film". Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  159. ^ Rochester International Jazz Festival
  160. ^ "Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival". Rochesterjazz.com. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  161. ^ "About Us "High Falls Film Festival – Rochester, NY". Film360365.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  162. ^ "Welcome". Rochesterfilmfest.org. January 23, 2012. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  163. ^ "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  164. ^ "Rochester, New York". Lilac Festival. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  165. ^ "CONCERT UPDATE: Lilac Fest announces three headliners". City Newspaper. Archived from the original on May 13, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  166. ^ "Corn Hill Arts Festival - Rochester, NY". cornhillartsfestival.com.
  167. ^ "About The post express. (Rochester, N.Y.) 1882–1923". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  168. ^ "About Rochester evening journal. (Rochester, N.Y.) 19??-1923". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  169. ^ "Movies Filmed in Rochester - Rochester Wiki". Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  170. ^ a b "Filming Location Matching "Rochester%2C New York%2C USA" (Sorted by Popularity Ascending)". IMDb. Archived from the original on December 25, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  171. ^ Paul Goldberger (December 26, 1982). "Housing for the Spirit". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  172. ^ "Rochester makes 10-best golf cities list (November 27, 2007)". Democrat & Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  173. ^ "Rochester Sports". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 13, 2008.
  174. ^ "America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses". Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  175. ^ Venniro, Joe (March 27, 2010). "Men's hockey makes history and advances to 2010 NCAA Frozen Four after defeating New Hampshire in NCAA East Region Final". Rochester Institute of Technology Athletics. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  176. ^ "NATIONAL CHAMPIONS! Women's hockey defeats Norwich 4-1 to win its first NCAA National title". Rochester Institute of Technology Athletics. March 17, 2012. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  177. ^ "Women's hockey moves to Division I". www.rit.edu. Rochester Institute of Technology. April 3, 2012. Archived from the original on January 16, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  178. ^ Bradley, Steve (July 13, 2011). "Roberts Wesleyan moving up to Division II athletics". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  179. ^ "Airlines Serving ROC". ROC Frederick Douglass Greater Rochester International Airport. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  180. ^ Shearing, Emily (July 17, 2010). "CheapFlights rates Rochester airports No. 14". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
  181. ^ Dawson, Evan (July 12, 2010). "Rochester's Airport: Are Flights Actually Cheaper These Days?". Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2010.
  182. ^ Johnston, David Cay (March 21, 1999). "Travel Advisory: Correspondent's Report; Upstate New York May Get Air Fare Relief". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
  183. ^ "Fred Smith on the birth of FedEx". Bloomberg Businessweek. September 20, 2004. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  184. ^ Neill, Kenneth (April 17, 2019). "Federal Express: The Million-Dollar Dream Machine". Memphis magazine. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  185. ^ Staff Reporter, Wall Street Journal (September 16, 1970). "Xerox Corp. to Build $15 Million Complex Near Rochester, N.Y.". The Wall Street Journal. ProQuest 133473007.
  186. ^ "History of FedEx Operating Companies". FedEx. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  187. ^ Clausen, Todd (September 21, 2020). "Airport getting $39.8M for upgrades". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  188. ^ Sharp, Brian (April 23, 2018). "Airport canopy installation to begin; later, an Etch A Sketch and Pong". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  189. ^ Spicer, Velvet (October 31, 2018). "Rochester airport completes $79.4 million renovation project". Rochester Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  190. ^ "Rochester's train station named in honor of late Congresswoman Louise Slaughter". WHAM-TV. March 25, 2019. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  191. ^ "Buffalo Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway". www.r2parks.net. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
  192. ^ Christopher T. Baer (September 8, 2009). NAMED TRAINS OF THE PRR INCLUDING THROUGH SERVICES (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 3, 2011.
  193. ^ a b Jacobs, Frank (July 23, 2010). "The Ghost Subway of Rochester, New York". Big Think. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  194. ^ Middleton, William D. (2003). Metropolitan Railways: Rapid Transit in America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34179-2. Archived from the original on August 19, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  195. ^ Sharp, Brian (June 29, 2018). "City eyes parking in Rochester's old subway tunnel". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  196. ^ "T.Y. Lin International Group | Projects | Historic Erie Canal Aqueduct/Broad Street Corridor". T.Y. Lin International Group. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  197. ^ McDermott, Meaghan M. (October 3, 2015). "Visitors go below to see unused tunnel". Democrat and Chronicle. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  198. ^ New York SP Erie Canal: Second Genesee Aqueduct. National Register of Historic Places. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. 1976. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  199. ^ Harrison, David (December 1, 2019). "Highways Give Way to Homes as Cities Rebuild". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  200. ^ Schneider, Keith (November 1, 2016). "Taking Out a Highway That Hemmed Rochester In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  201. ^ "City of Rochester's Pace Car Program Asks Drivers to Be Part of the Solution - Reconnect Rochester works to promote transportation choices that enable a more vibrant and equitable community in the Rochester, NY region". Reconnectrochester.org. November 16, 2016. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  202. ^ Pritchard, Keith (December 24, 1972). "Fate of 'Busway' Rests With Drivers". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle.
  203. ^ "Sister Cities Bridge Renamed "Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge"" (Press release). City of Rochester, New York. October 11, 2006. Archived from the original on January 11, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007. Mayor Robert J. Duffy conducted a ceremony today on the Sister Cities Bridge, officially renaming it the Frank and Janet Lamb Sister Cities Bridge.
  204. ^ "Rochester's Sister Cities". Visit Rochester. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
Further reading
External links
Categories

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.