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Robert P. George

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Robert P. George
Robert P. George by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Born
Robert Peter George

(1955-07-10) July 10, 1955 (age 67)
EducationSwarthmore College (BA)
Harvard University (MTS, JD)
New College, Oxford (DPhil)
AwardsPresidential Citizens Medal
Canterbury Medal
Irving Kristol Award
Philip Merrill Award
Bradley Prize
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolThomism
InstitutionsPrinceton University
Witherspoon Institute
Pepperdine University
Doctoral advisorJohn Finnis

Robert Peter George (born July 10, 1955) is an American legal scholar, political philosopher, and public intellectual who serves as the sixth McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence and Director of the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions at Princeton University. He lectures on constitutional interpretation, civil liberties, philosophy of law, and political philosophy. A Catholic, George is considered one of the country's leading conservative intellectuals.[1]

In addition to his professorship at Princeton, he is the Herbert W. Vaughan senior fellow at the Witherspoon Institute, a senior fellow of the American Enterprise Institute, and the Ronald Reagan Honorary Distinguished Professor of Public Policy and Nootbaar Honorary Distinguished Professor of Law at Pepperdine University.[2] He has frequently been a visiting professor at Harvard Law School.

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James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions

James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions

The James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, often called simply the Madison Program, is a scholarly institute within the Department of Politics at Princeton University that is "dedicated to exploring enduring questions of American constitutional law and Western political thought." The Madison Program was founded in 2000 and is directed by Robert P. George, the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University.

Princeton University

Princeton University

Princeton University is a private research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. It is one of the highest-ranked universities in the world. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, and then to the current site nine years later. It officially became a university in 1896 and was subsequently renamed Princeton University. It is a member of the Ivy League.

Civil liberties

Civil liberties

Civil liberties are guarantees and freedoms that governments commit not to abridge, either by constitution, legislation, or judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, and the right to bodily integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights.

Philosophy of law

Philosophy of law

Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy that examines the nature of law and law's relationship to other systems of norms, especially ethics and political philosophy. It asks questions like "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", and "What is the relationship between law and morality?" Philosophy of law and jurisprudence are often used interchangeably, though jurisprudence sometimes encompasses forms of reasoning that fit into economics or sociology.

Political philosophy

Political philosophy

Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its topics include politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

Catholic Church

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide as of 2019. It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilization. The church consists of 24 sui iuris churches, including the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, which comprise almost 3,500 dioceses and eparchies located around the world. The pope, who is the bishop of Rome, is the chief pastor of the church. The bishopric of Rome, known as the Holy See, is the central governing authority of the church. The administrative body of the Holy See, the Roman Curia, has its principal offices in Vatican City, a small enclave of the Italian city of Rome, of which the pope is head of state.

Conservatism in the United States

Conservatism in the United States

Conservatism in the United States is a political and social philosophy based on a belief in limited government, individualism, traditionalism, republicanism, and limited federal governmental power in relation to U.S. states. Conservative and Christian media organizations, along with American conservative figures, are influential, and American conservatism is one of the majority political ideologies within the Republican Party.

Witherspoon Institute

Witherspoon Institute

The Witherspoon Institute is a conservative think tank in Princeton, New Jersey. The Institute was founded in 2003 by Princeton University professor and conservative Robert P. George, Luis Tellez, and others involved with the James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions. Named after John Witherspoon, one of the signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, the institute's fellows include Harold James, John Joseph Haldane, and James R. Stoner, Jr.

Pepperdine University

Pepperdine University

Pepperdine University is a private research university affiliated with the Churches of Christ with its main campus in Los Angeles County, California. Pepperdine's main campus consists of 830 acres overlooking the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Coast Highway near Malibu, California. Founded by entrepreneur George Pepperdine in South Los Angeles in 1937, the school expanded to Malibu in 1972. Courses are now taught at a main Malibu campus, three graduate campuses in Southern California, a center in Washington, DC, and international campuses in Buenos Aires, Argentina; London, United Kingdom; Heidelberg, Germany; Florence, Italy; and Lausanne, Switzerland.

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School is the law school of Harvard University, a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States.

Early life and education

George was born on July 10, 1955,[3] and is of Syrian and Italian descent.[4] The grandson of immigrant coal miners, he grew up in Morgantown, West Virginia.[5] George received a Bachelor of Arts from Swarthmore College, a Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School, a Master of Theological Studies from Harvard Divinity School, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Oxford University.[6] As a doctoral student at Oxford, he studied the philosophy of law under the supervision of John Finnis and Joseph Raz and served as a lecturer in jurisprudence in New College. Since the completion of his DPhil, the University of Oxford has presented George with two earned higher doctorates,[7] a DCL and a DLitt.[8][9]

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Syrian Americans

Syrian Americans

Syrian Americans are Americans of Syrian descent or background. The first significant wave of Syrian immigrants to arrive in the United States began in the 1880s. Many of the earliest Syrian Americans settled in New York City, Boston, and Detroit. Immigration from Syria to the United States suffered a long hiatus after the United States Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which restricted immigration. More than 40 years later, the Immigration Act of 1965, abolished the quotas and immigration from Syria to the United States saw a surge. An estimated 64,600 Syrians immigrated to the United States between 1961 and 2000. Memphis, Tennessee.

Italian Americans

Italian Americans

Italian Americans are Americans who have full or partial Italian ancestry. The largest concentrations of Italian Americans are in the urban Northeast and industrial Midwestern metropolitan areas, with significant communities also residing in many other major U.S. metropolitan areas.

Morgantown, West Virginia

Morgantown, West Virginia

Morgantown is a city in and the county seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia, United States, situated along the Monongahela River. The largest city in North-Central West Virginia, Morgantown is best known as the home of West Virginia University. The population was 30,347 at the 2020 census. The city serves as the anchor of the Morgantown metropolitan area, which had a population of 138,176 in 2020.

Bachelor's degree

Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to six years. The two most common bachelor's degrees are the Bachelor of Arts (BA) and the Bachelor of Science. In some institutions and educational systems, certain bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate educations after a first degree has been completed, although more commonly the successful completion of a bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for further courses such as a master's or a doctorate.

Swarthmore College

Swarthmore College

Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1864, with its first classes held in 1869, Swarthmore is one of the earliest coeducational colleges in the United States. It was established as a college "under the care of Friends, [and] at which an education may be obtained equal to that of the best institutions of learning in our country." By 1906, Swarthmore had dropped its religious affiliation and officially became non-sectarian.

Juris Doctor

Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor, also known as Doctor of Jurisprudence, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The J.D. is the standard degree obtained to practice law in the United States; unlike in some other jurisdictions, there is no undergraduate law degree in the United States. In the United States, along with Australia, Canada, and some other common law countries, the J.D. is earned by completing law school.

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School

Harvard Law School is the law school of Harvard University, a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States.

Master of Theological Studies

Master of Theological Studies

A Master of Theological Studies (MTS) is a graduate degree, offered in theological seminary or graduate faculty of theology, which gives students lay training in theological studies. Under Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada (ATS) standards, programs require graduates to have earned an accredited bachelor's degree or its equivalent. Programs usually require students to complete two years of full-time study or its equivalent to earn the degree. The degree can serve as preparation for entering a masters or doctoral program in theology (Th.D.), religion (Ph.D.), or a related subject, such as education, counseling, social sciences, or humanities.

Harvard Divinity School

Harvard Divinity School

Harvard Divinity School (HDS) is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The school's mission is to educate its students either in the academic study of religion or for leadership roles in religion, government, and service. It also caters to students from other Harvard schools that are interested in the former field. HDS is among a small group of university-based, non-denominational divinity schools in the United States.

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study and research. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

John Finnis

John Finnis

John Mitchell Finnis,, is an Australian legal philosopher, jurist and scholar specializing in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. He is an original interpreter of Aristotle and Aquinas, and counts Germain Grisez as major influence and collaborator. He has made contributions to the philosophy of knowledge, metaphysics, and moral philosophy.

Doctor of Civil Law

Doctor of Civil Law

Doctor of Civil Law is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees.

Academic career

George speaking in 2014
George speaking in 2014

George joined the faculty of Princeton University as an instructor in 1985, and in the following year, he became a tenure-track assistant professor. He spent 1988–89 on sabbatical leave as a visiting fellow in law at Oxford University, working on his book Making Men Moral: Civil Liberties and Public Morality. George was promoted to associate professor with tenure at Princeton in 1994 and to professor in 1999, being named to Princeton's McCormick Chair of Jurisprudence, an endowed professorship previously held by Woodrow Wilson, Edward S. Corwin, William F. Willoughby, and Walter F. Murphy.[10] George founded Princeton's James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions in 2000 and serves as its director.[11] While George describes the program as not ideological, articles in the media have described it as a program that fosters conservative ideals.[1][12]

Cornel West

George has been a frequent conversation partner with Cornel West, a leading left-wing public intellectual, and the two are considered close friends.[13][14][1] The two have appeared together at colleges and universities around the country, arguing for civil dialogue and a broad conception of campus freedom of speech as essential to the truth-seeking mission of academic institutions. In March 2017, they jointly published the statement "Truth-Seeking, Democracy, and Freedom of Thought and Expression," in response to what they described as "campus illiberalism,"[15] stemming from an incident where an invited speaker and his faculty conversation partner at Middlebury College was shouted down and physically attacked; the letter was picked up by national media.[16][17][18]

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Princeton University

Princeton University

Princeton University is a private research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. It is one of the highest-ranked universities in the world. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, and then to the current site nine years later. It officially became a university in 1896 and was subsequently renamed Princeton University. It is a member of the Ivy League.

Academic tenure

Academic tenure

Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation. Tenure is a means of defending the principle of academic freedom, which holds that it is beneficial for society in the long run if scholars are free to hold and examine a variety of views.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election. As president, Wilson changed the nation's economic policies and led the United States into World War I in 1917. He was the leading architect of the League of Nations, and his progressive stance on foreign policy came to be known as Wilsonianism.

Edward Samuel Corwin

Edward Samuel Corwin

Edward Samuel Corwin was an American legal scholar who served as the president of the American Political Science Association. His various political writings in the early to mid-twentieth century microcosmically depict the rising activist thinking in various areas of American, constitutional law.

William F. Willoughby

William F. Willoughby

William Franklin Willoughby was an author of public administration texts including works on budgeting. He often worked with his twin brother, Westel W. Willoughby.

Walter F. Murphy

Walter F. Murphy

Walter Francis Murphy, Jr. was an American political scientist and writer.

James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions

James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions

The James Madison Program in American Ideals and Institutions, often called simply the Madison Program, is a scholarly institute within the Department of Politics at Princeton University that is "dedicated to exploring enduring questions of American constitutional law and Western political thought." The Madison Program was founded in 2000 and is directed by Robert P. George, the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton University.

Cornel West

Cornel West

Cornel Ronald West is an American philosopher, political activist, social critic, actor, and public intellectual. The grandson of a Baptist minister, West focuses on the role of race, gender, and class in American society and the means by which people act and react to their "radical conditionedness." A socialist, West draws intellectual contributions from multiple traditions, including Christianity, the Black church, Marxism, neopragmatism, and transcendentalism. Among his most influential books are Race Matters (1994) and Democracy Matters (2004).

Intellectual

Intellectual

An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of society, and who proposes solutions for the normative problems of society. Coming from the world of culture, either as a creator or as a mediator, the intellectual participates in politics, either to defend a concrete proposition or to denounce an injustice, usually by either rejecting or producing or extending an ideology, and by defending a system of values.

Middlebury College

Middlebury College

Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college in Middlebury, Vermont. Founded in 1800 by Congregationalists, Middlebury was the first operating college or university in Vermont. The college currently enrolls 2,858 undergraduates from all 50 states and 74 countries and offers 44 majors in the arts, humanities, literature, foreign languages, social sciences, and natural sciences, as well as joint engineering programs with Columbia University, Dartmouth College, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. In addition to its undergraduate liberal arts program, the school also has graduate schools, the Middlebury College Language Schools, the Bread Loaf School of English, and the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, as well as its C.V. Starr-Middlebury Schools Abroad international programs. It is the among the Little Ivies, an unofficial group of academically selective liberal arts colleges, mostly in the northeastern United States.

Political activity

George with President George W. Bush after receiving the Presidential Citizens Medal in 2008
George with President George W. Bush after receiving the Presidential Citizens Medal in 2008

George twice served as Governor of the West Virginia Democratic Youth Conference, and attended the 1976 Democratic National Convention as an alternate delegate. He moved to the right in the 1980s, largely due to his views on abortion,[5] and left the Democratic Party as a result of what he saw as its increasingly strong commitment to legal abortion and its public funding, and his growing skepticism about the effectiveness of large scale government-run social welfare projects in Appalachia and other low income rural and urban areas.

In 2009, George founded the American Principles Project,[19] which aims to create a grass-roots movement around his ideas.[5] He is a past chairman of the National Organization for Marriage, an advocacy group opposed to same-sex marriage,[5] and co-founder of the Renewal Forum, an organization fighting the sexual trafficking and commercial exploitation of women and children.

George was one of the drafters of the 2009 Manhattan Declaration, a manifesto signed by Orthodox, Catholic and Evangelical leaders that "promised resistance to the point of civil disobedience against any legislation that might implicate their churches or charities in abortion, embryo-destructive research or same-sex marriage."[5] He has also joined with Muslim scholar Shaykh Hamza Yusuf in urging hotel chains and other businesses to refrain from offering or promoting pornography.[20] He has worked closely with his former student Rabbi Meir Soloveichik and with the late Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks of Great Britain to combat anti-Semitism in Europe. Along with other public intellectuals, George played a key role in creating the "theoconservative" movement and integrating it into mainstream Republicanism.[21] Much of George's work on religious liberty has centered on the idea that religion is a "distinct human good", which he asserts allows people to "live authentically by ordering one's life in line with one's best judgments of conscience."[22]

George was threatened with death by abortion rights extremist Theodore Shulman, who also targeted Priests for Life director Rev. Frank Pavone, saying that they would be killed if the accused killer of Dr. George Tiller (a Wichita abortion-provider) was acquitted.[23] For his crimes, Shulman was sentenced by Federal Judge Paul A. Crotty to 41 months' imprisonment and 3 years' supervised release.[24]

George endorsed Texas Senator Ted Cruz in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries.[25] In his own words, he "fiercely opposed" the candidacy of Donald Trump, saying that he was "a person of poor character." In July 2017, after Trump had become president, George praised his nomination of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court. However, he characterized his attempts to restrict immigration to the United States from certain countries as "unnecessary and therefore unjust." He went on to say, "One thing you have to say for President Trump is that he has been fortunate in his enemies. Although he gives them plenty to legitimately criticize him about, they always go overboard and thus discredit themselves with the very people who elected Mr. Trump and may well re-elect him."[26]

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George W. Bush

George W. Bush

George Walker Bush is an American retired politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st president George H. W. Bush, he previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

1976 Democratic National Convention

1976 Democratic National Convention

The 1976 Democratic National Convention met at Madison Square Garden in New York City, from July 12 to July 15, 1976. The assembled United States Democratic Party delegates at the convention nominated former Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia for president and Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota for vice president. John Glenn and Barbara Jordan gave the keynote addresses. Jordan's keynote address made her the first African-American woman to deliver the keynote address at a Democratic National Convention. The convention was the first in New York City since the 103-ballot 1924 convention.

Abortion

Abortion

Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or "spontaneous abortion"; these occur in approximately 30% to 40% of pregnancies. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently "induced miscarriage". The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. The reasons why women have abortions are diverse and vary across the world. Reasons include maternal health, an inability to afford a child, domestic violence, lack of support, feeling they are too young, wishing to complete education or advance a career, and not being able or willing to raise a child conceived as a result of rape or incest.

Democratic Party (United States)

Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Founded in 1828, it was predominantly built by Martin Van Buren, who assembled a wide cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party. Its main political rival has been the Republican Party since the 1850s. The party is a big tent, and is less ideologically uniform than the Republican Party due to the broader list of unique voting blocs that compose it, though modern liberalism is the majority ideology in the party.

American Principles Project

American Principles Project

The American Principles Project (APP) is a populist conservative 501(c)(4) think tank founded in 2009 by Robert P. George, Jeff Bell, and Francis P. Cannon. It is chaired by Sean Fieler. It is led by Terry Schilling, the son of the late former U.S. Representative Bobby Schilling. It has opposed Common Core standards and advocated for monetary reform by suggesting a return to the gold standard. APP has also opposed the teaching of critical race theory and transgender topics in public schools. The organization has an affiliated super PAC, the American Principles Project PAC, which spent nearly $4 million during the 2020 election cycle.

National Organization for Marriage

National Organization for Marriage

The National Organization for Marriage (NOM) is an American non-profit political organization established to work against the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. It was formed in 2007 specifically to pass California Proposition 8, a state prohibition of same-sex marriage. The group has opposed civil union legislation and gay adoption, and has fought against allowing transgender individuals to use bathrooms that accord with their gender identity. Brian S. Brown has served as the group's president since 2010.

Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience

Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience

The "Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience" is a manifesto issued by Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, and evangelical Christian leaders to affirm support of "the sanctity of life, traditional marriage, and religious liberty". It was drafted on October 20, 2009, and released November 20, 2009, having been signed by more than 150 American religious leaders. On the issue of marriage, the declaration objects not only to same-sex marriage but also to the general erosion of the "marriage culture" with the specter of divorce, greater acceptance of infidelity and the uncoupling of marriage from childbearing. The declaration's website encourages supporters to sign the declaration, and it counts 551,130 signatures as of July 18, 2015.

Hamza Yusuf

Hamza Yusuf

Hamza Yusuf is an American Islamic neo-traditionalist, Islamic scholar, and co-founder of Zaytuna College. He is a proponent of classical learning in Islam and has promoted Islamic sciences and classical teaching methodologies throughout the world.

Meir Soloveichik

Meir Soloveichik

Meir Yaakov Soloveichik is an American Orthodox rabbi and writer. He is the son of Rabbi Eliyahu Soloveichik, grandson of Rabbi Ahron Soloveichik; and a great nephew of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, the leader of American Jewry who identified with what became known as Modern Orthodoxy.

Frank Pavone

Frank Pavone

Frank Anthony Pavone is an American anti-abortion activist and laicized Catholic priest. He is the national director of Priests for Life (PFL) and the chairman and pastoral director of its Rachel's Vineyard project. He is also the president of the National Pro-Life Religious Council, an umbrella group of various anti-abortion Christian denominations, and the pastoral director of the Silent No More campaign. He was defrocked in November 2022 for "blasphemous communications on social media" and "persistent disobedience" of his bishop.

George Tiller

George Tiller

George Richard Tiller was an American physician from Wichita, Kansas. He gained national attention as the medical director of Women's Health Care Services, which was one of only three abortion clinics nationwide at the time which provided late termination of pregnancy.

Paul A. Crotty

Paul A. Crotty

Paul Austin Crotty is a Senior United States district judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.

Other professional and public service activities

George served from 1993–1998 as a presidential appointee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights, and from 2002–2009 as a member of the President's Council on Bioethics.[27] George was appointed to the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom by the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives in 2012, and in the following year was elected Chairman of the Commission. He served until hitting the statutory term limit in 2016.[27]

He is a former Judicial Fellow at the Supreme Court of the United States, receiving during his tenure there the Justice Tom C. Clark Award.[27] He has served as the U.S. member of UNESCO's World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST), of which he remains a corresponding member.[27] He is a member of the boards of the Ethics and Public Policy Center (where he is Vice-Chairman of the Board),[28] the American Enterprise Institute,[29] the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty,[30] the National Center on Sexual Exploitation,[31] the Center for Individual Rights, the Heritage Foundation, the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation,[32] and the Templeton Foundation Religion Trust.

He is Of Counsel to the law firm Robinson & McElwee and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[6]

George is a contributor to Touchstone Magazine, of which he is also a senior editor.[33]

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United States Commission on Civil Rights

United States Commission on Civil Rights

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (CCR) is a bipartisan, independent commission of the United States federal government, created by the Civil Rights Act of 1957 during the Eisenhower administration, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United States. Specifically, the CCR investigates allegations of discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, disability. Since 2021, Norma V. Cantu has served as chair of the CCR.

Supreme Court of the United States

Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal court cases, and over state court cases that involve a point of U.S. Constitutional or federal law. It also has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party." The court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. It is also able to strike down presidential directives for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions.

Tom C. Clark

Tom C. Clark

Thomas Campbell Clark was an American lawyer who served as the 59th United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949 and as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1949 to 1967.

Ethics and Public Policy Center

Ethics and Public Policy Center

The Ethics and Public Policy Center (EPPC) is a conservative, Washington, D.C.-based think tank and advocacy group. Founded in 1976, the group describes itself as "dedicated to applying the Judeo-Christian moral tradition to critical issues of public policy", and advocacy of founding principles such as the rule of law. The EPPC is active in a number of ways, including hosting lectures and conferences, publishing written work from the group’s scholars, and running programs, which are intended to explore areas of public concern and interest.

American Enterprise Institute

American Enterprise Institute

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a center-right Washington, D.C.–based think tank that researches government, politics, economics, and social welfare. AEI is an independent nonprofit organization supported primarily by contributions from foundations, corporations, and individuals. Founded in 1938, AEI is aligned with conservatism and neoconservatism but does not support political candidates. AEI advocates in favor of private enterprise, limited government, and democratic capitalism.

National Center on Sexual Exploitation

National Center on Sexual Exploitation

The National Center on Sexual Exploitation (NCOSE), previously known as Morality in Media and Operation Yorkville, is an American conservative anti-pornography organization. The group has also campaigned against sex trafficking, same-sex marriage, sex shops and sex toys, decriminalization of sex work, comprehensive sex education, and various works of literature or visual arts the organization has deemed obscene, profane or indecent. Its current president is Patrick A. Trueman. The organization describes its goal as "exposing the links between all forms of sexual exploitation".

Center for Individual Rights

Center for Individual Rights

{{multiple issues

The Heritage Foundation

The Heritage Foundation

The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. that is primarily geared toward public policy. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.

Bradley Foundation

Bradley Foundation

The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, commonly known as the Bradley Foundation, is an American charitable foundation based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, that primarily supports conservative causes.

Of counsel

Of counsel

Of counsel is the title of an attorney in the legal profession of the United States who often has a relationship with a law firm or an organization but is neither an associate nor partner. Some firms use titles such as "counsel", "special counsel", and "senior counsel" for the same concept. According to American Bar Association Formal Opinion 90-357, the term "of counsel" is used to describe a "close, personal, continuous, and regular relationship" between the firm and counsel lawyer. In large law firms, the title generally denotes a lawyer with the experience of a partner, but who does not carry the same workload or business development responsibility.

Council on Foreign Relations

Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Founded in 1921, it is a nonprofit organization that is independent and nonpartisan. CFR is based in New York City, with an additional office in Massachusetts. Its membership has included senior politicians, numerous secretaries of state, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, corporate directors and CEOs, and senior media figures.

Reception

In 2009, George was called the "most influential conservative Christian thinker" in the United States by David Kirkpatrick of the New York Times.[5] Kirkpatrick goes on to state:

George's admirers say he is revitalizing a strain of Catholic natural-law thinking that goes back to St. Thomas Aquinas. His scholarship has earned him accolades from religious and secular institutions alike. In one notable week a few years ago, he received invitations to deliver prestigious lectures at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary and Harvard Law School.

Supreme Court Justice and former Harvard Law School Dean Elena Kagan has praised George as "one of the nation's most respected legal theorists," saying that the respect he had gained was due to "his sheer brilliance, the analytic power of his arguments, the range of his knowledge," and "a deeply principled conviction, a profound and enduring integrity."[34]

In announcing his election as Chairman of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom in 2013, outgoing Chairwoman Katrina Lantos Swett, a Democrat appointed by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, praised George as "a true human rights champion whose compassion for victims of oppression and wisdom about international religious freedom shine through all we have accomplished."[35] George was described by The New Yorker in 2014 as "a widely respected conservative legal philosopher" who has "played [intellectual] godfather to right-leaning students on [the Princeton] campus."[36]

George's critics, including many Catholic scholars, have argued that he has neglected critical aspects of the Christian message, including "the corruption of human reason through original sin, the need for forgiveness and charity and the chance for redemption," focusing instead on "mechanics" of morality, and – through his political associations and activism – turned the church "into a tool of Republican Party."[5]

Discover more about Reception related topics

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas, OP was an Italian Dominican friar and priest who was an influential philosopher, theologian and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. Among other things, he was a prominent proponent of natural theology and the father of a school of thought known as Thomism. He argued that God is the source of both the light of natural reason and the light of faith. He has been described as "the most influential thinker of the medieval period" and "the greatest of the medieval philosopher-theologians". His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy is derived from his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.

Elena Kagan

Elena Kagan

Elena Kagan is an American lawyer who serves as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was nominated by President Barack Obama on May 10, 2010, and has served since August 7, 2010. Kagan is the fourth woman to become a member of the Court.

United States Commission on International Religious Freedom

United States Commission on International Religious Freedom

The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. USCIRF Commissioners are appointed by the President and the leadership of both political parties in the Senate and the House of Representatives. USCIRF's principal responsibilities are to review the facts and circumstances of violations of religious freedom internationally and to make policy recommendations to the President, the Secretary of State, and the Congress.

Katrina Swett

Katrina Swett

Yvonne Katrina Swett is the President of the Lantos Foundation. She is also an American educator and the former chair of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom from 2012 to 2013, and then in 2014 to 2015. She ran unsuccessfully as the Democratic candidate for Congress in New Hampshire's 2nd congressional district during the 2002 United States midterm elections.

Harry Reid

Harry Reid

Harry Mason Reid Jr. was an American lawyer and politician who served as a United States senator from Nevada from 1987 to 2017. He led the Senate Democratic Caucus from 2005 to 2017 and was the Senate Majority Leader from 2007 to 2015.

The New Yorker

The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American weekly magazine featuring journalism, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry. Founded as a weekly in 1925, the magazine is published 47 times annually, with five of these issues covering two-week spans. Although its reviews and events listings often focus on the cultural life of New York City, The New Yorker has a wide audience outside New York and is read internationally. It is well known for its illustrated and often topical covers, its commentaries on popular culture and eccentric American culture, its attention to modern fiction by the inclusion of short stories and literary reviews, its rigorous fact checking and copy editing, its journalism on politics and social issues, and its single-panel cartoons sprinkled throughout each issue.

Honors

On December 8, 2008, George was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President George W. Bush in a ceremony in the Oval Office of the White House.[5] His other awards include the Honorific Medal for the Defense of Human Rights of the Republic of Poland, the Canterbury Medal of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, the Philip Merrill Award of the American Council of Trustees and Alumni, the Irving Kristol Award of the American Enterprise Institute, the Sidney Hook Award of the National Association of Scholars, the Paul Bator Award of the Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy, and Princeton University's President's Award for Distinguished Teaching. He holds twenty-two honorary degrees, including a Doctor Honoris Causa awarded by the Universitat Abat Oliba CEU University in Barcelona, Spain in 2017. Also in 2017, Baylor University launched the "Robert P. George Initiative in Faith, Ethics, and Public Policy," as part of its Baylor in Washington, D.C. program.[37] In 2020, the Initiative became a joint project of the University of Dallas and the American Enterprise Institute.[38]

Discover more about Honors related topics

Presidential Citizens Medal

Presidential Citizens Medal

The Presidential Citizens Medal is an award bestowed by the President of the United States. It is the second-highest civilian award in the United States and is second only to the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Established by executive order on November 13, 1969, by President Richard Nixon, it recognizes an individual "who has performed exemplary deeds or services for his or her country or fellow citizens." Only United States citizens are eligible for the medal, which may be awarded posthumously.

George W. Bush

George W. Bush

George Walker Bush is an American retired politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st president George H. W. Bush, he previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

American Council of Trustees and Alumni

American Council of Trustees and Alumni

The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is a conservative non-profit organization whose stated mission is to "support liberal arts education, uphold high academic standards, safeguard the free exchange of ideas on campus, and ensure that the next generation receives a philosophically rich, high-quality college education at an affordable price." ACTA does so primarily by calling on trustees to take on a more assertive governing role. It is based in Washington, D.C., and its current president is Michael Poliakoff.

American Enterprise Institute

American Enterprise Institute

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a center-right Washington, D.C.–based think tank that researches government, politics, economics, and social welfare. AEI is an independent nonprofit organization supported primarily by contributions from foundations, corporations, and individuals. Founded in 1938, AEI is aligned with conservatism and neoconservatism but does not support political candidates. AEI advocates in favor of private enterprise, limited government, and democratic capitalism.

National Association of Scholars

National Association of Scholars

The National Association of Scholars (NAS) is an American non-profit politically conservative advocacy organization, with a particular interest in education. It opposes a perceived political correctness on college campuses and supports a return to mid-20th-century curricular and scholarship norms, and an increase in conservative representation in faculty.

Abat Oliba CEU University

Abat Oliba CEU University

Abat Oliba CEU University is a private university located in Barcelona, Spain. It was founded in 1973 as the Abat Oliba College. In 2003, the Parliament of Catalonia approved its conversion to Abat Oliba CEU University. The university adopts the name of Abbot Oliba, Count of Berga and Ripoll, bishop of Vic, and founder of Montserrat because "aimed at making its spirit who established a thousand years the foundations of emerging Catalonia based on Roman and Christian culture".

Baylor University

Baylor University

Baylor University is a private Baptist Christian research university in Waco, Texas. Baylor was chartered in 1845 by the last Congress of the Republic of Texas. Baylor is the oldest continuously operating university in Texas and one of the first educational institutions west of the Mississippi River in the United States. Located on the banks of the Brazos River next to I-35, between the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex and Austin, the university's 1,000-acre (400-hectare) campus is the largest Baptist university in the world. As of fall, 2021, Baylor had a total enrollment of 20,626. It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity". The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

University of Dallas

University of Dallas

The University of Dallas is a private Catholic university in Irving, Texas. Established in 1956, it is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

Musical activity

George is a finger-style guitarist and bluegrass banjo player.[39] His guitar playing is in the style of Chet Atkins and Jerry Reed. His banjo playing has been influenced by Earl Scruggs, Don Reno, and Bela Fleck. As a teenager, he performed with folk groups and bluegrass bands in coffee houses, clubs, and state fairs,[39] and at Swarthmore, he led the band "Robby George and Friends."[40]

Works

Books

  • Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays, 1992. ISBN 978-0-19-823552-1
  • Making Men Moral, 1995. ISBN 978-0-19-826024-0
  • Natural Law and Moral Inquiry: Ethics, Metaphysics, and Politics in the Work of Germain Grisez, 1998. ISBN 978-0-87840-674-6
  • In Defense of Natural Law, 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-826771-3
  • The Autonomy of Law: Essays on Legal Positivism, 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-826790-4
  • Natural Law and Public Reason, 2000. ISBN 978-0-87840-766-8
  • Great Cases in Constitutional Law, 2000. ISBN 978-0-691-04952-6
  • The Clash of Orthodoxies, 2001. ISBN 978-1-882926-62-6
  • Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, 2001. ISBN 978-0-19-924300-6
  • Constitutional Politics: Essays on Constitution Making, Maintenance, and Change, 2001 ISBN 978-0-691-08869-3
  • The Meaning of Marriage: Family, State, Market, And Morals, 2006 ISBN 978-1-890626-64-8
  • Body-Self Dualism in Contemporary Ethics and Politics, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-88248-4
  • Embryo: A Defense of Human Life, 2008 ISBN 978-0-385-52282-3
  • Moral Pública: Debates Actuales, 2009 ISBN 978-956-8639-05-1
  • What Is Marriage? Man and Woman: A Defense, 2012 ISBN 978-1594036224
  • Conscience and Its Enemies: Confronting the Dogmas of Liberal Secularism, 2013 ISBN 978-1610170703
  • Mind, Heart, and Soul: Intellectuals and the Path to Rome (with R.J. Snell), 2018 ISBN 978-1505111217

Source: "Robert P. George", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_P._George.

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References
  1. ^ a b c Kirkpatrick, David D. (December 16, 2009). "The Conservative-Christian Big Thinker". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  2. ^ "Philosopher and Legal Scholar Robert George to Join Pepperdine Caruso School of Law and School of Public Policy as Honorary Distinguished Professor | Pepperdine University". Pepperdine University. March 15, 2021. Archived from the original on June 8, 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  3. ^ "About - Robert P. George". robertpgeorge.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  4. ^ Spinale, Kevin (November 7, 2011). "Full Interview with Robert P. George". America. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Kirkpatrick, David D. (December 20, 2009). "The Conservative–Christian Big Thinker". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Robert P. George". Program in Law and Public Affairs. Princeton University. Archived from the original on September 22, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  7. ^ See University of Oxford, General Regulations for Higher Doctorates
  8. ^ "Robert P. George receives degrees of Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) and Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.) from Oxford University". James Madison Program. Princeton University. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  9. ^ "Robert P. George receives Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) degree from Oxford University". James Madison Program. Princeton University.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ "PhD Concentrations". Program in Law and Public Affairs. Princeton University. Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  11. ^ "Bringing Civic Education Back to Campus | Excellence in Philanthropy". Philanthropyroundtable.org. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  12. ^ Green, Emma (December 29, 2019). "It's a Weird Time to Be Young and Conservative". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on September 18, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  13. ^ Bitton, Mathis (July 23, 2020). "Robert P. George, Cornel West, and Humanitas". National Review. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  14. ^ Langford, Katie (January 22, 2021). "Cornel West, Robert George discuss civility, faith and friendship at CU Boulder". Boulder Daily Camera. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  15. ^ George, Robert P.; West, Cornel (March 14, 2017). "Sign the Statement: Truth Seeking, Democracy, and Freedom of Thought and Expression - A Statement by Robert P. George and Cornel West". James Madison Program. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2018 – via Princeton University.
  16. ^ Volokh, Eugene (March 14, 2017). "Opinion | 'Truth Seeking, Democracy, and Freedom of Thought and Expression — A Statement by Robert P. George and Cornel West'". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on May 24, 2022. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  17. ^ Flaherty, Colleen (March 16, 2017). "Rejecting 'Campus Illiberalism'". Inside Higher Ed. Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  18. ^ Silverbrook, Julie (October 25, 2017). "Democracy and freedom of thought: An interview with Dr. Cornel West and Dr. Robert George". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  19. ^ "American Principles Project". Americanprinciplesproject.org. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  20. ^ George, Robert P. (July 9, 2012). "Pornography, Respect, and Responsibility: A Letter to the Hotel Industry". Public Discourse. Archived from the original on March 11, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  21. ^ Sullivan, Andrew (2006). The Conservative Soul: How We Lost It, How to Get It Back. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-018877-1.
  22. ^ "A Guide to the Work of Robert George". Robert P. George. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  23. ^ Gearty, Robert (May 10, 2012). "Abortion extremist faces 4-year jail term". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on September 20, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  24. ^ "'Pro-choice terrorist' sentenced for death threats against pro-lifers". Catholic News Agency. New York, NY. October 4, 2012. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  25. ^ Gibson, David (March 19, 2016). "Conservative Catholics endorse Ted Cruz as Trump alternative". Religion News. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  26. ^ Bunson, Matthew E. (July 19, 2017). "Robert George on US Society: 'Our Divisions Are Very Deep'". National Catholic Register. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d "Robert P. George". The Witherspoon Institute. Archived from the original on September 16, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  28. ^ "Board of Directors". eppc.org. Ethics and Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on September 1, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  29. ^ "Council of Academic Advisors". aei.org. American Enterprise Institute. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  30. ^ "Board of Directors". becketfund.org/. The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  31. ^ "Board". National Center on Sexual Exploitation. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  32. ^ "Board of Directors". Bradleyfdn.org. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  33. ^ "About Touchstone". Touchstone Magazine. Fellowship of St. James. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  34. ^ "US Senate Url Video Player". Senate.gov. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  35. ^ "Robert P. George Elected USCIRF Chair; Vice-Chairs Also Elected". uscirf.gov. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  36. ^ Toobin, Jeffrey (June 30, 2014). "The Absolutist: Ted Cruz is an unyielding debater – and the far right's most formidable advocate". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  37. ^ "Baylor University to Inaugurate the Robert P. George Initiative on Faith, Ethics and Public Policy". Media and Public Relations. Baylor University. August 9, 2017. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  38. ^ "AEI Announces New Joint Lecture Series With UD". University of Dallas. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
  39. ^ a b Wolfe, Alexandra (February 24, 2017). "Robert George's Conservative Thinking in the Age of Trump". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  40. ^ "Watch: Cornel West and Robert George '77 Hold Collection on Campus". Swarthmore University. February 11, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
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