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Rishi Sunak

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Rishi Sunak
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Sunak giving his first speech as Prime Minister, 2022
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Assumed office
25 October 2022
MonarchCharles III
DeputyDominic Raab
Preceded byLiz Truss
Leader of the Conservative Party
Assumed office
24 October 2022
ChairmanNadhim Zahawi
Preceded byLiz Truss
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
13 February 2020 – 5 July 2022
Prime MinisterBoris Johnson
Preceded bySajid Javid
Succeeded byNadhim Zahawi
Chief Secretary to the Treasury
In office
24 July 2019 – 13 February 2020
Prime MinisterBoris Johnson
Preceded byLiz Truss
Succeeded bySteve Barclay
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Local Government
In office
9 January 2018 – 24 July 2019
Prime MinisterTheresa May
Preceded byMarcus Jones
Succeeded byLuke Hall
Member of Parliament
for Richmond (Yorks)
Assumed office
7 May 2015
Preceded byWilliam Hague
Majority27,210 (47.2%)
Personal details
Born (1980-05-12) 12 May 1980 (age 42)
Southampton, Hampshire, England
Political partyConservative
Spouse
(m. 2009)
Children2
Relatives
Residences
EducationWinchester College
Alma mater
Signature
Websiterishisunak.com

Rishi Sunak (/ˈrɪʃi ˈsnæk/ (listen);[1] born 12 May 1980) is a British politician who has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since October 2022. He previously held two cabinet positions under Boris Johnson, lastly as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2020 to 2022.[2] Sunak has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond (Yorks) since 2015. Ideologically, Sunak has been described as belonging to the centre-ground of the Conservative Party.

Sunak was born in Southampton to parents of Indian descent who migrated to Britain from East Africa in the 1960s. He was educated at Winchester College, studied philosophy, politics and economics at Lincoln College, Oxford, and earned an MBA from Stanford University in California as a Fulbright Scholar. During his time at Oxford University, Sunak undertook an internship at Conservative Campaign Headquarters and joined the Conservative Party. After graduating, Sunak worked for Goldman Sachs and later as a partner at the hedge fund firms The Children's Investment Fund Management and Theleme Partners.

Sunak was elected to the House of Commons for Richmond in North Yorkshire at the 2015 general election. As a backbencher, Sunak supported the successful campaign for the UK to leave the European Union in the 2016 European Union membership referendum. Following the 2017 general election, Sunak was appointed to a junior ministerial position in prime minister Theresa May's second government as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Local Government in the 2018 cabinet reshuffle. He voted three times in favour of May's withdrawal agreement for implementing Brexit, which was rejected by Parliament three times, leading to May announcing her resignation. During the 2019 Conservative Party leadership election, Sunak supported Johnson's successful bid to succeed May as Conservative leader and prime minister, after which he appointed Sunak as Chief Secretary to the Treasury in July 2019.

Following the 2019 general election, Johnson promoted Sunak to Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 2020 cabinet reshuffle after the resignation of Sajid Javid. During his time in the position, Sunak was prominent in the government's financial response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact, including the Coronavirus Job Retention and Eat Out to Help Out schemes. He was also involved in the government's response to the cost of living crisis, UK energy supply crisis, and global energy crisis. Sunak resigned as chancellor in July 2022 amid a government crisis that culminated in Johnson's resignation.

Sunak stood in the July–September Conservative Party leadership election to succeed Johnson. He had received the most votes in each of the series of MP votes, but lost the members' vote to Foreign Secretary Liz Truss. After spending the duration of Truss's premiership on the backbenches, Sunak stood in the October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election to succeed Truss, who resigned amid another government crisis. He was elected unopposed as Conservative leader and appointed prime minister. He is the first British Asian and Hindu to hold the office of prime minister. Sunak took office amid the cost of living crisis and energy supply crisis that began during his Chancellorship. He has also authorised foreign aid and weapons shipments to Ukraine in response to the Russian invasion of the country.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The prime minister advises the sovereign on the exercise of much of the royal prerogative, chairs the Cabinet and selects its ministers. As modern prime ministers hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons, they sit as members of Parliament.

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Chancellor of the Exchequer

The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and head of His Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Great Offices of State, the Chancellor is a high-ranking member of the British Cabinet and is third in the ministerial ranking, behind the prime minister and the deputy prime minister.

Conservative Party (UK)

Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party and also known colloquially as the Tories, is one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom, along with the Labour Party. It is the current governing party, having won the 2019 general election. It has been the primary governing party in Britain since 2010. The party is on the centre-right of the political spectrum, and encompasses various ideological factions including one-nation conservatives, Thatcherites, and traditionalist conservatives. The party currently has 356 Members of Parliament, 261 members of the House of Lords, 9 members of the London Assembly, 31 members of the Scottish Parliament, 16 members of the Welsh Parliament, 2 directly elected mayors, 30 police and crime commissioners, and around 6,770 local councillors. It holds the annual Conservative Party Conference.

Winchester College

Winchester College

Winchester College is a public school in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It was founded by William of Wykeham in 1382 and has existed in its present location ever since. The oldest of nine schools considered by the Clarendon Commission, Winchester is regarded as among the most prestigious in the world, where, despite its small number of pupils, it has been referred to as "the finest foundation in Europe."

Lincoln College, Oxford

Lincoln College, Oxford

Lincoln College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, situated on Turl Street in central Oxford. Lincoln was founded in 1427 by Richard Fleming, the then Bishop of Lincoln.

Stanford University

Stanford University

Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies 8,180 acres, among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Stanford is ranked among the top universities in the world.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the 3rd largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Hedge fund

Hedge fund

A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid assets and is able to make extensive use of more complex trading, portfolio-construction, and risk management techniques in an attempt to improve performance, such as short selling, leverage, and derivatives. Financial regulators generally restrict hedge fund marketing to institutional investors, high net worth individuals, and accredited investors.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

Foreign Secretary

Foreign Secretary

The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, known as the foreign secretary, is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. Seen as one of the most senior ministers in the government and a Great Office of State, the incumbent is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, fourth in the ministerial ranking.

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi). Prior to the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, it was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. Ukraine's official and national language is Ukrainian; most people are also fluent in Russian.

Early life and education

Rishi Sunak was born on 12 May 1980 in Southampton General Hospital in Southampton, Hampshire,[3][4] to Southeast African-born Hindu parents of Punjabi descent from Gujranwala (now in Pakistan), Yashvir and Usha Sunak.[5][6][7] He attended Stroud School, a preparatory school in Romsey, and Winchester College, a boys' independent boarding school, where he was head boy.[8][9] He was a waiter at a curry house in Southampton during his summer holidays.[10][11] He read Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Lincoln College, Oxford, graduating with a first in 2001.[9][12] During his time at university, he undertook an internship at Conservative Campaign Headquarters and joined the Conservative Party.[8] In 2006, Sunak earned a Master of Business Administration postgraduate degree from Stanford University as a Fulbright Scholar.[12][13][14] While at Stanford, he met his future wife Akshata Murty, the daughter of Indian billionaire N. R. Narayana Murthy of Infosys.

Sunak's paternal grandfather was from Gujranwala (present-day Pakistan[15][16]), while his maternal grandfather was from Ludhiana (present-day India[17]); both cities at the time were in Punjab province, British India. His grandparents migrated to East Africa, and then to the United Kingdom in the 1960s.[18]

His father, Yashvir Sunak, was born and raised in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya (present-day Kenya), and is a general practitioner in the National Health Service. His mother, Usha Sunak, born in Tanganyika (which later became part of Tanzania), was a pharmacist and owned the Sunak Pharmacy in Southampton between 1995 and 2014, and has a degree from Aston University.[10][19]

Sunak is the eldest of three siblings.[20] His brother, Sanjay (born 1982), is a psychologist and his sister, Raakhi Williams (born 1985), works in New York as chief of strategy and planning at the United Nations global fund for education in emergencies.[8][21]

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Indian diaspora in Southeast Africa

Indian diaspora in Southeast Africa

The Indian diaspora in Southeast Africa consists of approximately 3 million people of Indian origin. Some of this diaspora in Southeast Africa arrived in the 19th century from British India as indentured labourers, many of them to work on the Kenya–Uganda railway. Others had arrived earlier by sea as traders.

Hindus

Hindus

Hindus are people who religiously adhere to Hinduism. Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.

British Punjabis

British Punjabis

British Punjabis are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose heritage originates wholly or partly in the Punjab, a region in South Asia which is divided between India and Pakistan. Numbering 700,000 in 2006, Punjabis represent the largest ethnicity among British Asians. They are a major sub-group of the British Indian and British Pakistani communities.

Gujranwala

Gujranwala

Gujranwala is a city and capital of Gujranwala Division located in Pakistan. It is also known as "City of Wrestlers" and is quite famous for its food. It is the 5th most populous city proper after Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and Rawalpindi respectively. Founded in the 18th century, Gujranwala is a relatively modern town compared to the many nearby millennia-old cities of northern Punjab. The city served as the capital of the Sukerchakia Misl state between 1763 and 1799, and is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Independent school (United Kingdom)

Independent school (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-charging schools, some endowed and governed by a board of governors and some in private ownership. They are independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum, although, some schools do. They are commonly described as 'private schools' although historically the term referred to a school in private ownership, in contrast to an endowed school subject to a trust or of charitable status. Many of the older independent schools catering for the 13–18 age range in England and Wales are known as public schools, seven of which were the subject of the Public Schools Act 1868. The term "public school" derived from the fact that they were then open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep (preparatory) schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to prepare them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools.

Boarding school

Boarding school

A boarding school is a school where pupils live within premises while being given formal instruction. The word "boarding" is used in the sense of "room and board", i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now extend across many countries, their functioning, codes of conduct and ethos vary greatly. Children in boarding schools study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers or administrators. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings.

Head girl and head boy

Head girl and head boy

Head boy and head girl are student leadership roles in schools, representing the school's entire student body. They are normally the most senior prefects in the school. The terms are commonly used in the British education system as well as in Australia and private schools throughout the Commonwealth. Some schools use alternative titles such as school captain.

Lincoln College, Oxford

Lincoln College, Oxford

Lincoln College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, situated on Turl Street in central Oxford. Lincoln was founded in 1427 by Richard Fleming, the then Bishop of Lincoln.

Conservative Campaign Headquarters

Conservative Campaign Headquarters

The Conservative Campaign Headquarters (CCHQ), formerly known as Conservative Central Office (CCO), is the headquarters of the British Conservative Party, housing its central staff and committee members, including campaign coordinators and managers. As of 25th October 2022, Nadhim Zahawi is the Chairman of the Conservative Party.

Conservative Party (UK)

Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party and also known colloquially as the Tories, is one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom, along with the Labour Party. It is the current governing party, having won the 2019 general election. It has been the primary governing party in Britain since 2010. The party is on the centre-right of the political spectrum, and encompasses various ideological factions including one-nation conservatives, Thatcherites, and traditionalist conservatives. The party currently has 356 Members of Parliament, 261 members of the House of Lords, 9 members of the London Assembly, 31 members of the Scottish Parliament, 16 members of the Welsh Parliament, 2 directly elected mayors, 30 police and crime commissioners, and around 6,770 local councillors. It holds the annual Conservative Party Conference.

Master of Business Administration

Master of Business Administration

A Master of Business Administration is a postgraduate degree focused on business administration. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business administration such as accounting, applied statistics, human resources, business communication, business ethics, business law, strategic management, business strategy, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing, supply-chain management, and operations management in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy. It originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific management.

Fulbright Program

Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal of improving intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries, through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists, and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world. The program provides approximately 8,000 grants annually – roughly 1,600 to U.S. students, 1,200 to U.S. scholars, 4,000 to foreign students, 900 to foreign visiting scholars, and several hundred to teachers and professionals.

Business career

Sunak worked as an analyst for the investment bank Goldman Sachs between 2001 and 2004.[12][22] He then worked for hedge fund management firm the Children's Investment Fund Management, becoming a partner in September 2006.[23] He left in November 2009[24] to join former colleagues in California at a new hedge fund firm, Theleme Partners, which launched in October 2010 with $700 million under management.[25][26][27] At both hedge funds, his boss was Patrick Degorce.[28] Sunak was also a director of the investment firm Catamaran Ventures, owned by his father-in-law, the Indian businessman N. R. Narayana Murthy of Infosys, between 2013 and 2015.[22][29]

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Investment banking

Investment banking

Investment banking pertains to certain activities of a financial services company or a corporate division that consist in advisory-based financial transactions on behalf of individuals, corporations, and governments. Traditionally associated with corporate finance, such a bank might assist in raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of debt or equity securities. An investment bank may also assist companies involved in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and provide ancillary services such as market making, trading of derivatives and equity securities, FICC services or research. Most investment banks maintain prime brokerage and asset management departments in conjunction with their investment research businesses. As an industry, it is broken up into the Bulge Bracket, Middle Market, and boutique market.

Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company. Founded in 1869, Goldman Sachs is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan, with regional headquarters in London, Warsaw, Bangalore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Dallas and Salt Lake City, and additional offices in other international financial centers. Goldman Sachs is the second largest investment bank in the world by revenue and is ranked 57th on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. It is considered a systemically important financial institution by the Financial Stability Board.

Hedge fund

Hedge fund

A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid assets and is able to make extensive use of more complex trading, portfolio-construction, and risk management techniques in an attempt to improve performance, such as short selling, leverage, and derivatives. Financial regulators generally restrict hedge fund marketing to institutional investors, high net worth individuals, and accredited investors.

The Children's Investment Fund Management

The Children's Investment Fund Management

The Children’s Investment Fund Management (UK) LLP (TCI) is a London‐based hedge fund management firm founded by Chris Hohn in 2003 which manages The Children’s Investment Master Fund. TCI makes long‐term investments in companies globally. The management company is authorized and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. Its holding company is TCI Fund Management Limited, based in the Cayman Islands.

Patrick Degorce

Patrick Degorce

Patrick Degorce is a French hedge fund manager, and the founder and chief executive officer (CEO) of Theleme Partners LLP.

N. R. Narayana Murthy

N. R. Narayana Murthy

Nāgavārā Rāmarāo Nārāyana Mūrthy is an Indian billionaire businessman. He is the founder of Infosys, and has been the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), president, and chief mentor of the company before retiring and taking the title chairman emeritus. As of October 2022, his net worth was estimated to be $4.5 billion, making him the 654th richest person in the world in 2022 according to Forbes.

Infosys

Infosys

Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company was founded in Pune and is headquartered in Bangalore. Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company, after Tata Consultancy Services, by 2020 revenue figures, and the 602nd largest public company in the world, according to the Forbes Global 2000 ranking.

Early political career

Member of Parliament

Official portrait of Sunak as MP, 2017
Official portrait of Sunak as MP, 2017

Sunak joined the Conservative Party in 2010. He was selected as the Conservative candidate for Richmond (Yorks) in October 2014, defeating Wendy Morton. The seat was previously held by William Hague, a former leader of the party who had served in various cabinet positions under David Cameron. The seat is one of the safest Conservative seats in the United Kingdom and has been held by the party for over 100 years.[30] In the same year Sunak was head of the Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Research Unit of centre-right think tank Policy Exchange, for which he co-wrote a report on BME communities in the UK.[31] He was elected as MP for the constituency at the 2015 general election with a majority of 19,550 (36.2%).[32] During the 2015–2017 parliament he was a member of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee.[33]

Sunak supported the successful campaign for the UK to leave the European Union in the June 2016 European Union membership referendum.[34] That year, he wrote a report for the Centre for Policy Studies (a Thatcherite think tank) supporting the establishment of free ports after Brexit, and the following year wrote a report advocating the creation of a retail bond market for small and medium-sized enterprises.[35][36][37] Following Cameron's resignation, Sunak endorsed Michael Gove in the 2016 Conservative Party leadership election, and later endorsed successful candidate Theresa May after Gove was eliminated in the second round of voting.

Sunak was re-elected at the 2017 general election with an increased majority of 23,108 (40.5%).[38] In 2017, Sunak described the importance and fragility of Britain's undersea infrastructure.[39] Sunak was re-elected at the 2019 general election with an increased majority of 27,210 (47.2%).[40]

Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Local Government (2018–2019)

Sunak was appointed to a junior ministerial position May's second government as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Local Government in the 2018 cabinet reshuffle.[33] Sunak voted for May's Brexit withdrawal agreement on all three occasions, and voted against a second referendum on any withdrawal agreement. May's withdrawal agreement was rejected by Parliament three times, leading to May announcing her resignation in May 2019.[41]

Sunak supported Boris Johnson in the 2019 Conservative Party leadership election and co-wrote an article with fellow MPs Robert Jenrick and Oliver Dowden to advocate for Johnson during the campaign in June.[42][43]

Chief Secretary to the Treasury (2019–2020)

Following Johnson's appointment as Conservative leader and prime minister, Sunak appointed him as Chief Secretary to the Treasury on 24 July 2019, serving under Chancellor Sajid Javid.[44] He became a member of the Privy Council the next day.[45] During the 2019 general election, Sunak represented the Conservatives in the BBC's and ITV's seven-way election debates.[46][47]

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Richmond (Yorks) (UK Parliament constituency)

Richmond (Yorks) (UK Parliament constituency)

Richmond (Yorks) is a constituency in North Yorkshire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since May 2015 by Rishi Sunak, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the Conservative Party.

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)

The leader of the Conservative Party is the highest position within the United Kingdom's Conservative Party. The current holder of the position is Rishi Sunak, who was elected to the position on 24 October, following his unopposed victory in the party's leadership election.

David Cameron

David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron is a British former politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016. He previously served as Leader of the Opposition from 2005 to 2010, and was Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney from 2001 to 2016. He identifies as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies.

Policy Exchange

Policy Exchange

Policy Exchange is a right-wing, British conservative think tank based in London. In 2007 it was described in The Daily Telegraph as "the largest, but also the most influential think tank on the right". The Washington Post said Policy Exchange's reports "often inform government policy in Britain." and Iain Dale described it as the ‘pre-eminent think tank in the Westminster village”, in ConservativeHome. Policy Exchange is a registered charity.

2015 United Kingdom general election

2015 United Kingdom general election

The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons. It was the first and only general election held at the end of a Parliament under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011. Local elections took place in most areas on the same day.

Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee

Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee

The Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Select Committee is a select committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The remit of the Committee is to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and its associated public bodies.

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, commonly referred to as the EU referendum or the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to ask the electorate whether the country should remain a member of, or leave, the European Union (EU). It was organised and facilitated through the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. The referendum resulted in 51.9% of the votes cast being in favour of leaving the EU. Although the referendum was legally non-binding, the government of the time promised to implement the result.

Centre for Policy Studies

Centre for Policy Studies

The Centre for Policy Studies (CPS) is a think tank and pressure group in the United Kingdom. Its goal is to promote coherent and practical policies based on its founding principles of: free markets, "small state," low tax, national independence, self determination and responsibility. While being independent, the centre has historical links to the Conservative Party.

Brexit

Brexit

Brexit was the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) at 23:00 GMT on 31 January 2020. The UK is the only sovereign country to have left the EU or the EC. The UK had been a member state of the EU or its predecessor the European Communities (EC), sometimes of both at the same time, since 1 January 1973. Following Brexit, EU law and the Court of Justice of the European Union no longer have primacy over British laws, except in select areas in relation to Northern Ireland. The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 retains relevant EU law as domestic law, which the UK can now amend or repeal. Under the terms of the Brexit withdrawal agreement, Northern Ireland continues to participate in the European Single Market in relation to goods, and to be a de facto member of the EU Customs Union.

Michael Gove

Michael Gove

Michael Andrew Gove is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities and Minister for Intergovernmental Relations since 2021. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Surrey Heath since 2005. A member of the Conservative Party, he has served in various Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers David Cameron, Theresa May, Boris Johnson and Rishi Sunak. Gove has twice run to become Leader of the Conservative Party, in 2016 and 2019, finishing in third place on both occasions.

2016 Conservative Party leadership election

2016 Conservative Party leadership election

The 2016 Conservative Party leadership election was held due to Prime Minister David Cameron's resignation as party leader. He had resigned after losing the national referendum to leave the European Union. Cameron, who supported Britain's continued membership of the EU, announced his resignation on 24 June, saying that he would step down by October. Theresa May won the contest on 11 July 2016, after the withdrawal of Andrea Leadsom left her as the sole candidate.

Chancellor of the Exchequer (2020–2022)

On 13 February, Sunak was promoted to chancellor as part of the cabinet reshuffle undertaken by Johnson, after Javid had resigned that day following a meeting with Johnson.[48][49]

COVID-19 pandemic

Sunak recording a video concerning government financial support for businesses amidst COVID-19, April 2020
Sunak recording a video concerning government financial support for businesses amidst COVID-19, April 2020

On 17 March 2020, amid the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact, Sunak became prominent in the government's response. He introduced a programme providing £330 billion in emergency support for businesses,[50] as well as a furlough scheme for employees. This was the first time a British government had created such an employee retention scheme.[51][52] The scheme was introduced on 20 March 2020 as providing grants to employers to pay 80% of a staff wage and employment costs each month, up to a total of £2,500 per person per month.[52] The cost was estimated at £14 billion a month to run.[53]

Sunak with Boris Johnson in March 2020
Sunak with Boris Johnson in March 2020

The Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme initially ran for three months and was backdated to 1 March. Following a three-week extension of the countrywide lockdown the scheme was extended by Sunak until the end of June 2020.[54][55] At the end of May, Sunak extended the scheme until the end of October 2020. The decision to extend the job retention scheme was made to avoid or defer mass redundancies, company bankruptcies and potential unemployment levels not seen since the 1930s.[56] In July 2020, Sunak unveiled a plan for a further £30 billion of spending which included a stamp duty holiday, a cut to value-added tax (VAT) for the hospitality sector, a job retention bonus for employers and the Eat Out to Help Out scheme,[57][58] aimed at supporting and creating jobs in the hospitality industry. The government subsidised food and soft drinks at participating cafes, pubs and restaurants at 50%, up to £10 per person. The offer was available from 3 to 31 August on Monday to Wednesday each week.[59] In total, the scheme subsidised £849 million in meals.[60] Some consider the scheme to be a success in boosting the hospitality industry,[61] while others disagree.[62][63] A 2021 study found that the scheme contributed to a rise in COVID-19 infection, which Johnson acknowledged.[64][65] Further lockdowns were introduced later in 2020 after the scheme ended in response to an increase in COVID-19 infections, which forced many hospitality venues to close once again.[64]

The Winter Economy Plan was delivered by Sunak on 24 September 2020. The purpose of the statement was to announce measures aimed at further helping to promote economic recovery following the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The plan aimed to further promote economic recovery while preserving jobs and businesses which were considered viable. After a second lockdown in England on 31 October 2020, the programme was further extended until 2 December 2020,[66] this was followed on 5 November 2020 by a lengthy extension until 31 March 2021.[67] On 17 December 2020, the programme was further extended until 30 April 2021.[68] In the 2021 United Kingdom budget held on 3 March 2021, Sunak confirmed that the scheme had been extended once more until 30 September 2021.[69]

In October 2021, Sunak made his third and final budget statement, which included substantial spending promises to a large extent related to science and education.[70] The budget increased in-work support through the Universal Credit system by increasing the work allowances by £500 a year, and reducing the post-tax deduction taper rate from 63% to 55%.[71][72] £560m of investment was announced for the Levelling Up White Paper.[73] Many of the announcements to be made in the budget were previewed before budget day, drawing criticism and anger from the House of Commons. In response to the criticism, Sunak said the budget "begins the work of preparing for a new economy".[74]

In April 2022, amid the Partygate scandal, Sunak was issued a fixed penalty notice by the police who found he had committed offences under COVID-19 regulations by attending a birthday party for Johnson on 19 June 2020. The police also issued 125 fixed penalty notices to 82 other individuals, including Johnson and his wife Carrie Symonds, who all apologised and paid the penalties.[75][76] After receiving the fine, Sunak said he was "extremely and sincerely sorry" for the hurt caused by him attending the party, and that he respected the police's decision to give him a fine.[77]

Cost of living crisis and energy crisis

Sunak holding a red box in October 2021
Sunak holding a red box in October 2021

As the rising cost of living became an increasingly serious and worrying issue for the country, the UK government including Sunak intensified its efforts to respond to the crisis in May 2022, with a £5 billion windfall tax on energy companies to help fund a £15 billion support package for the public. The package included every household getting a £400 discount on energy bills, which would be in addition to a £150 council tax refund the government had already ordered. For about 8 million of the UK's lowest income households, a further £650 payment was announced. Additionally, pensioners or those with disability would qualify for extra payments, on top of the £550 that every household gets, and the £650 they would receive if they had a low income.[78][79][80][81]

Sunak made his spring statement on 23 March 2022. He cut fuel duty, removed VAT on energy saving equipment (such as solar panels and insulation) and reduced national insurance payments for small businesses and, while continuing with a planned national insurance rise in April, he promised to align the primary threshold with the basic personal income allowance as of July. He also promised a reduction in income tax in 2024. Sunak also provided some funding to help vulnerable people cope with the rising cost of living.[82]

Other actions

Sunak hosted a G7 summit in London in June 2021.[83] A tax reform agreement was signed, which in principle sought to establish a global minimum tax on multinationals and online technology companies.[83] In October 2021, the OECD signed an accord to join the tax reform plan.[84] Later that month, Sunak attended COP 26 in Glasgow.[85] During the speech he gave on 3 November, he said that he felt optimism despite daunting challenges and that by bringing together finance ministers, businesses and investors, COP 26 could begin to deliver targets from the Paris Agreement.[86]

Sunak and his family's wealth

In November 2020, Sunak was reported by The Guardian to have not declared a significant amount of his wife and family's financial interests on the register of ministers' interests, including a combined £1.7 billion shareholding in the Indian company Infosys. Alistair Graham, former chair of the Committee on Standards in Public Life stated Sunak should disclose his financial interests and those of his close family due to “the chancellor’s capacity to determine the government’s financial and business policies. He seems to have taken the most minimalist approach possible to this requirement. Perhaps Rishi Sunak should carefully read the ‘Seven principles of Public Life’ to make sure he is fulfilling the two principles of ‘Honesty and Leadership’.” [87] Ministers are required to declare interests that are "relevant" to their responsibilities and "which might be thought to give rise to a conflict" with their public duties.[87] The independent adviser on ministers' interests investigated and concluded that Sunak had not broken any rules.[88][89]

In early 2022, newspapers reported that Murty had non-domiciled status, meaning she did not have to pay tax on income earned abroad while living in the UK.[90] The status cost approximately £30,000 to secure, and allowed her to avoid paying an estimated £20 million in UK taxes.[90][91] Following media controversy, Murty stated on 8 April that she would pay UK taxes on her global income, adding in a statement that she did not want the issue "to be a distraction for my husband". A Whitehall inquiry was launched into who had leaked the details of her tax status.[92]

Reporting around this time also revealed that Sunak had continued to hold United States' permanent resident (green card) status he had acquired in the 2000s until 2021, including for 18 months after he was Britain's treasury chancellor, which required his filing annual US tax returns.[93][94] An investigation into both his wife's tax status and his residency status found that Sunak had not broken ministerial rules.[95]

Discover more about Chancellor of the Exchequer (2020–2022) related topics

Chancellorship of Rishi Sunak

Chancellorship of Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak served as Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom from his appointment on 13 February 2020 to his resignation on 5 July 2022, during the second ministry of Boris Johnson's premiership, having previously served as Chief Secretary to the Treasury during Johnson's first ministry. Sunak was elevated as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom following the resignation of Liz Truss in October 2022.

2020 British cabinet reshuffle

2020 British cabinet reshuffle

Boris Johnson carried out the first significant reshuffle of his majority government on 13 February 2020. Following the December 2019 general election, there was considerable speculation that Johnson was planning a major reshuffle of the Cabinet, to take place after the United Kingdom's official withdrawal from the European Union on 31 January 2020. There were reports that up to a third of the Cabinet would be dismissed, Whitehall departments abolished and civil servants replaced by policy experts; however, the reshuffle was smaller than expected and no departments were abolished. The anticipated reshuffle was nicknamed "The St Valentine's Day Massacre" in the press, due to its proximity to St Valentine's Day, the name being a reference to the 1929 gangland shooting in Chicago.

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is a part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the United Kingdom, it has resulted in 24,364,555 confirmed cases, and is associated with 211,845 deaths.

Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

The economic impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic on the United Kingdom has been largely disruptive. It has adversely affected travel, financial markets, employment, a number of industries, and shipping.

British government response to the COVID-19 pandemic

British government response to the COVID-19 pandemic

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, the UK Government introduced various public health and economic measures to mitigate its impact. Devolution meant that the four nations' administrative responses to the pandemic differed; the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, and the Northern Ireland Executive produced different policies to those that apply in England. Numerous laws were enacted or introduced throughout the crisis.

Furlough

Furlough

A furlough is a temporary leave of employees due to special needs of a company or employer, which may be due to economic conditions of a specific employer or in society as a whole. These furloughs may be short or long term.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer, and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. His political positions have sometimes been described as following one-nation conservatism, and commentators have characterised his political style as opportunistic, populist, or pragmatic.

Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme

Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme

The Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS) was a furlough scheme announced by Rishi Sunak, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, on 20 March 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. The scheme was announced on 20 March 2020 as providing grants to employers to pay 80% of a staff wage and employment costs each month, up to a total of £2,500 per person per month. The scheme initially ran for three months and was backdated to 1 March.

Eat Out to Help Out

Eat Out to Help Out

Eat Out to Help Out was a British government scheme to support and create jobs in the hospitality industry to counter the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The scheme involved the government subsidising food and non-alcoholic drinks at participating cafes, pubs, and restaurants at 50%, up to £10 per person. The offer, announced in July 2020, was available during the month of August 2020, from Monday to Wednesday each week.

Hospitality industry in the United Kingdom

Hospitality industry in the United Kingdom

The hospitality industry in the United Kingdom is largely represented by the country's hotels, pubs, restaurants and leisure companies, and produces around 4% of UK GDP.

March 2021 United Kingdom budget

March 2021 United Kingdom budget

The March 2021 United Kingdom budget, officially known as Protecting the Jobs and Livelihoods of the British People was a budget delivered by Rishi Sunak, the Chancellor of the Exchequer in March 2021. It was expected to be delivered in Autumn 2020, but was postponed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It succeeds the budget held in March 2020, and the summer statement and Winter Economy Plan held in summer and autumn 2020, respectively. The budget is the second under Boris Johnson's government, also the second to be delivered by Sunak and the second since Britain's withdrawal from the European Union. The budget was the first for government expenditure in the United Kingdom to exceed £1 trillion.

Fixed penalty notice

Fixed penalty notice

In the United Kingdom, a fixed penalty notice (FPN) is a notice giving an individual the opportunity to be made immune from prosecution for an alleged criminal offence in exchange for a fee. Fixed penalty notices were introduced in Britain in the 1980s to deal with minor parking offences. Originally used by police and traffic wardens, their use has extended to other public officials and authorities, as has the range of offences for which they can be used.

Run-up to becoming Prime Minister

Resignation as Chancellor

Sunak (right) and Sajid Javid (left) (the first two cabinet members to resign on 5 July) pictured with Johnson (centre)
Sunak (right) and Sajid Javid (left) (the first two cabinet members to resign on 5 July) pictured with Johnson (centre)

On 5 July 2022, Sunak and Health Secretary Javid resigned almost simultaneously amid a scandal surrounding the sexual harassment allegations against Chris Pincher, which arose after it was revealed that Johnson had promoted Pincher to the position despite knowing of the allegations beforehand.[96] Sunak was the second of 61 Conservative MPs to resign during the government crisis.[97] In his resignation letter Sunak said:

The public rightly expect government to be conducted properly, competently and seriously. I recognise this may be my last ministerial job, but I believe these standards are worth fighting for and that is why I am resigning. It has become clear to me that our approaches are fundamentally too different. I am sad to be leaving Government but I have reluctantly come to the conclusion that we cannot continue like this.[98][99][100]

He was succeeded as chancellor by Nadhim Zahawi. Following the resignations of Javid and Sunak, numerous junior ministers and among the Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) also resigned, most of whom cited a lack of honesty and integrity on the part of Johnson. In the following 24 hours, 36 MPs resigned from their roles in government. This marked both the largest number of ministerial resignations in a 24-hour period since the British Empire Economic Conference in 1932, and the largest number of such resignations on record. After a total of 62 resignations, Johnson announced on on 7 July his intention to resign as Conservative leader and prime minister, but said he would remain prime minister until a new leader was in place.

Conservative leadership bids

Logo for Sunak's leadership bids
Logo for Sunak's leadership bids

On 8 July 2022, Sunak stood in the Conservative party leadership election to replace Johnson.[101] Sunak launched his campaign in a video posted to social media, writing that he would "restore trust, rebuild the economy and reunite the country".[102] He said his values were "patriotism, fairness, hard work".[103] Sunak pledged to "crack down on gender neutral language".[104] Sunak's pledges during the campaign included tax cuts only when inflation was under control, scrapping of the 5% VAT rate on household energy for one year, introducing a temporary £10 fine for patients who fail to attend GP appointments, capping of refugee numbers, and a tightening of the definition of asylum.[105]

On 20 July, Sunak and Foreign Secretary Liz Truss emerged as the final two candidates in the contest on 20 July to be put forward to the membership for the final leadership vote. He had received the most votes in each of the series of MP votes with Sunak receiving 137 to Truss's 113 in the final round.[106] In the membership vote, Truss received 57.4% of the vote, making her the new leader over Sunak.[107] He spent the duration of Truss's premiership on the backbenches.

Truss resigned on 20 October 2022 amid a government crisis, leading to a leadership contest.[108] On 22 October, it was reported that Sunak had the required number of supporters—100 members of the House of Commons—to run in the ballot on 24 October. The total number of MPs who publicly declared support passed 100 on the afternoon of 22 October.[109] On 23 October, Sunak declared that he would stand for election.[110] After Johnson ruled himself out of the race and Penny Mordaunt withdrew, Sunak was announced as the new Conservative leader on 24 October.[111]

Discover more about Run-up to becoming Prime Minister related topics

Chris Pincher scandal

Chris Pincher scandal

The Chris Pincher scandal is a political controversy in the United Kingdom related to allegations of sexual misconduct by the former Conservative Party Deputy Chief Whip, Chris Pincher. In early July 2022, allegations of Pincher's misconduct emerged, including allegations that pre-dated his appointment as Deputy Chief Whip.

July 2022 United Kingdom government crisis

July 2022 United Kingdom government crisis

In early July 2022, 62 of the United Kingdom's 179 government ministers, parliamentary private secretaries, trade envoys, and party vice-chairmen resigned from their positions in the second administration formed by Boris Johnson as Prime Minister, culminating in Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister Boris Johnson's resignation on 7 July. Johnson's premiership had been considered in danger for months after several scandals, but it was the Chris Pincher scandal that was identified to have spurred on the resignations. Considered the "last straw" for the Prime Minister, the scandal arose after it was revealed that Johnson had promoted his Deputy Chief Government Whip Chris Pincher, who was publicly facing multiple allegations of sexual assault, to the position despite knowing of the allegations beforehand.

Chris Pincher

Chris Pincher

Christopher John Pincher is a British independent politician and a Conservative Party member, who has served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Tamworth since 2010. Pincher previously served as Government Deputy Chief Whip, and Treasurer of the Household from 2018 to 2019 and from February to June 2022.

Nadhim Zahawi

Nadhim Zahawi

Nadhim Zahawi is an Iraqi-born British politician serving as Chairman of the Conservative Party and Minister without Portfolio since 25 October 2022. A member of the Conservative Party, he was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Stratford-on-Avon in 2010. He had previously served in various ministerial positions under prime ministers Theresa May, Boris Johnson and Liz Truss from 2018 to 2022.

Parliamentary Private Secretary

Parliamentary Private Secretary

A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom who acts as an unpaid assistant to a minister or shadow minister. They are selected from backbench MPs as the 'eyes and ears' of the minister in the House of Commons.

British Empire Economic Conference

British Empire Economic Conference

The British Empire Economic Conference was a 1932 conference of British colonies and dominions held to discuss the Great Depression. It was held between 21 July and 20 August in Ottawa.

July–September 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

July–September 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

The July–September 2022 Conservative Party leadership election was triggered by Boris Johnson's announcement on 7 July 2022 that he would resign as Leader of the Conservative Party after a series of political controversies. The leadership election was won in September by Liz Truss.

October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

The October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election was triggered by Liz Truss's announcement that she would resign as Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, amid an economic and political crisis. Rishi Sunak was elected unopposed on 24 October and became prime minister on 25 October.

Foreign Secretary

Foreign Secretary

The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, known as the foreign secretary, is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. Seen as one of the most senior ministers in the government and a Great Office of State, the incumbent is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, fourth in the ministerial ranking.

Liz Truss

Liz Truss

Mary Elizabeth Truss is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from September to October 2022. On her fiftieth day in office, she stepped down amid a government crisis, making her the shortest-serving prime minister in the history of the United Kingdom. Truss previously held various Cabinet positions under prime ministers David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson, lastly as foreign secretary from 2021 to 2022. She has been Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Norfolk since 2010.

October 2022 United Kingdom government crisis

October 2022 United Kingdom government crisis

In September and October 2022, the Conservative Party government led by newly-appointed prime minister, Liz Truss, faced a credibility crisis. It was caused by the September 2022 mini-budget, loss of support from Conservative members of parliament (MPs), and a disorganised vote in the House of Commons.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Prime Minister (2022–present)

Following the resignation of Prime Minister Liz Truss, Sunak, as the leader of the Conservatives, the majority party in Parliament, became the new prime minister on 25 October 2022, after accepting King Charles III's invitation to form a government.[112] In his first speech as prime minister, Sunak promised “integrity, professionalism and accountability,” and said that "we will create a future worthy of the sacrifices so many have made and fill tomorrow, and everyday thereafter with hope."[113] Of his predecessor, Sunak said that Truss "was not wrong" to want to improve growth, but admitted that "some mistakes were made", and that he was elected prime minister in part to fix them. He promised to "place economic stability and confidence at the heart of this government's agenda".[114]

Cabinet

Sunak chairing the first meeting of his cabinet
Sunak chairing the first meeting of his cabinet

Sunak began appointing his cabinet on 25 October 2022. Jeremy Hunt remained as chancellor, a role he was given during the Truss ministry after Kwasi Kwarteng was dismissed on 14 October. Dominic Raab was also re-appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Justice Secretary, a role he was given during the premiership of Boris Johnson. James Cleverly remained as Foreign Secretary with Suella Braverman returning as Secretary of State for the Home Department, a role from which she had previously resigned during the Truss ministry. Ben Wallace remained as Secretary of State for Defence, a role from which he had previously during the Johnson and Truss ministries. Michael Gove returned as Levelling Up Secretary, a role he was sacked from by Johnson, and Grant Shapps was demoted from Home Secretary to Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Penny Mordaunt remained as Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council, roles from which she had during the Truss ministry.

Other key appointments include Simon Hart as Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury and Chief Whip of the House of Commons, Nadhim Zahawi as Party Chairman, Oliver Dowden as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Thérèse Coffey as Environment Secretary, Mel Stride as Work and Pensions Secretary and Mark Harper as Transport Secretary.

Sunak was criticised because he appointed Gavin Williamson and Dominic Raab to the cabinet. Both were accused of bullying, a charge they both denied.[115] Williamson resigned after allegations that he used improper language to former Chief Whip Wendy Morton and had bullied several staffers during his time as a Cabinet minister under Theresa May.[116] Raab faces an independent investigation into complaints arising from his prior tenures as Lord Chancellor and Foreign Secretary under Boris Johnson.[117] Sunak was also criticised for returning Braverman to the cabinet, despite her being previously sacked by Truss for breaking the Ministerial Code; Braverman left Truss's government due to an alleged security breach when Braverman shared secure information with a colleague.[118] Sunak said that his appointments to the government were in an attempt to reflect a "unified party".[119]

Environment

Sunak and the First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, in Blackpool for the British-Irish council summit, November 2022
Sunak and the First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, in Blackpool for the British-Irish council summit, November 2022

In a reversal of his predecessor's policy, Sunak reinstated the ban on fracking on 26 October as outlined in the Conservative 2019 manifesto.[120]

In October, Sunak initially said that he would not attend the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Egypt, to allow him to concentrate on urgent domestic matters.[121] Following pressure from MPs, environmentalist campaigners and others, Sunak announced that he would attend.[122]

Sunak attended a reception held by the King at Buckingham Palace on 4 November.[123] Sunak told the meeting of approximately 200 politicians and campaigners that the UK will continue with its environmental aims after the end of its COP 26 presidency.[123] In his speech Sunak warned that as climate change ravages the planet there will be more human suffering and that because of inaction, people risk giving their children a desperate inheritance. Sunak also paid tribute to the King's longstanding work for the environment.[123]

Sunak delivering a speech at COP27 in Egypt.
Sunak delivering a speech at COP27 in Egypt.

On 7 November at the COP 27 summit, Sunak launched The Forest and Climate Leaders' Partnership (FCLP), building on a policy called the Glasgow Climate Pact, originally started at COP 26.[124][125] The partnership aims to halt and reverse deforestation by 2030, bringing 26 countries and the European Union together.[124] These countries account for 60% of global GDP and over 33% of the world's forests and together with private funding, the partnership has total funds of $23.8bn.[124][125] In his speech to the Forest and Climate Leaders' Summit, Sunak said that the world's forests have been undervalued and underestimated, yet were one of the natural wonders of the world.[124] He then asked attendees to build upon what had already been achieved to secure an incredible legacy for generations to come.[124] The FCLP will hold annual meetings and starting in 2023, it will publish an annual Global Progress Report that includes independent assessments.[124]

Foreign policy

Sunak with US President Joe Biden in November 2022
Sunak with US President Joe Biden in November 2022

Following the 2022 missile explosion in Poland, Sunak met U.S. President Joe Biden and gave a speech about the explosion in Poland.[126] He later met Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy during his first visit to Kyiv, and pledged to give Ukraine £50m in aid.[127]

Discover more about Prime Minister (2022–present) related topics

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)

The leader of the Conservative Party is the highest position within the United Kingdom's Conservative Party. The current holder of the position is Rishi Sunak, who was elected to the position on 24 October, following his unopposed victory in the party's leadership election.

Charles III

Charles III

Charles III is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms. He was the longest-serving heir apparent and, at age 73, became the oldest person to accede to the British throne following the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, on 8 September 2022.

Jeremy Hunt

Jeremy Hunt

Jeremy Richard Streynsham Hunt is a British politician who has served as Chancellor of the Exchequer since 14 October 2022. He previously served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport from 2010 to 2012, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care from 2012 to 2018, and Foreign Secretary from 2018 to 2019. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Surrey since 2005.

Kwasi Kwarteng

Kwasi Kwarteng

Akwasi Addo Alfred Kwarteng is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Spelthorne in northern Surrey since May 2010. He was Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy from 2021 to 2022, and Chancellor of the Exchequer for the short-lived Liz Truss government between September and October 2022.

Dominic Raab

Dominic Raab

Dominic Rennie Raab is a British Member of Parliament serving as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor since 2021, save for a period from September to October 2022. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Esher and Walton since 2010. A member of the Conservative Party, he served as Brexit Secretary in 2018 and First Secretary of State and Foreign Secretary from 2019 to 2021.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer, and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. His political positions have sometimes been described as following one-nation conservatism, and commentators have characterised his political style as opportunistic, populist, or pragmatic.

James Cleverly

James Cleverly

James Spencer Cleverly is a British politician and Army Reserve officer who has served as Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs since 2022. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Braintree in Essex since 2015. He previously served as Secretary of State for Education from July to September 2022, Co-Chairman of the Conservative Party alongside Ben Elliot from 2019 to 2020 and as the member of the London Assembly (AM) for Bexley and Bromley from 2008 to 2016.

Foreign Secretary

Foreign Secretary

The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, known as the foreign secretary, is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. Seen as one of the most senior ministers in the government and a Great Office of State, the incumbent is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, fourth in the ministerial ranking.

Home Secretary

Home Secretary

The secretary of state for the Home Department, otherwise known as the home secretary, is a senior minister of the Crown in the Government of the United Kingdom. The home secretary leads the Home Office, and is responsible for all national security, policing and immigration policies of the United Kingdom. As a Great Office of State, the home secretary is one of the most senior and influential ministers in the government. The incumbent is a statutory member of the British Cabinet and National Security Council. The post holder is fifth in the ministerial ranking.

Ben Wallace (politician)

Ben Wallace (politician)

Robert Ben Lobban Wallace is a British politician and former soldier who has served as Secretary of State for Defence since 2019. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wyre and Preston North, formerly Lancaster and Wyre, since 2005.

Michael Gove

Michael Gove

Michael Andrew Gove is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities and Minister for Intergovernmental Relations since 2021. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Surrey Heath since 2005. A member of the Conservative Party, he has served in various Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers David Cameron, Theresa May, Boris Johnson and Rishi Sunak. Gove has twice run to become Leader of the Conservative Party, in 2016 and 2019, finishing in third place on both occasions.

Grant Shapps

Grant Shapps

Grant Shapps is a British politician who is serving as Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy since October 2022. He previously served as Secretary of State for Transport in the Johnson government from 2019 to 2022 and Home Secretary during the final six days of the Truss premiership in October 2022. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Welwyn Hatfield since 2005.

Political positions

Sunak with Isaac Herzog in November 2022
Sunak with Isaac Herzog in November 2022

According to Euronews, Sunak is "frequently perceived as a pragmatist and as belonging to the centre-ground of the Conservative Party."[128] He opposed the fiscal policies of his predecessor, Liz Truss,[128] and although described as a fellow Thatcherite, is viewed as less economically libertarian than Truss.[129]

In August 2022, he proposed widening the Prevent strategy by widening the definition of "extremism".[130]

On crime, Sunak proposed an automatic one-year extension to prison sentences for prolific criminals, as well as cutting the minimum sentence before a foreign criminal is eligible for deportation from twelve months to six.[131] He proposed life imprisonment for leaders of child grooming gangs, and for police to record the ethnicity of those involved in such gangs.[132]

Energy and the environment

Sunak has signed the Conservative Environment Pledge (CEP), as shown on the Conservative Environment Network (CEN) website which has the support of approximately 127 MPs.[133][134] The CEP has five main commitments, which are in summary: i) Using Brexit freedoms for the environment and sustainable farming. ii) Backing British clean energy suppliers so as to boost energy security. iii) Encouraging the use of domestic insulation and electric vehicle charging points. iv) Implemeting the Environment Act. v) Backing technologies that will help to achieve clean growth.[133] During the leadership contest held over summer 2022, Sunak told the CEN that he was engaged with the protection of the environment for future generations.[135]

Sunak has said he is committed to keeping the legal commitment of reaching net zero by 2050.[136] During the summer, he said that he intended to make the UK energy independent by 2045,[137] while advocating for more offshore windpower, more solar panels on rooftops and improved insulation of homes to make them more energy efficient.[129][137] Sunak is said to have listened to fellow MPs with a green agenda and that he was a believer in net zero for the UK.[138] However, Sunak also voted against a call for Britain to eliminate most greenhouse gas emissions from transportation by 2030.[129]

Sunak hailing global cooperation in October 2021, after 136 countries agreed a new system ensuring large multi-nationals pay the right tax in the right places
Sunak hailing global cooperation in October 2021, after 136 countries agreed a new system ensuring large multi-nationals pay the right tax in the right places

While campaigning in August 2022, Sunak wrote that he would restrict the use of solar panels on farmland but would make sure solar is installed on commercial buildings, properties and sheds.[139] "On my watch, we will not lose swathes of our best farmland to solar farms."[139] The trade association Solar Energy U.K. said the solar industry was "deeply concerned" with candidates Sunak and Truss' intentions.[140]

Sunak has backed fracking, where it is supported by local residents.[141] On 19 October in the debate on "Ban on Fracking for Shale Gas Bill (Division 66)", he voted with the government against the ban on fracking.[142] Fracking had been banned by the government in November 2019 after a report by the Oil and Gas Authority found that it was not possible at that time to predict the probability or strength of earthquakes caused by fracking.[143][144]

While Chancellor, Sunak attended COP 26 in Glasgow.[145] During the speech he gave on 3 November, he said that he felt optimism despite daunting challenges and that by bringing together finance ministers, businesses and investors, COP 26 could begin to deliver targets from the Paris Agreement.[146] He outlined three actions: First, the need for increased public investment, with the U.K. committing £100 million to the Taskforce on Access to Climate Finance. He announced support for a new Capital Markets Mechanism which will issue green bonds in the U.K. to fund renewable energy in developing countries.[146] Second, mobilising private finance, with the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero bringing together organisations with assets over $130 trillion to be deployed.[146] Third, the rewiring of the entire global financial system for net zero, which would include better climate data, mandatory sustainability disclosures, climate risk surveillance and stronger global reporting standards.[146] Also announced was that the UK will become the first ever 'Net Zero Aligned Financial Centre'.[146]

During an interview in July 2022, Sunak said that wind generation will be a part of his governments' energy policies, but he wanted to reassure communities that there would not be a relaxation of the current onshore planning laws, with more of a focus on offshore wind farms.[147] This stance was confirmed recently by the PM's press team, who said that Sunak wants "offshore not onshore wind".[148] When asked about wind generation by MP Alan Whitehead at Prime Minister's Questions (26 October), Sunak responded that, as outlined in the Conservative manifesto of 2019, he would focus on long term energy security, including more offshore wind.[149] Onshore wind generation was made difficult by the National Planning Policy Framework 2016 Update, but as part of his predecessors' polices, the planning laws were set to be relaxed.[150]

Foreign policy

He called China the "biggest long-term threat" to Britain, adding that "They torture, detain and indoctrinate their own people, including in Xinjiang and Hong Kong, in contravention of their human rights. And they have continually rigged the global economy in their favour by suppressing their currency." He accused China of supporting Russian President Vladimir Putin and also said that China was "stealing our technology and infiltrating our universities".[151][152]

Sunak described Saudi Arabia as a "partner" and "ally", but said that the British government does not ignore human rights violations in Saudi Arabia. According to Sunak, "It's absolutely right that" the British government "engages with our partners and allies around the world as we contemplate how best to ensure energy security for this country."[153]

During his chancellorship, Sunak opposed US President Joe Biden's plan to introduce a minimum 21 percent global business tax.[129]

Sunak supported the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.[154]

Russia and Ukraine

Sunak with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy during his first visit to Kyiv in November 2022
Sunak with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy during his first visit to Kyiv in November 2022

Sunak supports Ukraine against the Russian invasion of the country and supports economic sanctions against Russia, but opposes British military intervention in Ukraine.[155]

After meeting Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy during his first visit to Kyiv in November 2022, Sunak said: "I am proud of how the UK stood with Ukraine from the very beginning. And I am here today to say the UK and our allies will continue to stand with Ukraine, as it fights to end this barbarous war and deliver a just peace. While Ukraine's armed forces succeed in pushing back Russian forces on the ground, civilians are being brutally bombarded from the air. We are today providing new air defence, including anti-aircraft guns, radar and anti-drone equipment, and stepping up humanitarian support for the cold, hard winter ahead."[156]

LGBT rights

On LGBT rights, in July 2022 during a debate, Sunak said that he wanted the UK to be "the safest and greatest country in the world to be LGBT+". When asked about alleged or perceived transphobia within his party, he stated that "prejudice against trans people is wrong. The Conservative Party is an open, welcoming family to everybody across society, no matter who they are and irrespective of their background."[157][158] Sunak believes that transgender people should be "respected", but said that he views biology as "important" and "fundamental" regarding bathrooms and competitive sports.[129]

Immigration

Sunak has expressed support for lowering net migration. An official spokesperson said, "He's committed to ensuring we have control over our borders and the public rightly expects us to control immigration and have a system that works best for the UK."[159] He has said that the "current asylum system is broken and it needs to be fixed urgently", saying he would, in his first 100 days as prime minister, "tighten our statutory definition of who qualifies for asylum in the UK ... This will prevent anyone who enters the UK illegally from staying here", that the "Parliament will be given control of the number of refugees we accept each year", that he "cannot underestimate the role of data sharing which will make it easier to identify people who are in the UK illegally", and that the Rwanda asylum plan "is the right one."[160][161] Responding to criticism surrounding some of his proposals about illegal immigration, Sunak said there was "absolutely nothing racist" about it.[162]

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Euronews

Euronews

Euronews is a European television news network, headquartered in Lyon, France. The network began broadcasting on 1 January 1993 and covers world news from a European perspective.

Centre-right politics

Centre-right politics

Centre-right politics lean to the right of the political spectrum, but are closer to the centre. From the 1780s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from the nobility and mercantilism, towards capitalism. This general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements, such as the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism.

Liz Truss

Liz Truss

Mary Elizabeth Truss is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from September to October 2022. On her fiftieth day in office, she stepped down amid a government crisis, making her the shortest-serving prime minister in the history of the United Kingdom. Truss previously held various Cabinet positions under prime ministers David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson, lastly as foreign secretary from 2021 to 2022. She has been Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Norfolk since 2010.

Libertarianism

Libertarianism

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as a core value. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and political freedom, and minimize the state's encroachment on and violations of individual liberties; emphasizing the rule of law, pluralism, cosmopolitanism, cooperation, civil and political rights, bodily autonomy, free association, free trade, freedom of expression, freedom of choice, freedom of movement, individualism and voluntary association. Libertarians are often skeptical of or opposed to authority, state power, warfare, militarism and nationalism, but some libertarians diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing economic and political systems. Various schools of Libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Different categorizations have been used to distinguish various forms of Libertarianism. Scholars distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital, usually along left–right or socialist–capitalist lines. Libertarians of various schools were influenced by liberal ideas.

Energy security

Energy security

Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. Access to (relatively) cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies. However, the uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led to significant vulnerabilities. International energy relations have contributed to the globalization of the world leading to energy security and energy vulnerability at the same time.

Environment Act 2021

Environment Act 2021

The Environment Act 2021 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom aims to improve air and water quality, protect wildlife, increase recycling and reduce plastic waste. The Act is part of a new legal framework for environmental protection, given the UK no longer comes under EU law post-Brexit.

Energy efficiency in British housing

Energy efficiency in British housing

Domestic housing in the United Kingdom presents a possible opportunity for achieving the 20% overall cut in UK greenhouse gas emissions targeted by the Government for 2010. However, the process of achieving that drop is proving problematic given the very wide range of age and condition of the UK housing stock.

Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom

Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom

In 2020, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United Kingdom (UK) were a little over 400 million tonnes (Mt) carbon dioxide equivalent, of which about 320 Mt was carbon dioxide. The government estimates that emissions increased by 6% in 2021 with the easing of COVID-19 restrictions, about half of the increase being due to the extra road transport. The UK has emitted about 3% of the world total human caused CO2, although the population is less than 1%.

North Sea Transition Authority

North Sea Transition Authority

The North Sea Transition Authority (NSTA), known as the Oil and Gas Authority (OGA) until March 2022, is a private company limited by shares wholly owned by the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It is responsible for maximising the economic recovery of oil from the North Sea. It is empowered to license and regulate activity in relation to oil and gas in the United Kingdom, including oil and gas exploration, carbon capture and storage, and offshore gas storage.

2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference

2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, more commonly referred to as COP26, was the 26th United Nations Climate Change conference, held at the SEC Centre in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, from 31 October to 13 November 2021. The president of the conference was UK cabinet minister Alok Sharma. Delayed for a year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the third meeting of the parties to the 2015 Paris Agreement, and the 16th meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP16).

Green bond

Green bond

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Public image

Sunak holding a "Levelling Up" sign
Sunak holding a "Levelling Up" sign

Following his appointment as chancellor, Sunak arrived in public discourse from relative obscurity.[163] In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, he was popular by the standards of British politics, described by one analyst as having "better ratings than any politician since the heydays of Tony Blair".[164] Various polls showed Sunak remained overwhelmingly popular among Conservative supporters and many other Britons throughout 2020.[165][166][167]

In an Ipsos MORI poll in September 2020, Sunak had the highest satisfaction score of any British Chancellor since Labour's Denis Healey in April 1978, and was widely seen as the favourite to become the next Prime Minister and leader of Conservative Party after Boris Johnson.[168][169] Sunak developed a cult media following, with jokes and gossip about his attractiveness widespread on social media and in magazines, gaining the nickname "Dishi Rishi".[170][171][163][172][173]

Public attitudes towards Sunak remained broadly positive in 2021,[174][175][176] though his popularity declined steadily over time.[164] By early 2022, with the cost of living becoming a growing focus of public concern, Sunak's response as chancellor was perceived as inadequate and he received some of his lowest approval ratings, which continued as the Sunak family's financial affairs came under scrutiny.[177][178][179][180][181] By the time he resigned as chancellor in July 2022, Sunak's approval ratings slightly recovered.[182]

In October 2022, following his appointment as prime minister, Sunak's personal favourability ratings increased.[183][184]

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Levelling-up policy of the British government

Levelling-up policy of the British government

"Levelling up" is a political policy first articulated in the 2019 Conservative Party manifesto that aims to reduce the imbalances, primarily economic, between areas and social groups across the United Kingdom. It seeks to do so without acting to the detriment of prosperous areas, such as much of South East England. A white paper for the policy was published by Boris Johnson's government on 2 February 2022. The policy is overseen by the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities, and the incumbent Secretary of State is Michael Gove.

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is a part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the United Kingdom, it has resulted in 24,364,555 confirmed cases, and is associated with 211,845 deaths.

Tony Blair

Tony Blair

Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a British former politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He previously served as Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 1997, and had served in various shadow cabinet posts from 1987 to 1994. Blair was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007. He is the second longest serving prime minister in modern history after Margaret Thatcher, and is the longest serving Labour politician to have held the office.

Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI was the name of a market research company based in London, England which is now known as Ipsos and still continues as the UK arm of the global Ipsos group. It was formed by a merger of Ipsos UK and MORI in October 2005.

Denis Healey

Denis Healey

Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, was a British Labour politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970; he remains the longest-serving Defence Secretary to date. He was a Member of Parliament from 1952 to 1992, and was Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983. To the public at large, Healey became well known for his bushy eyebrows, his avuncular manner and his creative turns of phrase.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer, and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. His political positions have sometimes been described as following one-nation conservatism, and commentators have characterised his political style as opportunistic, populist, or pragmatic.

Personal life

Kirby Sigston Manor, owned by Sunak and his wife Akshata Murty
Kirby Sigston Manor, owned by Sunak and his wife Akshata Murty

Sunak is a Hindu.[185] His name in Hindi is ऋषि सुनक (Ṛṣi Sunaka), and in Punjabi (Gurumukhi) ਰਿਸ਼ੀ ਸੁਨਕ (Riśī Sunaka). Sunak took his oath as an MP at the House of Commons on the Bhagavad Gita.[18][186][187] In August 2009, he married Akshata Murty, the daughter of N. R. Narayana Murthy, the founder of the technology company Infosys in which Murty owns a stake, making her one of the wealthiest women in Britain.[9][188] In 2022 Sunak and his wife were seen celebrating the Hindu festival of Krishna Janmashtami and worshipping a cow at Bhaktivedanta Manor temple in Hertfordshire.[189][190]

Sunak and Murty met while studying at Stanford University in the U.S.; they have two daughters, Krishna (born 2011) and Anoushka (born 2013).[9][13] They own several houses, including the Kirby Sigston Manor in the village of Kirby Sigston, North Yorkshire, a mews house in Earl's Court in central London, a flat on the Old Brompton Road, South Kensington, and a penthouse apartment on Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica, California.[191][192][193][8][194] Sunak is a teetotaller.[3][18] He has stated he is a Coca-Cola addict and now has seven dental fillings due to excessive consumption when he was younger.[195][196] He was previously a governor of the East London Science School.[31] Sunak has a Labrador called Nova and is a cricket, tennis and horse racing enthusiast.[197][198][199][200] In the aftermath of the murder of George Floyd, Sunak spoke out against the racism he faced in his life and how his family struggled while immigrating to Britain in the 1960s.[129]

Sunak is a close friend of The Spectator's political editor James Forsyth, whom he has known since their school days. Sunak was the best man at Forsyth's wedding to the journalist Allegra Stratton, and they are godparents to each other's children.[8] In April 2022, it was reported that Sunak and Murty had moved out of 11 Downing Street to a newly refurbished West London home.[201][202]

Discover more about Personal life related topics

Kirby Sigston Manor

Kirby Sigston Manor

Kirby Sigston Manor is a manor house in the village of Kirby Sigston in North Yorkshire, England.

Akshata Murty

Akshata Murty

Akshatā Nārāyan Mūrty is a Britain-based Indian heiress, businesswoman, fashion designer and venture capitalist. She is married to the current British Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader Rishi Sunak. Murty and Sunak are the 222nd richest people in Britain, with a combined fortune of £730m as of 2022. Her personal wealth became the topic of British media discussion in the context of her claim of non-domiciled status in the UK.

Hindi

Hindi

Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in the Hindi Belt region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern, and western India. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of North India. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with English. It is an official language in nine states and three union territories and an additional official language in three other states. Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata, dated to the second half of the first millennium BCE and is typical of the Hindu synthesis. It is considered to be one of the holy scriptures for Hinduism.

Infosys

Infosys

Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company was founded in Pune and is headquartered in Bangalore. Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company, after Tata Consultancy Services, by 2020 revenue figures, and the 602nd largest public company in the world, according to the Forbes Global 2000 ranking.

Krishna Janmashtami

Krishna Janmashtami

Krishna Janmashtami lit. ''Occasion of the birth of Krishna'', also known simply as Krishnashtami, Janmashtami, or Gokulashtami, is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. According to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, it is observed on the eighth tithi (Ashtami) of the Krishna Paksha of Shraavana Masa or Bhadrapada Masa. This overlaps with August or September of the Gregorian calendar.

Cattle

Cattle

Cattle are large, domesticated, cloven-hooved, herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae and the most widespread species of the genus Bos. Adult females are referred to as cows and adult males are referred to as bulls.

Bhaktivedanta Manor

Bhaktivedanta Manor

Bhaktivedanta Manor is a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple set in the Hertfordshire countryside of England, in the village of Letchmore Heath near Watford. The Manor is owned and run by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), better known as the Hare Krishna movement. It is ISKCON's largest property in the United Kingdom, and one of the most frequently visited Radha Krishna temples in Europe. The house is listed Grade II on the National Heritage List for England.

Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in southern England. It borders Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it forms part of the East of England region.

Kirby Sigston

Kirby Sigston

Kirby Sigston is a village and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England, approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Northallerton. The village is situated on the Cod Beck river, and the wider parish contains the hamlet of Jeater Houses due east of the village on the trunk A19 road. The village is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as having 75 ploughlands, and its name derives from a combination of the Old Norse Kirkju-býr and Sigges tūn. Sigston is also the name of a village nearby.

Earl's Court

Earl's Court

Earl's Court is a district of Kensington in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in West London, bordering the rail tracks of the West London line and District line that separate it from the ancient borough of Fulham to the west, the sub-districts of South Kensington to the east, Chelsea to the south and Kensington to the northeast. It lent its name to the now defunct eponymous pleasure grounds opened in 1887 followed by the pre–World War II Earls Court Exhibition Centre, as one of the country's largest indoor arenas and a popular concert venue, until its closure in 2014.

Source: "Rishi Sunak", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 3rd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rishi_Sunak.

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