Get Our Extension

Richard Lindzen

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Richard S. Lindzen
Born (1940-02-08) February 8, 1940 (age 82)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materHarvard University (BA, MSc, PhD)
Known forDynamic Meteorology
Atmospheric tides
Ozone photochemistry
quasi-biennial oscillation
Iris hypothesis
SpouseNadine Lindzen
Children2[1]
AwardsNCAR Outstanding Publication Award (1967)
AMS Clarence Leroy Meisinger Award (1968)
AGU
Macelwane Award (1969)
Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship (1970)
AMS Charney Award (1985)
Member of the NAS
Scientific career
FieldsAtmospheric physics
InstitutionsUniversity of Chicago
Harvard University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
ThesisRadiative and photochemical processes in strato- and mesospheric dynamics (1965)
Doctoral advisorRichard M. Goody

Richard Siegmund Lindzen (born February 8, 1940) is an American atmospheric physicist known for his work in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere, atmospheric tides, and ozone photochemistry. He has published more than 200 scientific papers and books. From 1983[1] until his retirement in 2013, he was Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[2] He was a lead author of Chapter 7, "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks," of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Third Assessment Report on climate change. He has disputed the scientific consensus on climate change[3] and criticizes what he has called "climate alarmism."[4]

Discover more about Richard Lindzen related topics

Atmospheric physics

Atmospheric physics

Within the atmospheric sciences, atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation budget, and energy transfer processes in the atmosphere. In order to model weather systems, atmospheric physicists employ elements of scattering theory, wave propagation models, cloud physics, statistical mechanics and spatial statistics which are highly mathematical and related to physics. It has close links to meteorology and climatology and also covers the design and construction of instruments for studying the atmosphere and the interpretation of the data they provide, including remote sensing instruments. At the dawn of the space age and the introduction of sounding rockets, aeronomy became a subdiscipline concerning the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important.

Ozone

Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemistry

Photochemistry

Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. Generally, this term is used to describe a chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet, visible light (400–750 nm) or infrared radiation (750–2500 nm).

Alfred P. Sloan

Alfred P. Sloan

Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr. was an American business executive in the automotive industry. He was a long-time president, chairman and CEO of General Motors Corporation. Sloan, first as a senior executive and later as the head of the organization, helped GM grow from the 1920s through the 1950s, decades when concepts such as the annual model change, brand architecture, industrial engineering, automotive design (styling), and planned obsolescence transformed the industry, and when the industry changed lifestyles and the built environment in America and throughout the world.

Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics, and more particularly in the latter half of the 20th century the development of the computer that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important branch of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations. Its job is to advance scientific knowledge about climate change caused by human activities. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established the IPCC in 1988. The United Nations endorsed the creation of the IPCC later that year. It has a secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, hosted by the WMO. It has 195 member states who govern the IPCC. The member states elect a bureau of scientists to serve through an assessment cycle. A cycle is usually six to seven years. The bureau selects experts to prepare IPCC reports. It draws the experts from nominations by governments and observer organisations. The IPCC has three working groups and a task force, which carry out its scientific work.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

Early life and education

Lindzen was born on February 8, 1940 in Webster, Massachusetts.[1] His father, a shoemaker, had fled Nazi Germany with his mother. He moved to the Bronx soon after his birth and grew up in a Jewish household in a predominantly Catholic neighborhood there.[3][5] Lindzen attended the Bronx High School of Science (winning Regents' and National Merit Scholarships), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Harvard University.[6] From Harvard, he received an A.B. in physics in 1960, followed by an S.M. in applied mathematics in 1961 and a PhD in applied mathematics in 1964. His doctoral thesis, Radiative and photochemical processes in strato- and mesospheric dynamics,[7] treated the interactions of ozone photochemistry, radiative transfer, and dynamics in the middle atmosphere.

Discover more about Early life and education related topics

Webster, Massachusetts

Webster, Massachusetts

Webster is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts. The population was 17,776 at the 2020 census.

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany was the German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany quickly became a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", alluded to the Nazi claim that Nazi Germany was the successor to the earlier Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and German Empire (1871–1918). The Third Reich, which Hitler and the Nazis referred to as the Thousand-Year Reich, ended in May 1945 after just 12 years when the Allies defeated Germany, ending World War II in Europe.

Bronx High School of Science

Bronx High School of Science

The Bronx High School of Science, commonly called Bronx Science, is a public specialized high school in The Bronx in New York City. It is operated by the New York City Department of Education. Admission to Bronx Science involves passing the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test. Each November, about 30,000 eighth and ninth graders take the three-hour test for admittance to eight of the nine specialized high schools. The test is extremely competitive, with only 800 of the 30,000 applicants being accepted to Bronx Science each year.

National Merit Scholarship Program

National Merit Scholarship Program

The National Merit Scholarship Program is a United States academic scholarship competition for recognition and university scholarships administered by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC), a privately funded, not-for-profit organization based in Evanston, Illinois. The program began in 1955.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) is a private research university in Troy, New York, with an additional campus in Hartford, Connecticut. A third campus in Groton, Connecticut closed in 2018. RPI was established in 1824 by Stephen Van Rensselaer and Amos Eaton for the "application of science to the common purposes of life" and is the oldest technological university in the English-speaking world and the Western Hemisphere.

Harvard University

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious and highly ranked universities in the world.

Career

Lindzen has published papers on Hadley circulation, monsoon meteorology, planetary atmospheres, hydrodynamic instability, mid-latitude weather, global heat transport, the water cycle, ice ages and seasonal atmospheric effects. His main contribution to the academic literature on anthropogenic climate change is his proposal of the iris hypothesis in 2001, with co-authors Ming-Dah Chou and Arthur Y. Hou.[8][9] He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Science, Health, and Economic Advisory Council at the Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy. He joined MIT in 1983, prior to which he held positions at the University of Washington (1964–65), Institute for Theoretical Meteorology, University of Oslo (1965–67), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (1966–67), University of Chicago (1968–72) and Harvard University (1972–83). He also briefly held a position of Visiting Lecturer at UCLA in 1967.[10] As of January 2010, his publications list included 230 papers and articles published between 1965 and 2008, with five in process for 2009. He is the author of a standard textbook on atmospheric dynamics, and co-authored the monograph Atmospheric Tides with Sydney Chapman.[11]

He was Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology at MIT from 1983,[1] until his retirement which was reported in the Spring 2013 newsletter of MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS).[2] On December 27, 2013 the Cato Institute announced that he is a Distinguished Senior Fellow in their Center for the Study of Science.[12]

Discover more about Career related topics

Monsoon

Monsoon

A monsoon is traditionally a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with annual latitudinal oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) between its limits to the north and south of the equator. Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is also sometimes used to describe locally heavy but short-term rains.

Atmosphere

Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer of gas or layers of gases that envelop a planet, and is held in place by the gravity of the planetary body. A planet retains an atmosphere when the gravity is great and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star, which includes the layers above the opaque photosphere; stars of low temperature might have outer atmospheres containing compound molecules.

Heat transfer

Heat transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. Engineers also consider the transfer of mass of differing chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve heat transfer. While these mechanisms have distinct characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system.

Ice age

Ice age

An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth's climate alternates between ice ages and greenhouse periods, during which there are no glaciers on the planet. Earth is currently in the Quaternary glaciation. Individual pulses of cold climate within an ice age are termed glacial periods, and intermittent warm periods within an ice age are called interglacials or interstadials.

Iris hypothesis

Iris hypothesis

The iris hypothesis is a hypothesis proposed by Richard Lindzen et al. in 2001 that suggested increased sea surface temperature in the tropics would result in reduced cirrus clouds and thus more infrared radiation leakage from Earth's atmosphere. His study of observed changes in cloud coverage and modeled effects on infrared radiation released to space as a result supported the hypothesis. This suggested infrared radiation leakage was hypothesized to be a negative feedback in which an initial warming would result in an overall cooling of the surface. The consensus view is that increased sea surface temperature would result in increased cirrus clouds and reduced infrared radiation leakage and therefore a positive feedback.

University of Oslo

University of Oslo

The University of Oslo is a public research university located in Oslo, Norway. It is the highest ranked and oldest university in Norway. It is consistently ranked among the top universities in the world and as one of the leading universities of Northern Europe; the Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2016, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings listed the university at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university.

National Center for Atmospheric Research

National Center for Atmospheric Research

The US National Center for Atmospheric Research is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). NCAR has multiple facilities, including the I. M. Pei-designed Mesa Laboratory headquarters in Boulder, Colorado. Studies include meteorology, climate science, atmospheric chemistry, solar-terrestrial interactions, environmental and societal impacts.

University of Chicago

University of Chicago

The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Its main campus is located in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood. The University of Chicago has been ranked among the best and most selective universities in the United States and the world.

Sydney Chapman (mathematician)

Sydney Chapman (mathematician)

Sydney Chapman was a British mathematician and geophysicist. His work on the kinetic theory of gases, solar-terrestrial physics, and the Earth's ozone layer has inspired a broad range of research over many decades.

Alfred P. Sloan

Alfred P. Sloan

Alfred Pritchard Sloan Jr. was an American business executive in the automotive industry. He was a long-time president, chairman and CEO of General Motors Corporation. Sloan, first as a senior executive and later as the head of the organization, helped GM grow from the 1920s through the 1950s, decades when concepts such as the annual model change, brand architecture, industrial engineering, automotive design (styling), and planned obsolescence transformed the industry, and when the industry changed lifestyles and the built environment in America and throughout the world.

Meteorology

Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics, and more particularly in the latter half of the 20th century the development of the computer that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important branch of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects also include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water.

Cato Institute

Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1977 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Koch Industries. Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence. According to the 2020 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, Cato is number 27 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 13 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".

Early work (1964–1972)

Lindzen's early work was concerned with ozone photochemistry, the aerodynamics of the middle atmosphere, the theory of atmospheric tides, and planetary waves. His work in these areas led him to a number of fundamental scientific discoveries, including the discovery of negative equivalent depths in classical tidal theory, explanations for both the quasi-biennial oscillation of the Earth's stratosphere and the four-day period of the superrotation of the Venus atmosphere above the cloud top.

Ozone photochemistry

His PhD thesis of 1964 concerned the interactions of ozone photochemistry, radiative transfer and the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. This formed the basis of his seminal Radiative and Photochemical Processes in Mesospheric Dynamics that was published in four parts in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences between 1965 and 1966.[13][14][15][16][17] The first of these, Part I: Models for Radiative and Photochemical Processes, was co-authored with his Harvard colleague and former PhD thesis advisor, Richard M. Goody, who is well known for his 1964 textbook Atmospheric Radiation.[18] The Lindzen and Goody (1965) study has been widely cited as foundational in the exact modeling of middle atmosphere ozone photochemistry. This work was extended in 1973 to include the effects of nitrogen and hydrogen reactions with his former PhD student, Donna Blake, in Effect of photochemical models on calculated equilibria and cooling rates in the stratosphere.[19]

Lindzen's work on ozone photochemistry has been important in studies that look at the effects that anthropogenic ozone depletion will have on climate.[20]

Atmospheric tides

Since the time of Pierre-Simon Laplace (1799),[21] scientists had been puzzled as to why pressure variations measured at the Earth's surface associated with the semi-diurnal solar tide dominate those of the diurnal tide in amplitude, when intuitively one would expect the diurnal passage of the sun to dominate. Lord Kelvin (1882) had proposed the so-called "resonance" theory, wherein the semi-diurnal tide would be "selected" over the diurnal oscillation if the atmosphere was somehow able to oscillate freely at a period of very close to 12 hours, in the same way that overtones are selected on a vibrating string. By the second half of the twentieth century, however, observations had failed to confirm this hypothesis, and an alternative hypothesis was proposed that something must instead suppress the diurnal tide. In 1961, Manfred Siebert suggested that absorption of solar insolation by tropospheric water vapour might account for the reduction of the diurnal tide.[22] However, he failed to include a role for stratospheric ozone. This was rectified in 1963 by the Australian physicist Stuart Thomas Butler and his student K.A. Small who showed that stratospheric ozone absorbs an even greater part of the solar insolation.[23]

Nevertheless, the predictions of classical tidal theory still did not agree with observations. It was Lindzen, in his 1966 paper, On the theory of the diurnal tide,[24] who showed that the solution set of Hough functions given by Bernhard Haurwitz[25] to Laplace's tidal equation was incomplete: modes with negative equivalent depths had been omitted.[a] Lindzen went on to calculate the thermal response of the diurnal tide to ozone and water vapor absorption in detail and showed that when his theoretical developments were included, the surface pressure oscillation was predicted with approximately the magnitude and phase observed, as were most of the features of the diurnal wind oscillations in the mesosphere.[27] In 1967, along with his NCAR colleague, Douglas D. McKenzie, Lindzen extended the theory to include a term for Newtonian cooling due to emission of infrared radiation by carbon dioxide in the stratosphere along with ozone photochemical processes,[28] and then in 1968 he showed that the theory also predicted that the semi-diurnal oscillation would be insensitive to variations in the temperature profile, which is why it is observed so much more strongly and regularly at the surface.[29]

While holding the position of Research Scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO Lindzen was noticed and befriended by Professor Sydney Chapman, who had contributed to the theory of atmospheric tides in a number of papers from the 1920s through to the 1940s. This led to their joint publication in 1969 of a 186-page monograph (republished in 1970 as a book) Atmospheric Tides.[30][31]

Quasi-biennial oscillation

Although it wasn't realized at the time, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) was observed during the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, when the ash from the volcano was transported around the globe from east to west by stratospheric winds in about two weeks. These winds became known as the "Krakatoa easterlies". It was observed again in 1908, by the German meteorologist Arthur Berson, who saw that winds blow from the west at 15 km (9.32 mi) altitude in tropical Africa from his balloon experiments. These became known as the "Berson westerlies". However, it was not until the early 1960s that the ~ 26-month cycle of the QBO was first described, independently by Richard J. Reed in 1960 and Veryhard and Ebdon in 1961.

Lindzen recalls his discovery of the mechanism underlying the QBO in the semi-autobiographical review article, On the development of the theory of the QBO.[32] His interest in the phenomenon began in 1961 when his PhD advisor, Richard M. Goody, speculated that the 26-month relaxation time for stratospheric ozone at 25 km (15.53 mi) in the tropics might somehow be related to the 26-month period of the QBO, and suggested investigation of this idea as a thesis topic. In fact, Lindzen's, Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics, Part II: Vertical propagation of long period disturbances at the equator, documented the failure of this attempt to explain the QBO.[33]

Lindzen's work on atmospheric tides led him to the study of planetary waves and the general circulation of atmospheres. By 1967, he had contributed a number of papers on the theory of waves in the middle atmosphere. In Planetary waves on beta planes, he developed a beta plane approximation for simplifying the equations of classical tidal theory, whilst at the same time developing planetary wave relations. He noticed from his equations that eastward-traveling waves (known as Rossby waves since their discovery in 1939 by Carl-Gustav Rossby) and westward-traveling waves (which Lindzen himself helped in establishing as "atmospheric Kelvin waves") with periods less than five days were "vertically trapped." At the same time, an important paper by Booker and Bretherton appeared, which Lindzen read with great interest. Booker and Bretherton showed that vertically propagating gravity waves were completely absorbed at a critical level.[34]

In his 1968 paper with James R. Holton, A theory of the quasi-biennial oscillation,[35] Lindzen presented his theory of the QBO after testing it in a two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model that had been developed by Holton and John M. Wallace.[36] They showed that the QBO could be driven by vertically propagating gravity waves with phase speeds in both westward and eastward directions and that the oscillation arose through a mechanism involving a two-way feedback between the waves and the mean flow. It was a bold conjecture, given that there was very little observational evidence available to either confirm or confute the hypothesis. In particular, there was still no observational evidence of the westward-traveling "Kelvin" waves; Lindzen postulated their existence theoretically.[b]

In the years following the publication of Lindzen and Holton (1968), more observational evidence became available, and Lindzen's fundamental insight into the mechanism driving the QBO was confirmed. However, the theory of interaction via critical level absorption was found to be incomplete and was modified to include the importance of attenuation due to radiative cooling. The revised theory was published in the Holton and Lindzen (1972) paper, An updated theory for the quasibiennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere.[38]

Superrotation of Venus

Since the 1960s a puzzling phenomenon has been observed in the atmosphere of Venus. The atmosphere above the cloud base is seen to travel around the planet about 50 times faster than the rotation of the planet surface, or in only four to five Earth-days.[39] In 1974 a theory was proposed by Stephen B. Fels and Lindzen to explain this so-called "superrotation" which held that the rotation is driven by the thermal atmospheric tide.[40] An alternative theory was proposed by Peter J. Gierasch in the following year which held instead that the meridional (Hadley) circulation may transport the momentum by eddy-mixing.[41] As of 2005, the actual cause of this phenomenon continued to be debated in the literature, with General Circulation Model experiments suggesting that both the Fels/Lindzen and Gierasch mechanisms are involved.[42]

Discover more about Early work (1964–1972) related topics

Ozone

Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O2 (dioxygen). Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light and electrical discharges within the Earth's atmosphere. It is present in very low concentrations throughout the latter, with its highest concentration high in the ozone layer of the stratosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemistry

Photochemistry

Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. Generally, this term is used to describe a chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet, visible light (400–750 nm) or infrared radiation (750–2500 nm).

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Ancient Greek: ἀήρ aero (air) + Ancient Greek: δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly when affected by a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It involves topics covered in the field of fluid dynamics and its subfield of gas dynamics. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier. Most of the early efforts in aerodynamics were directed toward achieving heavier-than-air flight, which was first demonstrated by Otto Lilienthal in 1891. Since then, the use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations has formed a rational basis for the development of heavier-than-air flight and a number of other technologies. Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow, turbulence, and boundary layers and has become increasingly computational in nature.

Atmosphere

Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer of gas or layers of gases that envelop a planet, and is held in place by the gravity of the planetary body. A planet retains an atmosphere when the gravity is great and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star, which includes the layers above the opaque photosphere; stars of low temperature might have outer atmospheres containing compound molecules.

Radiative transfer

Radiative transfer

Radiative transfer is the physical phenomenon of energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The propagation of radiation through a medium is affected by absorption, emission, and scattering processes. The equation of radiative transfer describes these interactions mathematically. Equations of radiative transfer have application in a wide variety of subjects including optics, astrophysics, atmospheric science, and remote sensing. Analytic solutions to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) exist for simple cases but for more realistic media, with complex multiple scattering effects, numerical methods are required. The present article is largely focused on the condition of radiative equilibrium.

Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences

Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences

The Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society. It covers basic research related to the physics, dynamics, and chemistry of the atmosphere of Earth and other planets, with emphasis on the quantitative and deductive aspects of the subject.

Richard M. Goody

Richard M. Goody

Richard Mead Goody is a British-American atmospheric physicist and emeritus professor of planetary physics at Harvard University. He was inducted into the National Academy of Sciences in 1970.

Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere, and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric events.

Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was a French scholar and polymath whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics, astronomy, and philosophy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique céleste (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.

Stuart Thomas Butler

Stuart Thomas Butler

Stuart Thomas Butler was an Australian nuclear physicist who served as Director of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission from 1977 until 1982, and was noted for his contributions to theoretical physics including stripping reactions, energy loss of particles in plasma and atmospheric tides induced by absorption of solar radiation in the ozone layer.

Bernhard Haurwitz

Bernhard Haurwitz

Bernhard Haurwitz was a German-born American meteorologist and physicist. Haurwitz was Chair of Department of Meteorology at New York University (NYU), a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and a recipient of the Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal. He was awarded the William Bowie Medal in 1970.

Newton's law of cooling

Newton's law of cooling

In the study of heat transfer, Newton's law of cooling is a physical law which states thatThe rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its environment.

Middle period (1972–1990)

From 1972 to 1982 Lindzen was a professor of dynamic meteorology at Harvard University. From February to June 1975 he was a visiting professor of dynamic meteorology at MIT, and during part of 1979 Lindzen was a visiting professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, before switching affiliations to MIT as the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology in 1983.

During this time, Lindzen published some research on gravity waves,[43] as well as Hadley circulations.[44] He is named as one of 16 Scientific Members of the team authoring the National Academy of Sciences 1975 publication Understanding Climatic Change: A Program for Action.[45]

Discover more about Middle period (1972–1990) related topics

Final period (1990–2010)

Climate sensitivity

Lindzen hypothesized that the Earth may act like an infrared iris. A sea surface temperature increase in the tropics would result in reduced cirrus clouds and thus more infrared radiation leakage from Earth's atmosphere.[9] Additionally, rising temperatures would cause more extensive drying due to increased areas of atmospheric subsidence. This hypothesis suggests a negative feedback which would counter the effects of CO2 warming by lowering the climate sensitivity. Satellite data from CERES has led researchers investigating Lindzen's theory to conclude that the Iris effect would instead warm the atmosphere.[46][47] Lindzen disputed this, claiming that the negative feedback from high-level clouds was still larger than the weak positive feedback estimated by Lin et al.[48]

Lindzen has expressed his concern over the validity of computer models used to predict future climate change. Lindzen said that predicted warming may be overestimated because of their handling of the climate system's water vapor feedback. The feedback due to water vapor is a major factor in determining how much warming would be expected to occur with increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, and all existing computer models assume positive feedback — that is, that as the climate warms, the amount of water vapour held in the atmosphere will increase, leading to further warming. By contrast, Lindzen believes that temperature increases will actually cause more extensive drying due to increased areas of atmospheric subsidence as a result of the Iris effect, nullifying future warming.[3] This claim was criticized by climatologist Gavin Schmidt, Director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, who notes the more generally-accepted understanding of the effects of the Iris effect and cites empirical cases where large and relatively rapid changes in the climate such as El Niño events, the Ultra-Plinian eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, and recent trends in global temperature and water vapor levels show that, as predicted in the generally-accepted view, water vapor increases as the temperature increases, and decreases as temperatures decrease.[49]

Contrary to the IPCC's assessment, Lindzen said that climate models are inadequate. Despite accepted errors in their models, e.g., treatment of clouds, modelers still thought their climate predictions were valid.[50] Lindzen has stated that due to the non-linear effects of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, CO2 levels are now around 30% higher than pre-industrial levels but temperatures have responded by about 75% 0.6 °C (1.08 °F) of the expected value for a doubling of CO2. The IPCC (2007) estimates that the expected rise in temperature due to a doubling of CO2 to be about 3 °C (5.4 °F), ± 1.5°. Lindzen has given estimates of the Earth's climate sensitivity to be 0.5 °C based on ERBE data.[51] These estimates were criticized by Kevin E. Trenberth and others,[52] and Lindzen accepted that his paper included "some stupid mistakes". When interviewed, he said "It was just embarrassing", and added that "The technical details of satellite measurements are really sort of grotesque." Lindzen and Choi revised their paper and submitted it to PNAS.[53] The four reviewers of the paper, two of whom had been selected by Lindzen, strongly criticized the paper and PNAS rejected it for publication.[54] Lindzen and Choi then succeeded in getting a little known Korean journal to publish it as a 2011 paper.[53][55] Andrew Dessler published a paper which found errors in Lindzen and Choi 2011, and concluded that the observations it had presented "are not in fundamental disagreement with mainstream climate models, nor do they provide evidence that clouds are causing climate change. Suggestions that significant revisions to mainstream climate science are required are therefore not supported."[56]

NAS panel

In 2001, Lindzen served on an 11-member panel organized by the National Academy of Sciences.[57] The panel's report, titled Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions,[58] has been widely cited. Lindzen subsequently publicly criticized the report summary for not referring to the statement in the full report that twenty years of temperature measurements was "too short a period for estimating long term trends".[59]

IPCC activities

Lindzen worked on Chapter 7 of 2001 IPCC Working Group 1, which considers the physical processes that are active in real world climate. He had previously been a contributor to Chapter 4 of the 1995 "IPCC Second Assessment". He described the full 2001 IPCC report as "an admirable description of research activities in climate science"[60] although he criticized the Summary for Policymakers. Lindzen stated in May 2001 that it did not truly summarize the IPCC report[61] but had been amended to state more definite conclusions.[62] He also emphasized the fact that the summary had not been written by scientists alone. The NAS panel on which Lindzen served says that the summary was the result of dialogue between scientists and policymakers.[c]

Work at Cato Institute

Lindzen was a featured speaker at a Cato Institute conference, "Global Environmental Crisis: Science or Politics?" on June 5 (World Environment Day) and June 6, 1991.[64] The conference was identified in 2019 in the book Kochland by business writer Christopher Leonard as a previously unhighlighted early landmark in the efforts by the fossil fuel multi-billionaire Koch brothers to promote questions about climate science. Cato Institute was "founded and heavily funded for years" by the Kochs,[65] and Lindzen was prominently quoted in the brochure for the conference.

The notion that global warming is a fact and will be catastrophic is drilled into people to the point where it seems surprising that anyone would question it, and yet, underlying it is very little evidence at all. Nonetheless, there are statements made of such overt unrealism that I feel embarrassed. I feel it discredits science. I think problems will arise when one will need to depend on scientific judgment, and by ruining our credibility now you leave society with a resource of some importance diminished.

The title of the presentation Lindzen made at the conference was "Critical Issues in Climate Forecasting".[64]

In an announcement on December 27, 2013, the Institute said that in a new position at Cato, Lindzen's focus would be on "the interaction between science and policymakers" and that he would study "whether the move from largely private funding to public support has introduced biases into science and the public policies informed by science."[12]

By mid-2019, Lindzen was no longer affiliated with the Cato institute.[66]

Discover more about Final period (1990–2010) related topics

Iris hypothesis

Iris hypothesis

The iris hypothesis is a hypothesis proposed by Richard Lindzen et al. in 2001 that suggested increased sea surface temperature in the tropics would result in reduced cirrus clouds and thus more infrared radiation leakage from Earth's atmosphere. His study of observed changes in cloud coverage and modeled effects on infrared radiation released to space as a result supported the hypothesis. This suggested infrared radiation leakage was hypothesized to be a negative feedback in which an initial warming would result in an overall cooling of the surface. The consensus view is that increased sea surface temperature would result in increased cirrus clouds and reduced infrared radiation leakage and therefore a positive feedback.

Cirrus cloud

Cirrus cloud

Cirrus is a genus of high cloud made of ice crystals. Cirrus clouds typically appear delicate and wispy with white strands. Cirrus are usually formed when warm, dry air rises, causing water vapor deposition onto rocky or metallic dust particles at high altitudes. Globally, they form anywhere between 4,000 and 20,000 meters above sea level, with the higher elevations usually in the tropics and the lower elevations in more polar regions.

Climate sensitivity

Climate sensitivity

Climate sensitivity is a measure of how much Earth's surface will cool or warm after a specified factor causes a change in its climate system, such as how much it will warm for a doubling in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. In technical terms, climate sensitivity is the average change in global mean surface temperature in response to a radiative forcing, which drives a difference between Earth's incoming and outgoing energy. Climate sensitivity is a key measure in climate science, and a focus area for climate scientists, who want to understand the ultimate consequences of anthropogenic global warming.

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is on-going NASA climatological experiment from Earth orbit. The CERES are scientific satellite instruments, part of the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to measure both solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) to the Earth's surface. Cloud properties are determined using simultaneous measurements by other EOS instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Results from the CERES and other NASA missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), could enable nearer to real-time tracking of Earth's energy imbalance and better understanding of the role of clouds in global climate change.

Climate model

Climate model

Numerical climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the climate system to projections of future climate. Climate models may also be qualitative models and also narratives, largely descriptive, of possible futures.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature. In the air, carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light but absorbs infrared radiation, acting as a greenhouse gas. It is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere at 421 parts per million (ppm), or about 0.04% by volume (as of May 2022), having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Burning fossil fuels is the primary cause of these increased CO2 concentrations and also the primary cause of climate change. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water and is found in groundwater, lakes, ice caps, and seawater. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonate and mainly bicarbonate (HCO−3), which causes ocean acidification as atmospheric CO2 levels increase.

Gavin Schmidt

Gavin Schmidt

Gavin A. Schmidt is a climatologist, climate modeler and Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York, and co-founder of the award-winning climate science blog RealClimate.

Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Goddard Institute for Space Studies

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center affiliated with the Columbia University Earth Institute. The institute is located at Columbia University in New York City. It was named after Robert H. Goddard, American engineer, professor, physicist and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.

El Niño

El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to last close to four years; however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is Spanish: La Niña, lit. 'The Girl', with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.

1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo

1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines' Luzon Volcanic Arc was the second-largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, behind only the 1912 eruption of Novarupta in Alaska. Eruptive activity began on April 2 as a series of phreatic explosions from a fissure that opened on the north side of Mount Pinatubo. Seismographs were set up and began monitoring the volcano for earthquakes. In late May, the number of seismic events under the volcano fluctuated from day-to-day. Beginning June 6, a swarm of progressively shallower earthquakes accompanied by inflationary tilt on the upper east flank of the mountain, culminated in the extrusion of a small lava dome.

IPCC Third Assessment Report

IPCC Third Assessment Report

The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC. Statements of the IPCC or information from the TAR are often used as a reference showing a scientific consensus on the subject of global warming, although a small minority of scientists take issue with the UN assessments. The Third Assessment Report (TAR) was completed in 2001 and consists of four reports, three of them from its Working Groups: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis; Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability; Working Group III: Mitigation; Synthesis Report. A number of the TAR's conclusions are given quantitative estimates of how probable it is that they are correct, e.g., greater than 66% probability of being correct. These are "Bayesian" probabilities, which are based on an expert assessment of all the available evidence.

Andrew Dessler

Andrew Dessler

Andrew Emory Dessler is a climate scientist. He is Professor of Atmospheric Sciences and holder of the Reta A. Haynes Chair in Geoscience at Texas A&M University. He is also the Director of the Texas Center for Climate Studies. His research subject areas include climate impacts, global climate physics, atmospheric chemistry, climate change and climate change policy.

Views on climate change

In June 1992, a year after the Cato Institute conference, Lindzen signed the Heidelberg Appeal.[67]

He has criticized the scientific consensus on global climate change, claiming that scientists are just as liable to err when the science appears to point in just one direction. He drew an analogy in 1996 between the consensus in the early and mid-twentieth century on eugenics and the current consensus about global warming.[68] In a 2007 interview on The Larry King Show, Lindzen said:[69]

We're talking of a few tenths of a degree change in temperature. None of it in the last eight years, by the way. And if we had warming, it should be accomplished by less storminess. But because the temperature itself is so unspectacular, we have developed all sorts of fear of prospect scenarios – of flooding, of plague, of increased storminess when the physics says we should see less. I think it's mainly just like little kids locking themselves in dark closets to see how much they can scare each other and themselves.

In a 2009 editorial in the Wall Street Journal, Lindzen said that the earth was just emerging from the "Little Ice Age" in the 19th century and says that it is "not surprising" to see warming after that. He goes on to state that the IPCC claims were[70]

Based on the weak argument that the current models used by the IPCC couldn't reproduce the warming from about 1978 to 1998 without some forcing, and that the only forcing that they could think of was man. Even this argument assumes that these models adequately deal with natural internal variability—that is, such naturally occurring cycles as El Niño, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, etc. Yet articles from major modeling centers acknowledged that the failure of these models to anticipate the absence of warming for the past dozen years was due to the failure of these models to account for this natural internal variability. Thus even the basis for the weak IPCC argument for anthropogenic climate change was shown to be false.

According to an April 30, 2012 New York Times article,[71] "Dr. Lindzen accepts the elementary tenets of climate science. He agrees that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, calling people who dispute that point 'nutty.' He agrees that the level of it is rising because of human activity and that this should warm the climate." He also believes that decreasing tropical cirrus clouds in a warmer world will allow more longwave radiation to escape the atmosphere, counteracting the warming.[71] Lindzen first published this "iris" theory in 2001,[9] and offered more support in a 2009 paper.[51]

Comments addressed to U.S. policy makers

Starting in 1991, Lindzen has provided testimonies to the U.S. Senate and House committees regarding his understandings of the current state of research on climate change for multiple times.[72]

In 2001, Lindzen urged the Bush Administration not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.[73] In a letter to Mayor David B. Cohen of Newton, Massachusetts, Lindzen wrote that he believed the Kyoto Protocol would increase the cost of electricity for no gain, putting signatory states at a competitive disadvantage.[74]

In 2017, Lindzen sent a petition to President Trump, asking the President to withdraw the United States from the United Nations Convention on Climate Change.[75] The petition contained the names of "around 300 eminent scientists and other qualified individuals", and called on the United States and other nations to “change course on an outdated international agreement that targets minor greenhouse gases,” starting with carbon dioxide.[76] It received considerable media coverage; 22 then- current or retired MIT professors promptly issued an open letter addressed to Trump saying that Lindzen’s petition does not represent their views or those of the vast majority of other climate scientists.[77][78]

Third-party characterizations of Lindzen

An April 30, 2012 article in The New York Times included the comments of several other experts. Christopher S. Bretherton, an atmospheric researcher at the University of Washington, said Lindzen is "feeding upon an audience that wants to hear a certain message, and wants to hear it put forth by people with enough scientific reputation that it can be sustained for a while, even if it's wrong science. I don't think it's intellectually honest at all." Kerry A. Emanuel, another M.I.T. scientist, said of Lindzen's views "Even if there were no political implications, it just seems deeply unprofessional and irresponsible to look at this and say, 'We're sure it's not a problem.' It's a special kind of risk, because it's a risk to the collective civilization."[71]

A 1996 article in The New York Times included the comments of several other experts. Jerry D. Mahlman, director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, did not accept Lindzen's assessment of the science, and said that Lindzen had "sacrificed his luminosity by taking a stand that most of us feel is scientifically unsound." Mahlman did, however, admit that Lindzen was a "formidable opponent". William Gray of Colorado State University basically agreed with Lindzen, describing him as "courageous". He said, "A lot of my older colleagues are very skeptical on the global warming thing". He added that while he regarded some of Lindzen's views as flawed, he said that, "across the board he's generally very good". John Wallace of the University of Washington agreed with Lindzen that progress in climate change science had been exaggerated, but said there are "relatively few scientists who are as skeptical of the whole thing as Dick [Lindzen] is".[3]

The November 10, 2004 online version of Reason magazine reported that Lindzen is "willing to take bets that global average temperatures in 20 years will in fact be lower than they are now".[79] However, on June 8, 2005 they reported that Lindzen insisted that he had been misquoted, after James Annan contacted Lindzen to make the bet but claimed that "Lindzen would take only 50 to 1 odds".[80]

The Guardian reported in June 2016 that Lindzen has been a beneficiary of Peabody Energy, a coal company that has funded multiple groups contesting the climate consensus.[81]

Lindzen has been called a contrarian, in relation to climate change and other issues.[82][83][84] Lindzen's graduate students describe him as "fiercely intelligent, with a deep contrarian streak."[85]

The characterization of Lindzen as a contrarian has been reinforced by reports that he claims that lung cancer has only been weakly linked to smoking.[86][87] When asked about this during an interview as part of an Australian Broadcasting Corporation documentary, Lindzen said that while "the case for second-hand tobacco is not very good ... the World Health Organization also said that” (referencing a 1998 study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)[88]), on the other hand "With first-hand smoke it's a more interesting issue ... The case for lung cancer is very good but it also ignores the fact that there are differences in people's susceptibilities which the Japanese studies have pointed to."[89] Again, when asked to clarify his position Lindzen wrote "there was a reasonable case for the role of cigarette smoking in lung cancer, but that the case was not so strong that one should rule that any questions were out of order ... the much, much weaker case against second hand smoke [is] also being treated as dogma."[90]

Discover more about Views on climate change related topics

Heidelberg Appeal

Heidelberg Appeal

The Heidelberg Appeal, authored by Michel Salomon, was an appeal directed against the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The Heidelberg Appeal's goal was similar to the later published Leipzig Declaration. Before the publication, Fred Singer, who has initiated several petitions like the Heidelberg Appeal, and Michel Salomon, had organized a conference in Heidelberg, which led to that document. It was published on the last day of the 1992 Rio Summit, and warned against basing environmental policies on what the authors described as "pseudoscientific arguments or false and nonrelevant data." It was initiated by the tobacco and asbestos industries, to support the climate-denying Global Climate Coalition. According to SourceWatch the appeal was "a scam perpetrated by the asbestos and tobacco industries in support of the Global Climate Coalition". Both industries had no direct reason to deny global warming, but rather wanted to promote their "sound science" agenda, which basically states that industry-funded science is good science and science contradicting those science is bad science or "junk science".

Eugenics

Eugenics

Eugenics is a fringe set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population. Historically, eugenicists have attempted to alter human gene pools by excluding people and groups judged to be inferior or promoting those judged to be superior. In recent years, the term has seen a revival in bioethical discussions on the usage of new technologies such as CRISPR and genetic screening, with a heated debate on whether these technologies should be called eugenics or not.

Presidency of George W. Bush

Presidency of George W. Bush

George W. Bush's tenure as the 43rd president of the United States began with his first inauguration on January 20, 2001, and ended on January 20, 2009. Bush, a Republican from Texas, took office following a narrow victory over Democratic incumbent vice president Al Gore in the 2000 presidential election. Four years later, in the 2004 presidential election, he defeated Democrat nominee John Kerry to win re-election. Bush was succeeded by Democrat Barack Obama, who won the 2008 presidential election. Bush, the 43rd president, is the eldest son of the 41st president, George H. W. Bush.

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty which extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There were 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol in 2020.

David B. Cohen (mayor)

David B. Cohen (mayor)

David Barry Cohen is an American politician who served as a Massachusetts state Representative for the 11th Middlesex district and as the mayor of Newton, Massachusetts.

Newton, Massachusetts

Newton, Massachusetts

Newton is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximately 7 miles (11 km) west of downtown Boston. Newton resembles a patchwork of thirteen villages, without a city center. According to the 2020 U.S. Census, the population of Newton was 88,923.

The New York Times

The New York Times

The New York Times is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2022 to comprise 740,000 paid print subscribers, and 8.6 million paid digital subscribers. It also is a producer of popular podcasts such as The Daily. Founded in 1851, it is published by The New York Times Company. The Times has won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded as a national "newspaper of record". For print, it is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the United States.

Kerry Emanuel

Kerry Emanuel

Kerry Andrew Emanuel is an American professor of meteorology currently working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. In particular he has specialized in atmospheric convection and the mechanisms acting to intensify hurricanes.

Jerry D. Mahlman

Jerry D. Mahlman

Jerry Mahlman was an American meteorologist and climatologist.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). The current director is Dr. Venkatachalam Ramaswamy. It is one of seven NOAA Research Laboratories (RLs).

Colorado State University

Colorado State University

Colorado State University is a public land-grant research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. It is the flagship university of the Colorado State University System. Colorado State University is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". It was founded in 1870 as Colorado Agricultural College and in 1935 was renamed the Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. In 1957, the Colorado General Assembly approved its current name, Colorado State University.

John Michael Wallace

John Michael Wallace

John Michael Wallace, is a professor of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, as well as the former director of the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO)—a joint research venture between the University of Washington and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Awards and honors

Lindzen is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and was named Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Meteorological Society. He is a corresponding member of the NAS Committee on Human Rights, and a member of the United States National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. He was a consultant to the Global Modeling and Simulation Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and a Distinguished Visiting Scientist at California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Lindzen is an ISI highly cited researcher,[91] and his biography has been included in American Men and Women of Science.[92]

Discover more about Awards and honors related topics

Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters

Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters

The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters is a learned society based in Oslo, Norway. Its purpose is to support the advancement of science and scholarship in Norway.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. It was founded in 1780 during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, Andrew Oliver, and other Founding Fathers of the United States. It is headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Goddard Space Flight Center

Goddard Space Flight Center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC employs approximately 10,000 civil servants and contractors. It is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Robert H. Goddard. GSFC is partially within the former Goddard census-designated place; it has a Greenbelt mailing address.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in the City of La Cañada Flintridge, California, United States.

American Men and Women of Science

American Men and Women of Science

American Men and Women of Science is a biographical reference work on leading scientists in the United States and Canada, published as a series of books and online by Gale. The first edition was published in 1906, named American Men of Science; the work broadened its title to include women in 1971.

Personal life

Richard Lindzen and his wife, Nadine, have two sons. Lindzen's interests include amateur radio, photography, and oriental rugs.[93]

Selected publications

Articles

  • Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (1992). "Global Warming: The Origin and Nature of the Alleged Scientific Consensus". Regulation. 15 (2): 87–98.
  • ——— (July 26, 2009). "Resisting climate hysteria". Quadrant.
  • ——— (November 30, 2009). "The Climate Science Isn't Settled". The Wall Street Journal.
  • ——— (April 24, 2010). "Alarmists keep ringing the bell". The Australian.
  • "What Catastrophe? MIT’s Richard Lindzen, the unalarmed climate scientist", The Weekly Standard, January 13, 2014

Books

Peer-reviewed papers

Discover more about Selected publications related topics

Regulation (magazine)

Regulation (magazine)

Regulation is a quarterly periodical about policy published by the Cato Institute. It was started as a bimonthly magazine in 1977 by the American Enterprise Institute and acquired by Cato in 1989. Past editors have included former Supreme Court justice Antonin Scalia, Murray Weidenbaum, Christopher DeMuth, Walter Olson, and Peter Huber. Peter Van Doren has edited the magazine since 1999.

Quadrant (magazine)

Quadrant (magazine)

Quadrant is a conservative Australian literary, cultural, and political journal, which publishes both online and printed editions. As of 2019, Quadrant mainly publishes commentary, essays and opinion pieces on cultural, political and historical issues, although it also reviews literature and publishes poetry and fiction in the print edition. Its editorial line is self-described "bias towards cultural freedom, anti-totalitarianism and classical liberalism."

The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is an American business-focused, international daily newspaper based in New York City, with international editions also available in Chinese and Japanese. The Journal, along with its Asian editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser. The Journal is regarded as a newspaper of record, particularly in terms of business and financial news. The newspaper has won 38 Pulitzer Prizes, the most recent in 2019.

The Australian

The Australian

The Australian, with its Saturday edition The Weekend Australian, is a broadsheet newspaper published by News Corp Australia since 14 July 1964. As the only Australian daily newspaper distributed nationally, its readership as of September 2019 of both print and online editions was 2,394,000. Its editorial line has been self-described over time as centre-right.

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer.

Journal of Geophysical Research

Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. It is the flagship journal of the American Geophysical Union. It contains original research on the physical, chemical, and biological processes that contribute to the understanding of the Earth, Sun, and Solar System. It has seven sections: A, B, C (Oceans), D (Atmospheres), E (Planets), F, and G (Biogeosciences). All current and back issues are available online for subscribers.

Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences

Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences

The Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society. It covers basic research related to the physics, dynamics, and chemistry of the atmosphere of Earth and other planets, with emphasis on the quantitative and deductive aspects of the subject.

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

The Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society is a scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society. BAMS is the flagship magazine of AMS and publishes peer reviewed articles of interest and significance for the weather, water, and climate community as well as news, editorials, and reviews for AMS members. BAMS articles are fully open access; AMS members can also access the digital version which replicates the print issue cover-to-cover and often includes enhanced articles with audio and video.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal. It is the official journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915, and publishes original research, scientific reviews, commentaries, and letters. According to Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2021 impact factor of 12.779. PNAS is the second most cited scientific journal, with more than 1.9 million cumulative citations from 2008 to 2018. In the mass media, PNAS has been described variously as "prestigious", "sedate", "renowned" and "high impact".

Source: "Richard Lindzen", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Lindzen.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ S. Kato had independently made the same discovery at about the same time in the Soviet Union.[26]
  2. ^ Actually, the evidence was coming in at the time, see Wallace, JM; Kousky, VE (1967). "Observational evidence of Kelvin waves in the tropical stratosphere". J. Atmos. Sci. 25 (5): 900–7. Bibcode:1968JAtS...25..900W. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1968)0252.0.CO;2. However, Lindzen says in his 1987 recollections that he did not see this study until after the Lindzen & Holton 1968 paper was already submitted.[37]
  3. ^ The NAS panel said on the matter that "The committee finds that the full IPCC Working Group I (WGI) report is an admirable summary of research activities in climate science, and the full report is adequately summarized in the Technical Summary. The full WGI report and its Technical Summary are not specifically directed at policy. The Summary for Policymakers reflects less emphasis on communicating the basis for uncertainty and a stronger emphasis on areas of major concern associated with human-induced climate change. This change in emphasis appears to be the result of a summary process in which scientists work with policy makers on the document. Written responses from U.S. coordinating and lead scientific authors to the committee indicate, however, that (a) no changes were made without the consent of the convening lead authors (this group represents a fraction of the lead and contributing authors) and (b) most changes that did occur lacked significant impact".[63]
References
  1. ^ a b c d "Richard Siegmund Lindzen" (PDF) (curriculum vitae). Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  2. ^ a b "Spring 2013 Newsletter Faculty News". MIT EAPS. May 31, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d Stevens, William K. (June 18, 1996). "Scientist at work: Richard S. Lindzen; A Skeptic Asks, Is It Getting Hotter, Or Is It Just the Computer Model?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  4. ^ Lindzen, Richard (April 22, 2010). "Climate Science in Denial". Wall Street Journal.
  5. ^ Epstein, Ethan. "What Catastrophe?". The Magazine. The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
  6. ^ Guterl, Fred (July 22, 2001). "The Truth About Global Warming". Newsweek.
  7. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (1965). Radiative and photochemical processes in strato- and mesospheric dynamics (Thesis). Harvard University. OCLC 76991637.
  8. ^ "Publications". Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Lindzen, Chou & Hou 2001.
  10. ^ "Richard Siegmund Lindzen" (PDF). Faculty (curriculum vitae). MIT. June 1, 2008. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  11. ^ "Richard Lindzen's Publications". Retrieved January 17, 2010.
  12. ^ a b "Richard Lindzen". Cato Institute. December 27, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  13. ^ Lindzen, Richard S; Goody, RM (1965). "Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics: Part I. Models for radiative and photochemical processes" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (4): 341–48. Bibcode:1965JAtS...22..341L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)0222.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
  14. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (1965). "The radiative-photochemical response of the mesosphere to fluctuations in radiation" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 22 (5): 469–78. Bibcode:1965JAtS...22..469L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1965)0222.0.co;2.
  15. ^ Lindzen, RS (1966). "Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics: Part II. Vertical propagation of long period disturbances at the equator" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 23 (3): 334–43. Bibcode:1966JAtS...23..334L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1966)0232.0.CO;2.
  16. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (1966). "Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics. Part III. Stability of a zonal vortex at midlatitudes to axially symmetric disturbances" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 23 (3): 344–49. Bibcode:1966JAtS...23..344L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1966)0232.0.CO;2.
  17. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (1966). "Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics. Part IV. Stability of a zonal vortex at midlatitudes to baroclinic waves" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 23 (3): 350–59. Bibcode:1966JAtS...23..350L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1966)0232.0.CO;2.
  18. ^ Goody, RM (1964). Atmospheric Radiation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  19. ^ Blake, DW; Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (1973). "Effect of photochemical models on calculated equilibria and cooling rates in the stratosphere" (PDF). Mon. Wea. Rev. 101 (11): 738–802. Bibcode:1973MWRv..101..783B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1973)1012.3.co;2. hdl:2060/19730017658.
  20. ^ See for instance the widely cited study Fels, SB; Mahlman, JD; Schwarzkopf, MD; Sinclair, RW (1980). "Stratospheric Sensitivity to Perturbations in Ozone and Carbon Dioxide: Radiative and Dynamical Response" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 37 (10): 2265–97. Bibcode:1980JAtS...37.2265F. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1980)0372.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 18, 2008. The Lindzen and Blake formalism is used in the parameterization of radiative-photochemical damping (see Appendix A).
  21. ^ Laplace, PS (1799). Méchanique Céleste [Celestial Mechanics] (in French). Paris.
  22. ^ Siebert, M (1961). "Atmospheric tides". Advances in Geophysics. Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press. pp. 105–82.
  23. ^ Butler, Stuart Thomas; Small, KA (1963). "The excitation of atmospheric oscillations". Proceedings of the Royal Society. A274: 91–121.
  24. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (1966). "On the theory of the diurnal tide" (PDF). Mon. Wea. Rev. 94 (5): 295–301. Bibcode:1966MWRv...94..295L. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1966)0942.3.CO;2.
  25. ^ Haurwitz, B (1962a). "Die tägliche Periode der Lufttemperatur in Bodennähe und ihre geographische Verteilung". Arch. Met. Geoph. Biokl. (in German). A12 (4): 426–34. Bibcode:1962AMGBA..12..426H. doi:10.1007/BF02249276. S2CID 118241095.
  26. ^ Kato, S (1966). "Diurnal atmospheric oscillation, 1. Eigenvalues and Hough functions" (PDF). J. Geophys. Res. 71 (13): 3201–9. Bibcode:1966JGR....71.3201K. doi:10.1029/JZ071i013p03201.
  27. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (1967). "Thermally driven diurnal tide in the atmosphere". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 93 (395): 18–42. Bibcode:1967QJRMS..93...18L. doi:10.1002/qj.49709339503. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013.
  28. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund; McKenzie, DJ (1967). "Tidal theory with Newtonian cooling". Pure Appl. Geophys. 64 (1): 90–96. Bibcode:1967PApGe..66...90L. doi:10.1007/BF00875315. S2CID 128537347.
  29. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (1968). "The application of classical atmospheric tidal theory". Proceedings of the Royal Society. A303 (1474): 299–316. Bibcode:1968RSPSA.303..299L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1968.0052. S2CID 97096978.
  30. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund; Chapman, Sydney (1969). "Atmospheric tides" (PDF). Sp. Sci. Revs. 10 (1): 3–188. Bibcode:1969SSRv...10....3L. doi:10.1007/BF00171584. S2CID 189783807.
  31. ^ Chapman, Sydney; Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (1970). Atmospheric Tides: Thermal and Gravitational. Dordrecht, NL: D. Reidel Press. ISBN 978-90-277-0113-8. 200 pp.
  32. ^ Lindzen 1987, pp. 329–37.
  33. ^ Lindzen 1987, p. 329.
  34. ^ Booker, J. R.; Bretherton, F. P. (2006). "The critical layer for internal gravity waves in a shear flow". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 27 (3): 513. Bibcode:1967JFM....27..513B. doi:10.1017/S0022112067000515. S2CID 120754946.
  35. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund; Holton, JR (1968). "A theory of quasi-biennial oscillation" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 26 (6): 1095–1107. Bibcode:1968JAtS...25.1095L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1968)0252.0.co;2.
  36. ^ Wallace, JM; Holton, JR (1967). "A diagnostic numerical model of the quasi-biennial oscillation" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 25 (2): 280–92. Bibcode:1968JAtS...25..280W. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1968)0252.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2014.
  37. ^ Lindzen 1987, p. 330.
  38. ^ Holton, JR; Lindzen, RS (1972). "An updated theory for the quasibiennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 29 (6): 1076–80. Bibcode:1972JAtS...29.1076H. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1972)0292.0.CO;2.
  39. ^ Taylor, FW; Tsang, CCC (February 2005). "Venus super-rotation". Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
  40. ^ Fels, SB; Lindzen, Richard S (1974). "Interaction of thermally excited gravity waves with mean flows" (PDF). Geophys. Fluid Dyn. 6 (2): 149–91. Bibcode:1974GApFD...6..149F. doi:10.1080/03091927409365793.
  41. ^ Gierasch, PJ (1975). "Meridional circulation and the maintenance of the Venus atmospheric rotation" (PDF). J. Atmos. Sci. 32 (6): 1038–44. Bibcode:1975JAtS...32.1038G. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1975)0322.0.CO;2. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2010.
  42. ^ Zhu, X (2005). "Maintenance of Equatorial Superrotation in a Planetary Atmosphere: Analytic Evaluation of the Zonal Momentum Budgets for the Stratospheres of Venus, Titan and Earth" (PDF). SR SR A-2005-01, JHU /APL, Laurel, MD.
  43. ^ Lindzen, R. S. (1981). "Turbulence and stress owing to gravity wave and tidal breakdown". Journal of Geophysical Research. 86 (C10): 9707–9714. Bibcode:1981JGR....86.9707L. doi:10.1029/JC086iC10p09707.
  44. ^ Lindzen, R. S.; Hou, A. V. (1988). "Hadley Circulations for Zonally Averaged Heating Centered off the Equator". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 45 (17): 2416–2427. Bibcode:1988JAtS...45.2416L. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)0452.0.CO;2.
  45. ^ Understanding Climate Change Archived April 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, National Academy of Sciences 1975, full text and pdf scan available at the Internet Archive
  46. ^ Lin, Bing; et al. (2002). "The iris hypothesis: a negative or positive cloud feedback?". Journal of Climate. 15 (1): 3–7. Bibcode:2002JCli...15....3L. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)0152.0.CO;2.
  47. ^ Rink, Chris; Cole, Julia (January 16, 2002). "NASA satellite instrument warms up global cooling theory" (Press release). NASA.
  48. ^ Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y. (2002). "Comments on "The Iris Hypothesis: A Negative or Positive Cloud Feedback?"". Journal of Climate. 15 (18): 2713–15. Bibcode:2002JCli...15.2713C. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.232.8350. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)0152.0.CO;2.
  49. ^ Schmidt, Gavin (February 14, 2006). "Richard Lindzen's HoL testimony". Real Climate.
  50. ^ Guterl, Fred (July 23, 2001). "The Truth About Global Warming". Newsweek. Retrieved July 26, 2009.
  51. ^ a b Lindzen, Richard S.; et al. (2009). "On the determination of climate feedbacks from ERBE data". Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (16): L16705. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..3616705L. doi:10.1029/2009GL039628.
  52. ^ dana1981 (July 6, 2012). "Working out climate sensitivity from satellite measurements". Skeptical Science. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  53. ^ a b Gillis, Justin (May 1, 2012). "Clouds' Effect on Climate Change Is Last Bastion for Dissenters". New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  54. ^ Schekman, Randy (January 19, 2011). "Title: On the observational determination of climate sensitivity and its implications Ms. No.: 2010-15738" (PDF). PNAS Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 19, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  55. ^ Lindzen, Richard S.; Choi, Yong-Sang (2011). "On the observational determination of climate sensitivity and its implications". Asia-Pacific Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 47 (4): 377–390. Bibcode:2011APJAS..47..377L. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.167.11. doi:10.1007/s13143-011-0023-x. S2CID 9278311.
  56. ^ Dessler, A. E. (2011). "Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget". Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (19): n/a. Bibcode:2011GeoRL..3819701D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.362.5742. doi:10.1029/2011GL049236. S2CID 17463106.
  57. ^ "Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions: Committee on the Science of Climate Change". National Academies Press. 2001. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  58. ^ Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academies Press. 2001. doi:10.17226/10139. ISBN 978-0-309-07574-9. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  59. ^ Lindzen, Richard Siegmund (June 11, 2001). "Scientists' Report Doesn't Support the Kyoto Treaty" (PDF). The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  60. ^ Lindzen, Richard S. (February 23, 2004). "Canadian Reactions To Sir David King". The Hill Times. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  61. ^ Lindzen, Richard S. (May 1, 2001). "Testimony of Richard S. Lindzen before the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee" (PDF). Lavoisier Group. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  62. ^ Solomon, Lawrence (December 22, 2006). "The Deniers – Part V: The original denier: into the cold". National Post. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  63. ^ "Summary". Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. National Academies Press. 2001. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  64. ^ a b “1991 CATO Climate Denial Conference Flyer and Schedule”, ‘’Koch Docs’’, n.d. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  65. ^ Mayer, Jane, “‘Kochland’ Examines the Koch Brothers’ Early, Crucial Role in Climate-Change Denial” (review), ‘’The New Yorker’’, August 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  66. ^ Waldman, Scott (May 29, 2020). "Cato closes its climate shop; Pat Michaels is out". E&E News. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  67. ^ “Richard Lindzen”, DeSmogBlog, n.d. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  68. ^ Hahn, R, ed. (1996), "5. Science and politics: global warming and eugenics", Risks, Costs, and Lives Saved, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 85–103, 267 pp.
  69. ^ "Transcripts". CNN. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  70. ^ Lindzen, Richard S (November 30, 2009). "The Climate Science Isn't Settled". The Wall Street Journal.
  71. ^ a b c Gillis, Justin (April 30, 2012). "Clouds' Effect on Climate Change Is Last Bastion for Dissenters". New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  72. ^ "Other publications". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015.
  73. ^ "Reflections on Kyoto" Archived October 17, 2003, at the Wayback Machine, Los Angeles Times, 12/12/97.
  74. ^ Lindzen, Richard (September 17, 2003). "A Mayor Mistake". TCS (Tech Central Station). Archived from the original on May 24, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  75. ^ Lindzen, Richard. "Petition to withdraw from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  76. ^ Richardson, Valerie (February 23, 2017). "Hundreds of scientists urge Donald Trump to withdraw from U.N. Climate-change agency". The Washington Times. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  77. ^ "MIT Faculty Working on Climate Write to President Trump". [email protected]. March 4, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  78. ^ Abel, David (March 8, 2017). "MIT professors denounce their colleague in letter to Trump for denying evidence of climate change". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  79. ^ Bailey, Ronald (November 10, 2005). "Two Sides to Global Warming". Reason Magazine. Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  80. ^ "Betting on Climate Change". Reason Magazine. June 8, 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  81. ^ Suzanne Goldenberg and Helena Bengtsson (June 13, 2016). "Biggest US coal company funded dozens of groups questioning climate change". The Guardian. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  82. ^ Ritter, Karl (December 17, 2007). "Climate change dissenters say they are demonized in debate". USA Today. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  83. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (October 2009). "Richard Lindzen: An Inconvenient Expert". Outside. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
  84. ^ Achenbach, Joel (June 5, 2006). "Global-warming skeptics continue to punch away". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2009.
  85. ^ "The Contrarian". Seed. August 24, 2006. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved December 8, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  86. ^ Guterl, Fred (July 23, 2001). "The Truth About Global Warming". Newsweek. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  87. ^ Williams, Robyn (2005). "Fair-weather friends?". Griffith Review (12). Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  88. ^ Boffetta P, Agudo A, Ahrens W, et al. (1998). "Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90 (19): 1440–50. doi:10.1093/jnci/90.19.1440. PMID 9776409.
  89. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: I Can Change Your Mind About…Climate (video). April 26, 2012. Event occurs at 22:34. Retrieved June 12, 2017. Transcript; Episode page {{cite AV media}}: External link in |quote= (help)
  90. ^ Treadgold, Richard (May 15, 2011). "Lindzen dismisses Hansen's defamations". Climate Conversation Group. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  91. ^ Knowledge (record), ISI.
  92. ^ American Men & Women of Science, vol. 4 (25th ed.), 2008, p. 909.
  93. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2013-10-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
Bibliography
External links
Categories

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.