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Resignation of Jacinda Ardern

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Resignation of Jacinda Ardern
Jacinda Ardern PIF 2022.jpg
Ardern in 2022
Date19–25 January 2023 (2023-01-19 – 2023-01-25)
Time1:00 pm (NZDT, UTC+13:00)
Duration6 days (full transition)
VenueNapier War Memorial Centre
LocationNapier, Hawke's Bay
CauseOccupational burnout
ParticipantsJacinda Ardern
Chris Hipkins
Cindy Kiro

The resignation of Jacinda Ardern as the 40th prime minister of New Zealand and leader of the Labour Party was announced on 19 January 2023, at a press conference given by Ardern at the War Memorial Centre in Napier, Hawke's Bay.[1][2][3] Regarded as one of New Zealand's most important and popular leaders, Ardern declared in her speech that she "no longer had enough in the tank" to fulfill the office of the premiership (occupational burnout),[2][4] and that she would not be seeking re-election at the upcoming election (the date of which she announced in the same speech).[5] She also expressed hope that she would spend more time with her family, and that she had left behind a legacy that one "can be kind, but strong" and "your own kind of leader – one that knows when it’s time to go."[3][5] In the days that followed, Jacinda Ardern was recognised as one of New Zealand's most influential post-war prime ministers.[6][7]

The resignation was discussed globally; while some critiqued her government for policy failings,[8] she was also praised for her empathetic style of leadership, her government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand and to the Christchurch mosque shootings, and for empowering women, girls, and ethnic minorities.[9][2][10] Some expressed concern that far-right abuse and often misogynistic threats Ardern received in the aftermath of her government's COVID-19 polices may have played a role, with threats against her having almost tripled over three years.[11][12] Such interpretations were denied by Ardern and criticised as patronising or sexist by others.[11][13] The announcement triggered a Labour Party leadership election, which saw Leader of the House Chris Hipkins elected unopposed to succeed her. Hipkins praised Ardern's leadership immediately and then condemned any threats made against her.[14] After Ardern officially tendered her resignation to Governor-General Cindy Kiro, Hipkins succeeded to the premiership at 11:30 on 25 January.[15]

Discover more about Resignation of Jacinda Ardern related topics

Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party

Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party

The leader of the Labour Party is the highest-ranked political position within the New Zealand Labour Party, who serves as the parliamentary leader and leading spokesperson of the party. The current leader is Chris Hipkins, after Jacinda Ardern resigned.

Jacinda Ardern

Jacinda Ardern

Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern is a New Zealand politician who served as the 40th prime minister of New Zealand and leader of the Labour Party from 2017 to 2023. A member of the Labour Party, she has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Mount Albert since 2017.

Hawke's Bay

Hawke's Bay

Hawke's Bay is a local government region on the east coast of New Zealand's North Island. The region's name derives from Hawke Bay, which was named by Captain James Cook in honour of Admiral Edward Hawke. The region is governed by Hawke's Bay Regional Council.

2023 New Zealand general election

2023 New Zealand general election

The 2023 New Zealand general election to determine the composition of the 54th Parliament of New Zealand is planned to be held on 14 October 2023, after the currently elected 53rd Parliament is dissolved or expires. Voters will elect 120 members to the unicameral New Zealand House of Representatives under the mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 72 members will be elected from single-member electorates and 48 members from closed party lists.

COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand

COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand

The COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first case of the disease in New Zealand was reported on 28 February 2020. As of 30 January 2023, the country has had a total of 2,182,355 cases. 2,477 people have died as a result of the virus, with cases recorded in all twenty district health board (DHB) areas. The pandemic first peaked in early April 2020, with 89 new cases recorded per day and 929 active cases. Cases peaked again in October 2021 with 134 new cases reported on 22 October. A total of 7,274,347 COVID tests have been carried out as of 28 June 2022.

Christchurch mosque shootings

Christchurch mosque shootings

On 15 March 2019, two consecutive mass shootings occurred in a terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. The attacks, carried out by a lone gunman who entered both mosques during Friday prayer, began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 pm and continued at the Linwood Islamic Centre at 1:52 pm. 51 people were killed and 40 were injured.

Far-right politics in New Zealand

Far-right politics in New Zealand

Far-right politics in New Zealand has been present in New Zealand in the form of the organised advocacy of fascist, far-right, neo-Nazi, white supremacist, and anti-Semitic views by various groups, although fascism has never gained a strong foothold.

2023 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election

2023 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election

The 2023 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election was held on 22 January 2023 to choose the next leader of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was triggered by the resignation of Prime Minister and Labour Party Leader Jacinda Ardern, which was announced on 19 January 2023.

Leader of the House (New Zealand)

Leader of the House (New Zealand)

In the New Zealand Parliament, the Leader of the House is the government minister appointed by the Prime Minister of New Zealand to be responsible for the management of government business in the House of Representatives. The Leader of the House is also an ex officio member of the Parliamentary Service Commission.

Chris Hipkins

Chris Hipkins

Christopher John Hipkins is a New Zealand politician currently serving as the 41st prime minister of New Zealand and leader of the New Zealand Labour Party since 2023. He has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Remutaka since the 2008 election.

Governor-General of New Zealand

Governor-General of New Zealand

The governor-general of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently King Charles III. As the King is concurrently the monarch of 14 other Commonwealth realms and lives in the United Kingdom, he, on the advice of his New Zealand prime minister, appoints a governor-general to carry out his constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand.

Cindy Kiro

Cindy Kiro

Dame Alcyion Cynthia Kiro is a New Zealand public-health academic, administrator, and advocate, who has served as the 22nd governor-general of New Zealand since 21 October 2021. Kiro is the first Māori woman, the third person of Māori descent, and the fourth woman to hold the office.

Background

On 1 August 2017, just seven weeks before the 2017 general election, Ardern assumed the position of leader of the Labour Party, and consequently became leader of the Opposition, following the resignation of Andrew Little. Little stood down due to the party's historically low polling.[16] Ardern was unanimously confirmed in an election to choose a new leader at a caucus meeting the same day.[17] At 37, Ardern became the youngest leader of the Labour Party in its history.[18] At the election, Ardern's leadership increased her party's seats from 32 to 46, and formed a minority government in coalition with the Greens and NZ First.[19] She quickly became arguably the most popular prime minister in a century,[20][21] and a well-known political figure overseas.[22] Her rapid and empathetic response to the terrorist attack in Christchurch, which saw 51 Muslim worshippers gunned down by an Australian white supremacist, was praised globally.[23] She donned a hijab and met with the victims' families, and had her government introduce comprehensive gun legislation that banned semi-automatic weapons a mere six days after the shootings.[24] A year later, her government quickly responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by enforcing a strict nationwide lockdown. The response, which Ardern described as to "go hard and go early" is thought to have saved between 3,000 and 80,000 lives within the first year.[25][26] To this day, New Zealand has the lowest per capita COVID death rate in the Western world, with life expectancy actually increasing during the pandemic.[9][27] From May, life was essentially back to normal within New Zealand, with almost no mask mandates nor social distancing required for almost a year and a half. The response bolstered the Labour Party's already considerable support ahead of 2020 general election, with opinion polling projecting they could become the first government of the MMP era to gain enough seats to govern alone. This ended up happening, with a surge of post-COVID support delivering Labour an unprecedented landslide victory. Under Ardern's leadership, the party won 65 out of 120 seats in the House of Representatives and over half of the popular vote. The party also won the party vote in 71 out of 72 electorates, an unprecedented occurrence in any election in New Zealand history.[28][29]

Although Ardern and many other within the Labour Party described themselves as socialists, her personal platform has been widely analysed as centrist, or effectively neoliberal.[30][31] In 2020, Labour cancelled their 2017 campaign pledge to make tertiary education free, with Ardern also ruling out a wealth tax and other left-wing proposals.[32] Heading a campaign widely perceived as centrist or centre-leaning,[33][34] Labour gained support from a large demographic of moderate swing voters, many of whom had previously voted for National under John Key. Approximately 16% of Labour's voters had voted for National in the previous election.[35][36] Her government was accused of abandoning traditional values with pragmatism to maximise support.[37] This caused disillusionment from many on the political left in New Zealand, but these concerns were not linked to the impending political violence.[38]

An anti-government sign from the 2022 Wellington protest featuring a caricature of Ardern
An anti-government sign from the 2022 Wellington protest featuring a caricature of Ardern

The popular approval of her government, and eventually her personal popularity, began to decisively wane in 2022.[37] A Horizons research poll showed that of more than 1000 people polled 35% felt "disappointed" and 28% "angry" about Ardern, with her specifically being targeted rather than the government. A rise in anti-vaccine hysteria, fuelled by external right-wing influences, demonised Ardern, eventually resulting in the violent occupation of Parliament Grounds in Wellington in 2022. The protests were unusually violent, with many participants advocating far-right politics such as Trumpism,[39][40] white nationalism[41][42] and Christian fundamentalism.[43] Some protesters hung nooses from trees and made threats to lynch politicians, including Ardern, and also gay Minister of Finance Grant Robertson and pregnant MP Steph Lewis.[44][45][46] Antisemitism was reported to be "rife" within the protests,[47] with the Parliamentary grounds vandalised with swastikas, protestors misappropriating yellow stars, and messages targeting Jews written on car windows.[48][49] There were also several reports of sexual assault from within the protest grounds, and protestors were widely reported to be throwing their own faeces at police.[50][51] The violent month-long occupation caused major disruption in Wellington, and The Guardian reported that threats against Ardern had almost tripled.[12] The effects of the 2022 COVID-19 induced recession also contributed to an unfavourable perception of Labour, and Ardern personally was scapegoated by some in its wake.[37] In August 2022, a 1 News/Kantar poll, taken as the cost of living soars in New Zealand, marked Ardern's worst result in the preferred prime minister stakes since her tenure as leader began. Despite falling three points as preferred prime minister, Ardern was still ahead of National's Christopher Luxon, at 30% to 22%.[52]

There was speculation among right-wing media columnists in November 2022 that Ardern was about to resign imminently. The idea was mocked by Tony Manhire, editor-at-large of the left-leaning online news site The Spinoff, for being baseless.[53]

Discover more about Background related topics

2017 New Zealand general election

2017 New Zealand general election

The 2017 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 23 September 2017 to determine the membership of the 52nd New Zealand Parliament. The previous parliament was elected on 20 September 2014 and was officially dissolved on 22 August 2017. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives under New Zealand's mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, a proportional representation system in which 71 members were elected from single-member electorates and 49 members were elected from closed party lists. Around 3.57 million people were registered to vote in the election, with 2.63 million (79.8%) turning out. Advance voting proved popular, with 1.24 million votes cast before election day, more than the previous two elections combined.

Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party

Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party

The leader of the Labour Party is the highest-ranked political position within the New Zealand Labour Party, who serves as the parliamentary leader and leading spokesperson of the party. The current leader is Chris Hipkins, after Jacinda Ardern resigned.

Andrew Little (New Zealand politician)

Andrew Little (New Zealand politician)

Andrew James Little is a New Zealand politician and former trade union official, currently serving as Minister of Justice and Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations. He is also the Minister for the Government Communications Security Bureau and the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. Little was previously Leader of the Opposition from 2014 to 2017.

2017 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election

2017 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election

The 2017 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election was held on 1 August 2017 to choose the next Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was won by Deputy Leader and Mount Albert MP Jacinda Ardern.

Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand

Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand

The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand, commonly known as the Greens, is a green and left-wing political party in New Zealand. Like many green parties around the world, it has four organisational pillars. The party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing and social-democratic economic policies, including well-funded and locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady-state economy. Internationally, it is affiliated with the Global Greens.

Christchurch mosque shootings

Christchurch mosque shootings

On 15 March 2019, two consecutive mass shootings occurred in a terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. The attacks, carried out by a lone gunman who entered both mosques during Friday prayer, began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 pm and continued at the Linwood Islamic Centre at 1:52 pm. 51 people were killed and 40 were injured.

Arms (Prohibited Firearms, Magazines, and Parts) Amendment Act 2019

Arms (Prohibited Firearms, Magazines, and Parts) Amendment Act 2019

The Arms Amendment Act 2019 is a New Zealand bill that amends the Arms Act 1983 to ban semi-automatic firearms, large capacity magazines, and parts that can be used to assemble prohibited firearms. It was introduced by Labour Cabinet Minister and Member of Parliament Stuart Nash in response to the Christchurch mosque shootings. The Bill passed its third and final reading on 10 April 2019, receiving royal assent the following day. The Arms Amendment Bill was supported by all parties represented in Parliament except the opposition ACT Party.

COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand

COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand

The COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first case of the disease in New Zealand was reported on 28 February 2020. As of 30 January 2023, the country has had a total of 2,182,355 cases. 2,477 people have died as a result of the virus, with cases recorded in all twenty district health board (DHB) areas. The pandemic first peaked in early April 2020, with 89 new cases recorded per day and 929 active cases. Cases peaked again in October 2021 with 134 new cases reported on 22 October. A total of 7,274,347 COVID tests have been carried out as of 28 June 2022.

2020 New Zealand general election

2020 New Zealand general election

The 2020 New Zealand general election was held on Saturday 17 October 2020 to determine the composition of the 53rd parliament. Voters elected 120 members to the House of Representatives, 72 from single-member electorates and 48 from closed party lists. Two referendums, one on the personal use of cannabis and one on euthanasia, were also held on the same day. Official results of the election and referendums were released on 6 November.

Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional representation is a mixed electoral system in which votes cast are considered in local elections and also to determine overall party vote tallies, which are used to allocate additional members to produce or deepen overall proportional representation.

Landslide victory

Landslide victory

A landslide victory is an election result in which the victorious candidate or party wins by an overwhelming margin. The term became popular in the 1800s to describe a victory in which the opposition is "buried", similar to the way in which a geological landslide buries whatever is in its path. What constitutes a landslide varies by the type of electoral system. Even within an electoral system, there is no consensus on what sized margin makes for a landslide.

Centrism

Centrism

Centrism is a political outlook or position involving acceptance or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy while opposing political changes that would result in a significant shift of society strongly to the left or the right.

Resignation

On 19 January 2023, Ardern gave a speech at a routine press conference in Napier, the location of the annual Labour Party conference. It was there that, in addition to announcing the date of the upcoming election (14 October 2023), that she declared she would not lead Labour into it.[54]

I am entering now my sixth year in office. And for each of those years, I have given my absolute all. I believe that leading a country is the most privileged job anyone could ever have, but also one of the more challenging. You cannot, and should not do it unless you have a full tank, plus, a bit in reserve for those unexpected challenges. This summer, I had hoped to find a way to prepare for not just another year, but another term – because that is what this year requires. I have not been able to do that. And so today, I am announcing that I will not be seeking re-election and that my term as prime minister will conclude no later than the 7th of February... I know there will be much discussion in the aftermath of this decision as to what the so called "real" reason was. I can tell you, that what I am sharing today is it. The only interesting angle you will find is that after going on six years of some big challenges, that I am human. Politicians are human. We give all that we can, for as long as we can, and then it's time. And for me, it's time.

— Jacinda Ardern, 19 January 2023

She also addressed her daughter, Neve, that she would be there for her when she started school in June. She also said to Clarke Gayford, her long-time fiancée, "let's finally get married."[54] She also announced that she would leave Parliament in April, a date sufficiently close to the impending election so as not to trigger a by-election for her electorate of Mount Albert.[54]

Reactions

Domestic

The announcement caught domestic and international media by surprise.[55] Although there had been some minor speculation she might resign a few months before, it had been largely dismissed. Ardern's legacy was immediately discussed. Political scientist Morgan Godfrey wrote for The Guardian that in "five momentous years" she had become "the perpetual prime minister", and the most important of the post-war period.[56] Godfrey continued "In each period – both before and after that defining summer from December 2019 to February 2020 – it feels as if the constant was Ardern. It’s difficult to imagine any other prime minister cutting through their bureaucracy’s cautious advice, their cabinet’s hesitancy and their citizenry’s uncertainty to make the decision to lock down a country of five million and work towards eliminating Covid-19... Within a few short months Covid was contained in New Zealand. The economy would boom. And in an uncharacteristically warm, dry spring in 2020 the prime minister won an unprecedented parliamentary majority – an endorsement of her policies and leadership in the worst emergency in almost a century."[56]

Also writing for The Guardian, commentator Henry Cooke wrote that while the human reasons for Ardern's resignation were understandable, the political consequences were "confounding", and imperiled her party and her personal legacy.[57] "Labour MPs and supporters have every right to be furious. Ardern was facing a very steep hill at the October election, which explains more than any other reason her decision to leave. Cooke pointed to Ardern's continued approval ratings, with her never having come second in the preferred prime minister polls. He concluded that she remained Labour’s "best weapon" against National Party leader Christopher Luxon, who he claimed drew largely apathetic responses from the public. Cooke added that according to data from the New Zealand Election Study the majority of voters who switched from National to Labour between 2017 and 2020 (16% of the electorate in the latter) had "overwhelmingly strong feelings of adoration" for Ardern. He added that the swing voters had the strongest political capital in the country, adding "while some of them may have changed their mind, anyone who liked a leader this much remains persuadable."[57]

Former Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters, leader of the centrist and populist New Zealand First party, praised Ardern's first term, in which he served alongside her, but was more critical of her second term, stating "it is a difficult time to make an analysis".[58] Many on the political right criticised Ardern, with some welcoming and even celebrating her resignation. While he initially wished her well, National Party leader Christopher Luxon took the opportunity to critique her government.[59] He claimed that the economic situation would only get worse under a new Labour prime minister. When asked if he believed that female politicians face more threats than male ones, Luxon disagreed, sparking criticism.[60][61]

Many expressed their view that Ardern's resignation was caused in part by the abuse she had suffered, which reached levels unprecedented for a New Zealand prime minister. Former prime minister Helen Clark said that "the pressures on Prime Ministers are always great, but in this era of social media, clickbait, and 24/7 media cycles, Jacinda has faced a level of hatred and vitriol which in my experience is unprecedented in our country.. our society could now usefully reflect on whether it wants to continue to tolerate the excessive polarisation which is making politics an increasingly unattractive calling."[62] This viewpoint was criticised by radio presenter Ryan Bridge, who claimed it was "melodramatic". He elaborated that the claim was "just bizarre because, one, it assumes that she's reading all of the online troll messages from the misogynists and whoever". Political commentator and former National Party ministerial advisor Brigitte Morten called Clark's remarks "naive" and "condescending", claiming that such comments would not be made of a male prime minister.[62] Another politician who voiced concern at the misogyny directed towards Ardern was Debbie Ngarewa-Packer, female co-leader of the Māori Party. She said that "it is a sad day for politics where an outstanding leader has been driven from office for constant personalisation and vilification", expressing concern for Ardern's whānau and personal safety.[13]

Ardern's safety going forward has come under scrutiny. The New Zealand Herald reported that she would need "unprecedented" police protection "well beyond the end of her time as Prime Minister", even as new figures show the extent of the abuse she faced from the far-right.[63] The Herald’s own investigation into the online targeting of Ardern discovered threats of rape and murder, her portrayal as demonic or "evil", and calls to execute her as a traitor or "war criminal".[63] Kate Hannah, director of the anti-misinformation Disinformation Project, claimed that the abuse was prolific on mainstream social media channels, particularly on Facebook. She stated that misogynistic online hatred of Ardern, which began after she condemned the far-right in the wake of the Christchurch mosque shootings, had become a dangerous threat for New Zealand's democracy.[63] Intelligence analyst Dr Paul Buchanan argued that Ardern's response to the massacre "galvanised the most retrograde elements of the far right", before worsening as the pandemic response passed. He added that "being young, female and successful" was a "whole different level of vitriol."[63] Buchanan expressed his belief that the Diplomatic Protection Service would increase efforts to protect her and her family, and that she "deserves to reclaim her life as a private citizen."[63]

World leaders

  • United States United States: President Joe Biden honoured Ardern on Twitter, saying that "the U.S.-New Zealand partnership is stronger than ever, thanks in large part to your leadership. Your stewardship in advancing a free and open Indo-Pacific was crucial – I look forward to deepening our nations’ ties for generations to come."[64][65] Vice President Kamala Harris said "Prime Minister Ardern is a forward-looking, global leader who has inspired millions around the world. Thank you, Madam Prime Minister, for your leadership and for strengthening the ties between the U.S. and New Zealand."[55]
  • Australia Australia: Prime Minister Anthony Albanese said: "Jacinda Ardern has shown the world how to lead with intellect and strength. She has demonstrated that empathy and insight are powerful leadership qualities. Jacinda has been a fierce advocate for New Zealand, an inspiration to so many and a great friend to me."[55][66] Minister of Foreign Affairs Penny Wong said "Jacinda brought strength, compassion and kindness to leadership, gaining the admiration of so many around the world. [She is] a source of inspiration to me and many others."[67]
  • United Kingdom United Kingdom: Prime Minister Rishi Sunak thanked Ardern "for her kindness and strong leadership." He also tweeted: "she has shone a light on the unique opportunities and challenges faced in the Indo-Pacific, and has always been a great friend of the UK."[68] William, Prince of Wales, also tweeted his support, thanking Ardern for her "friendship, leadership and support over the years, not least at the time of my grandmother’s death. Sending you, Clarke and Neve our best wishes. W & C".[69]
  • Cook Islands Cook Islands: Prime Minister Mark Brown praised her response to the COVID-19 pandemic, saying that "New Zealand's own response was held up as a shining example of how to protect your people. New Zealand working with our country enabled us really to protect our people from COVID but secondly allowed us to quickly get back on our feet due to the measures that we did take early on". He added that "her compassion and her strength of leadership is a legacy that I think she will leave as prime minister of New Zealand."[70]
  • Canada Canada: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau thanked her personally for "your partnership and your friendship — and for your empathic, compassionate, strong, and steady leadership over these past several years. The difference you have made is immeasurable. I’m wishing you and your family nothing but the best, my friend".[55]
  • Fiji Fiji: Deputy Prime Minister Biman Prasad said the Pacific would miss the "charismatic leader", telling RNZ Pacific he was happy to meet Ardern when she visited the country in 2020. In his own words Fiji had "benefitted immensely" under her leadership, with Ardern's government providing "urgent and timely help to the Fijian people during natural disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic."[70]

Other international

On Twitter, former U.S. President Barack Obama praised Ardern's leadership, integrity and empathy.[72] Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton noted Ardern's significance as a woman leading a country, stating "[s]he's shown the world a new model of powerful leadership. A true stateswoman."[65]

Former Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd said Arden "provided a masterclass in international public diplomacy" and 'rewrote the rulebook" for world leaders.[73]

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New Zealand National Party

New Zealand National Party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the Labour Party.

Christopher Luxon

Christopher Luxon

Christopher Mark Luxon is a New Zealand politician and former business executive who is currently serving as leader of the New Zealand National Party and the Leader of the Opposition. He has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Botany electorate since the 2020 general election. He was the chief executive officer of Air New Zealand from 2012 to 2019. Luxon also served in Judith Collins' shadow cabinet as Spokesperson for Local Government, Research, Science, Manufacturing and Land Information, as well as being the Associate Spokesperson for Transport. He has been leader since 30 November 2021, succeeding Collins.

New Zealand First

New Zealand First

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. The party formed in July 1993 following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. Peters had been the sitting Member of Parliament for Tauranga since 1984 and would use the electorate as the base for New Zealand First until consecutive defeats by National Party candidates in 2005 and 2008. His party has formed coalition governments with both major political parties in New Zealand: first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to 2020. Peters has served on two occasions as deputy prime minister.

Helen Clark

Helen Clark

Helen Elizabeth Clark is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th prime minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, and the second woman to hold that office.

Debbie Ngarewa-Packer

Debbie Ngarewa-Packer

Debbie Anne Ngarewa-Packer is a New Zealand politician, iwi leader and activist. She is a Member of Parliament and co-leader of Te Pāti Māori alongside Rawiri Waititi, and is the chief executive of the Ngāti Ruanui iwi. She stood for Te Pāti Māori during the 2020 election in the seat of Te Tai Hauāuru. While she failed to win the electorate, she was placed first on Te Pāti Māori list, where she won a list seat once the special votes were counted.

Misinformation

Misinformation

Misinformation is incorrect or misleading information. It differs from disinformation, which is deliberately deceptive. Rumors are information not attributed to any particular source, and so are unreliable and often unverified, but can turn out to be either true or false. Even if later retracted, misinformation can continue to influence actions and memory. People may be more prone to believe misinformation because they are emotionally connected to what they are listening to or are reading. The role of social media has made information readily available to society at anytime, and it connects vast groups of people along with their information at one time. Advances in technology has impacted the way people communicate information and the way misinformation is spread. Misinformation has impacts on societies' ability to receive information which then influences our communities, politics, and medical field.

Christchurch mosque shootings

Christchurch mosque shootings

On 15 March 2019, two consecutive mass shootings occurred in a terrorist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. The attacks, carried out by a lone gunman who entered both mosques during Friday prayer, began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 pm and continued at the Linwood Islamic Centre at 1:52 pm. 51 people were killed and 40 were injured.

Diplomatic Protection Service

Diplomatic Protection Service

The Diplomatic Protection Service (DPS), sometimes referred to as the Diplomatic Protection Squad, is a branch of the New Zealand Police that provides personal security for both national and visiting diplomats and VIPs. National VIPs that receive constant protection are the prime minister and the governor-general, while ministers, members of Parliament, the judiciary and the leader of the Opposition receive protection as needed. Protection is provided both in New Zealand and abroad. Previous visiting VIPs afforded DPS protection have included Tiger Woods during the 2002 New Zealand Open, and FBI Director Robert Mueller. The DPS also patrols foreign embassies, consulates and high commissions.

Joe Biden

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 47th vice president from 2009 to 2017 under President Barack Obama, and represented Delaware in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009.

Kamala Harris

Kamala Harris

Kamala Devi Harris is an American politician and attorney who is the 49th and current vice president of the United States. She is the first female vice president and the highest-ranking female official in U.S. history, as well as the first African American and first Asian American vice president. A member of the Democratic Party, she previously served as the attorney general of California from 2011 to 2017 and as a United States senator representing California from 2017 to 2021.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Anthony Albanese

Anthony Albanese

Anthony Norman Albanese is an Australian politician serving as the 31st and current prime minister of Australia since 2022. He has been leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) since 2019 and the member of parliament (MP) for Grayndler since 1996. Albanese previously was the 15th deputy prime minister under the second Kevin Rudd government in 2013; he held various ministerial positions in the governments of Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard from 2007 to 2013.

Succession

Hipkins and Sepuloni being appointed as prime minister and deputy, respectively, by Dame Cindy Kiro
Hipkins and Sepuloni being appointed as prime minister and deputy, respectively, by Dame Cindy Kiro

The announcement triggered an imminent leadership election, scheduled by an emergency caucus meeting for 22 January. The election spawned much press attention, as Ardern's abrupt resignation was seen as endangering an already unpopular Labour Party's chances at reelection later that year. Several members of Ardern's Cabinet were considered. The following were the most commonly named options:

Ministers Michael Wood and Megan Woods were also named as potential candidates by some news outlets.[74] Robertson was quick to rule himself out, but indicated he wished to continue as finance minister.[75] Labour deputy leader Kelvin Davis also advised he would not be running.[76][77] As nominations closed on 21 January, Hipkins emerged as the only nominee. His nominators included Michael Wood and Kiritapu Allan, both of whom were considered by media as prospective leaders.[78][79] The lack of a direct vote was seen as evidence of Labour's intention to have an orderly transition, as opposed to the multiple changes to the National Party leadership since their loss of power.[80] There have been a total of five National Party leadership elections (2016, 2018, May 2020, July 2020, and 2021) since the resignation of John Key, the last National prime minister to win a general election, and six leaders (including interim leader Shane Rēti) over the past six years. Labour MPs told media they had agreed they would identify a "consensus candidate" who had the support of the whole caucus. In his first media appearance as the presumptive leader, on 21 January Hipkins told media he found out he had his party's unanimous support as "the door to the plane [that he had boarded for a flight to Wellington] was closing," leaving him unable to respond to his messages for 40 minutes.[81] A caucus meeting, where Hipkins was formally confirmed as Labour leader, occurred on 22 January at 1 pm.[82] Minister for Social Development Carmel Sepuloni was chosen to become deputy prime minister (though not deputy leader of the Labour Party), becoming the country's first Pasifika person to hold the title.[83] The ticket was welcomed by many, with Hipkins and Sepuloni being recognised for both being working-class in background.[84][85] The Māori Party voiced criticism that a Māori candidate was not chosen to be prime minister.[86]

Ardern's last public event as prime minister was Rātana Day at Rātana Pā in the Manawatū on 24 January, which she attended with Hipkins. Hipkins spoke of Labour's longstanding political alliance with the Rātana Church.[87] In her last public speech, Ardern said leading the country was "the greatest privilege of my life", and that she "[leaves] with a greater love and affection for Aotearoa New Zealand and its people than when I started."[88]

The following morning, Ardern left the Beehive for Government House, Wellington, where she privately tendered her resignation to the Governor-General, Dame Cindy Kiro. Hipkins and Sepuloni were jointly sworn in in a televised ceremony shortly before noon as prime minister and deputy prime minister.[89]

Discover more about Succession related topics

2023 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election

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The 2023 New Zealand Labour Party leadership election was held on 22 January 2023 to choose the next leader of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was triggered by the resignation of Prime Minister and Labour Party Leader Jacinda Ardern, which was announced on 19 January 2023.

Cindy Kiro

Cindy Kiro

Dame Alcyion Cynthia Kiro is a New Zealand public-health academic, administrator, and advocate, who has served as the 22nd governor-general of New Zealand since 21 October 2021. Kiro is the first Māori woman, the third person of Māori descent, and the fourth woman to hold the office.

2023 New Zealand general election

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Chris Hipkins

Chris Hipkins

Christopher John Hipkins is a New Zealand politician currently serving as the 41st prime minister of New Zealand and leader of the New Zealand Labour Party since 2023. He has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Remutaka since the 2008 election.

Leader of the House (New Zealand)

Leader of the House (New Zealand)

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Kiri Allan

Kiri Allan

Kiritapu Lyndsay Allan is a New Zealand politician and Member of Parliament (MP) in the New Zealand House of Representatives. A member of the Labour Party, she entered the House as a list MP in 2017, and won the East Coast electorate in 2020.

Grant Robertson

Grant Robertson

Grant Murray Robertson is a New Zealand politician and member of the Labour Party who has served as the minister of finance since 2017 and served as the 19th deputy prime minister of New Zealand from 2020 to 2023. He has been the member of Parliament (MP) for Wellington Central since 2008.

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Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand

The deputy prime minister of New Zealand is the second most senior member of the Cabinet of New Zealand. The officeholder usually deputises for the prime minister at official functions. The current deputy prime minister is Carmel Sepuloni.

Michael Wood (New Zealand politician)

Michael Wood (New Zealand politician)

Michael Philip Wood is a New Zealand politician and, since winning the Mount Roskill by-election in December 2016, a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives. He is a member of the Labour Party.

Megan Woods

Megan Woods

Megan Cherie Woods is a New Zealand Labour Party politician who serves as a Cabinet Minister in the Sixth Labour Government and has served as Member of Parliament for Wigram since 2011.

Kelvin Davis (politician)

Kelvin Davis (politician)

Kelvin Glen Davis is a New Zealand politician and a member of the House of Representatives who has served as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party since 1 August 2017.

2016 New Zealand National Party leadership election

2016 New Zealand National Party leadership election

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Source: "Resignation of Jacinda Ardern", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resignation_of_Jacinda_Ardern.

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