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Republic of Mahabad

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Republic of Kurdistan
کۆماری کوردستان
1946
Coat of arms of Mahabad
Coat of arms
Anthem: Ey Reqîb
"Oh Enemy"
The boundaries of the Republic of Mahabad[1]
The boundaries of the Republic of Mahabad[1]
StatusUnrecognized[2]
puppet state of the Soviet Union[3][4]
CapitalMahabad
Common languagesKurdish
GovernmentSocialist republic
President 
• 1946
Qazi Muhammad (KDPI)
Prime Minister 
• 1946
Haji Baba Sheikh (KDPI)
Historical eraCold War
• Autonomy declared
22 January 1946
• Soviet withdrawal
June 1946
• Iran establishes control
15 December 1946
• Leaders executed
31 March 1947
CurrencySoviet ruble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Imperial State of Iran
Imperial State of Iran
Today part ofIran

The Republic of Mahabad or the Republic of Kurdistan[5][6][7][8] (Kurdish: کۆماری کوردستان / Komara Kurdistanê; Persian: جمهوری مهاباد) was a short-lived Kurdish self-governing unrecognized state in present-day Iran,[9][10] from 22 January to 15 December 1946. The Republic of Mahabad, a puppet state of the Soviet Union, arose alongside the Azerbaijan People's Government, a similarly short-lived unrecognized Soviet puppet state.[3][4]

The capital of the Republic of Mahabad was Mahabad in northwestern Iran. The state encompassed a small territory, including Mahabad and the adjacent cities of Bukan, Oshnavieh, Piranshahr and Naghadeh.[11] The republic moreover claimed the three cities of Urmia, Khoy and Salmas held by the Azerbaijan People's Government.[12]

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Persian language

Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. Persian is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of the Cyrillic script.

List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies

List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies

These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition. The entries listed here had de facto control over their claimed territory and were self-governing with a desire for full independence; or if they lacked such control over their territory, they were recognized by at least one other recognized nation.

Iran

Iran

Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, and also called Persia, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Iraq and Turkey to the west, by Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest, by the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, by Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south. It covers an area of 1.64 million square kilometres, making it the 17th-largest country. Iran has a population of 86 million, making it the 17th-most populous country in the world, and the second-largest in the Middle East. Its largest cities, in descending order, are the capital Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Karaj, Shiraz, and Tabriz.

Puppet state

Puppet state

A puppet state, puppet régime, puppet government or dummy government, is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through means such as financial interests, economic, or military support. By leaving a local government in existence the outside Powers evade all responsibility, while at the same time successfully paralyzing the Government they tolerate.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Azerbaijan People's Government

Azerbaijan People's Government

The Azerbaijan People's Government was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946. Like the unrecognized Republic of Mahabad, it was a puppet state of the Soviet Union. Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan People's Government capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War.

Mahabad

Mahabad

Mahabad, also Romanized as Mihābād and Muhābād, is a city and capital of Mahabad County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 168,000 in 31,000 families.

Bukan

Bukan

Bukan is the capital of Bukan County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. As of 2016, its population was estimated to be near 193,501 people or 56,000 families. The city is situated east of the Siminarud river. The whole county is populated by Shafi'i Kurds who speak Sorani Kurdish.

Oshnavieh

Oshnavieh

Oshnavieh is the capital city of Oshnavieh County, West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. At the 2016 census, its population was 40,000 in 2,000 families.

Piranshahr

Piranshahr

Piranshahr is a city located in West Azerbaijan Province in west Iran. It is the capital of Piranshahr County.

Khoy

Khoy

Khoy, is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 200,985.

Salmas

Salmas

Salmas is the capital of Salmas County, West Azerbaijan Province in Iran. It is located northwest of Lake Urmia, near Turkey. According to the 2019 census, the city's population is 127,864. The majority of the population is composed of Azerbaijanis and Kurds with some Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews.

Background

Iran was invaded by the Allies in late August 1941, with the Soviets controlling the north. In the absence of a central government, the Soviets attempted to attach northwestern Iran to the Soviet Union, and promoted Kurdish nationalism. From these factors resulted a Kurdish manifesto that above all sought autonomy and self-government for the Kurdish people in Iran within the limits of the Iranian state.[13] In the town of Mahabad, inhabited mostly by Kurds, a committee of middle-class people supported by tribal chiefs took over the local administration. A political party called the Society for the Revival of Kurdistan (Komeley Jiyanewey Kurdistan or JK) was formed. Qazi Muhammad, head of a family of religious jurists, was elected as chairman of the party. Although the republic was not declared until December 1945, Qazi's committee administered the area for more than five years until the fall of the republic.[14]

In 1946 UNSC passed resolutions 2, 3 and 5, urging and eventually facilitating the removal of Soviet forces still occupying Iran.

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Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran or Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the joint invasion of the neutral Imperial State of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union in August 1941. The invasion, code name Operation Countenance, was largely unopposed by the numerically and technologically outmatched Iranian forces. The multi-pronged coordinated invasion took place along Iran's borders with the Kingdom of Iraq, Azerbaijan SSR, and Turkmen SSR, with fighting beginning on 25 August and ending on 31 August when the Iranian government formally agreed to surrender, having already agreed to a ceasefire on 30 August.

Allies of World War II

Allies of World War II

The Allies, formally referred to as the United Nations from 1942, were an international military coalition formed during the Second World War (1939–1945) to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy. Its principal members by 1941 were the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and China.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Kurdish nationalism

Kurdish nationalism

Kurdish nationalism is a nationalist political movement which asserts that Kurds are a nation and espouses the creation of a sovereign Kurdistan state, in opposition to the various nationalisms of the states to which Kurds are native.

Qazi Muhammad

Qazi Muhammad

Qazi Muhammad was an Iranian Kurdish leader who founded the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan and headed the short-lived, Soviet-backed Republic of Mahabad. He was hanged by the Pahlavi dynasty for treason in 1947.

Faqīh

Faqīh

A faqīh is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2, adopted on January 30, 1946, encouraged Iran and the Soviet Union to resolve their conflict concerning Soviet troops occupying Iranian territory. The Security Council requested to be updated on negotiations between the two sides at any time.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 3

United Nations Security Council Resolution 3

United Nations Security Council Resolution 3, adopted on April 4, 1946, acknowledged that the Soviet troops in Iran could not be removed in time to meet their deadline under the Tri-Partite Treaty but requested the Soviet Union remove them as fast as possible and that no member state in any way retard this process. If any developments threaten the withdrawal of troops, the Security Council requested to be informed.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 5

United Nations Security Council Resolution 5

United Nations Security Council Resolution 5, adopted on May 8, 1946, deferred decisions on Soviet troops in Iran until the Iranian government had time to confer with the Soviet Union and submit a report to the UN regarding all information about Soviet troops in their country.

Foundation

In western Azerbaijan, the Soviet commander at Mīāndoāb summoned the Kurdish chieftains and transported them to Baku in Azerbaijan SSR.[15] There, in late September, 1945, the Prime Minister of the Azerbaijan SSR told them that neither their own nationalist party, the Komala-ye Žīān-e Kordestān, nor the Tūda Party was looked on favorably, that they should seek their goals within Azerbaijani autonomy, and that they should call themselves the Democratic Party of Kurdistan .[15] The Azerbaijan movement, one must keep in mind, was not created solely by Soviet pressures. The Kurds opposed, among other things, the government’s attempts at detribalization. Thus, a concern for identity within their own communal groups seemed logical to both Kurds and Azeris in the aftermath of the Soviet occupation in 1941.[15] On December 10, the Democratic Party took control of East Azerbaijan Province from Iranian government forces, forming the Azerbaijan People's Government. Qazi Muhammad decided to do likewise, and on December 15, the Kurdish People's Government was founded in Mahabad. On January 22, 1946, Qazi Muhammad announced the formation of the Republic of Mahabad. Some of the aims mentioned in the manifesto include:[11]

  • Autonomy for the Iranian Kurds within the Iranian state.
  • The use of Kurdish as the medium of education and administration.
  • The election of a provincial council for Kurdistan to supervise state and social matters.
  • All state officials to be of local origin.
  • Unity and fraternity with the Azerbaijani people.
  • The establishment of a single law for both peasants and notables. [sic]

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Qazi Muhammad

Qazi Muhammad

Qazi Muhammad was an Iranian Kurdish leader who founded the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan and headed the short-lived, Soviet-backed Republic of Mahabad. He was hanged by the Pahlavi dynasty for treason in 1947.

Miandoab

Miandoab

Miandoab is a city and capital of Miandoab County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 135,880, in 38,704 families.

Baku

Baku

Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku lies on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. Baku's urban population was estimated at two million people as of 2009. Baku is the primate city of Azerbaijan - it is the sole metropolis in the country, and about 25% of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan, officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991. Created on 28 April 1920 when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic brought pro-Soviet figures to power in the region, the first two years of the Azerbaijani SSR were as an independent country until incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR, along with the Armenian SSR and the Georgian SSR.

Detribalization

Detribalization

Detribalization is the process by which persons who belong to a particular Indigenous ethnic identity or community are detached from that identity or community through the deliberate efforts of colonizers and/or the larger effects of colonialism.

Azerbaijan People's Government

Azerbaijan People's Government

The Azerbaijan People's Government was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946. Like the unrecognized Republic of Mahabad, it was a puppet state of the Soviet Union. Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan People's Government capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War.

Sic

Sic

The Latin adverb sic inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling, punctuation, or grammar. It also applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be interpreted as an error of transcription.

Education

Education was aimed to be provided for free and to be in Kurdish language. But at the beginning of the republic, the teachers had to translate from the textbooks in Persian language to the Kurdish language. Only at the end of the existence of the republic, text books in the Kurdish language were to be distributed to the schools.[16] On the same day he also announced the formation of high school for girls.[16]

Relationship to the Soviets

The Republic of Mahabad depended on Soviet support. Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, Jr., grandson of the former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, wrote in 1947 in "The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad" that a major problem of the People's Republic of Mahabad was that the Kurds needed the assistance of the USSR; only with the Red Army did they have a chance. However, the Republic's close relationship with the USSR alienated it from most Western powers, causing them to side with Iran's central government. Qazi Muhammad did not deny that the Soviets funded and supplied his republic, but did deny that the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) was a communist party. He portrayed this notion as a lie fabricated by the Iranian military authorities, and added that his ideals differed greatly from those of the Soviets.[17]

Contemporaries – both friends and foes – tended to exaggerate the Soviet role in the Republic of Mahabad. While Kurdish nationalist leaders Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou and Jalal Talabani stressed Soviet friendship and support, others like Robert Rossow, Jr., the American chargé d'affaires in neighboring Azerbaijan, and historian William Linn Westermann branded the republic a Soviet puppet state.[18] This notion was also widespread amongst Kurdish tribal leaders, many of whom disagreed with Qazi's leadership.[19]

The Soviets were however generally ambivalent towards the Kurdish administration. They did not maintain a garrison near Mahabad and also did not have any civil agent of sufficient standing to exercise any great influence. They encouraged Qazi's administration by practical benevolent operations such as providing motor transport, keeping out the Iranian army, and buying the whole of the tobacco crop. On the other hand, the Soviets initially did not like the Kurdish administration's refusal to be absorbed into the larger Democratic Republic of (Persian) Azerbaijan, and discouraged the formation of an independent Kurdish state.[14] Following the fall of Mahabad, they however allowed for the safe passage of Mustafa Barzani and his followers into the Soviet Union.

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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr., often referred to as Teddy or by his initials, T. R., was an American politician, statesman, soldier, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously served as the 25th vice president under President William McKinley from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900. Assuming the presidency after McKinley's assassination, Roosevelt emerged as a leader of the Republican Party and became a driving force for anti-trust and Progressive policies.

Red Army

Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, often shortened to the Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established in January 1918. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Starting in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in 1991.

Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan

Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan

The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq. It is banned in Iran and thus not able to operate openly.

Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou

Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou

Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou was a Kurdish politician and Kurdish leader. Ghassemlou was the Secretary-General of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) from 1973 until his assassination in 1989 by individuals suspected of being agents of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Jalal Talabani

Jalal Talabani

Jalal Talabani was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as the sixth president of Iraq from 2006 to 2014, as well as the president of the Governing Council of Iraq. He was the first non-Arab president of Iraq. He is known as Mam Jalal amongst the Kurds.

Robert Rossow, Jr.

Robert Rossow, Jr.

Robert Rossow, Jr. was the Deputy of the Embassy of the United States of America in Tabriz, Iran, where he served from December 1945 to June 1946. He then headed the Political Department of the US Embassy in Tehran until January 1947.

Chargé d'affaires

Chargé d'affaires

A chargé d'affaires, plural chargés d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes in colloquial English to charge-D, is a diplomat who serves as an embassy's chief of mission in the absence of the ambassador. The term is French for "charged with business", meaning they are responsible for the duties of an ambassador. Chargé is masculine in gender; the feminine form is chargée d'affaires.

Azerbaijan People's Government

Azerbaijan People's Government

The Azerbaijan People's Government was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946. Like the unrecognized Republic of Mahabad, it was a puppet state of the Soviet Union. Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan People's Government capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War.

William Linn Westermann

William Linn Westermann

William Linn Westermann was an American historian and papyrologist who served as the president of the American Historical Association in 1944. He was regarded as an expert on the economy of the ancient world.

Puppet state

Puppet state

A puppet state, puppet régime, puppet government or dummy government, is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through means such as financial interests, economic, or military support. By leaving a local government in existence the outside Powers evade all responsibility, while at the same time successfully paralyzing the Government they tolerate.

Garrison

Garrison

A garrison is any body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it. The term now often applies to certain facilities that constitute a military base or fortified military headquarters. A garrison is usually in a city, town, fort, castle, ship, or similar site. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby.

Mustafa Barzani

Mustafa Barzani

Mustafa Barzani also known as Mela Mustafa, was a Kurdish leader, general and one of the most prominent political figures in modern Kurdish politics. In 1946, he was chosen as the leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) to lead the Kurdish revolution against Iraq. Barzani was the primary political and military leader of the Kurdish revolution until his death in March 1979. He led campaigns of armed insurgency against both the Iraqi and Iranian governments.

End

On 26 March 1946, due to pressure from Western powers including the United States, the Soviets promised the Iranian government that they would pull out of northwestern Iran. In June, Iran reasserted its control over Iranian Azerbaijan. This move isolated the Republic of Mahabad, eventually leading to its destruction.

Qazi Muhammad's internal support eventually declined, especially among the Kurdish tribes who had supported him initially. Their crops and supplies were dwindling, and their way of life was becoming hard as a result of the isolation. Economic aid and military assistance from the Soviet Union was gone, and the tribes saw no reason to support him. The townspeople and the tribes had a large divide between them, and their alliance for Mahabad was crumbling. The tribes and their leaders had only supported Qazi Muhammad for his economic and military aid from the Soviet Union. Once that was gone, many did not see any reason to support him. Other tribes resented the Barzanis, since they did not like sharing their already dwindling resources with them. Some Kurds deserted Mahabad, including one of Mahabad's own marshals, Amir Khan. Mahabad was economically bankrupt, and it would have been nearly impossible for Mahabad to have been economically sound without harmony with Iran.[11]

Those who stayed began to resent the Barzani Kurds, as they had to share their resources with them.

On 5 December 1946, the war council told Qazi Muhammad that they would fight and resist the Iranian army if they tried to enter the region. The lack of Kurdish tribal support however made Qazi Muhammad only see a massacre upon the Kurdish civilians performed by the Iranian army rather than Kurdish rebellion. This forced him to avoid war at all cost.

Ten days later, on 15 December 1946, Iranian forces entered and secured Mahabad. Once there, they closed down the Kurdish printing press, banned the teaching of Kurdish language, and burned all Kurdish books that they could find. Finally, on 31 March 1947, Qazi Muhammad was hanged in Mahabad on counts of treason.[20] At the behest of Archie Roosevelt, Jr., who argued that Qazi had been forced to work with the Soviets out of expediency, U.S. ambassador to Iran George V. Allen urged the Shah not to execute Qazi or his brother, only to be reassured: "Are you afraid I'm going to have them shot? If so, you can rest your mind. I am not." Roosevelt later recounted that the order to have the Qazis killed was likely issued "as soon as our ambassador had closed the door behind him," adding with regard to the Shah: "I never was one of his admirers."[21]

Aftermath

Qazi Muhammed establishing the Republic of Mahabad
Qazi Muhammed establishing the Republic of Mahabad

Mustafa Barzani, with his soldiers from Iraqi Kurdistan, had formed the backbone of the Republic's forces. After the fall of the republic, most of the soldiers and four officers from the Iraqi army decided to return to Iraq. The officers were condemned to death upon returning to Iraq and are today honored along with Qazi as heroes martyred for Kurdistan. Several hundred of the soldiers chose to stay with Barzani. They defeated all efforts of the Iranian army to intercept them in a five-week march and made their way to Soviet Azerbaijan.[14]

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Mustafa Barzani

Mustafa Barzani

Mustafa Barzani also known as Mela Mustafa, was a Kurdish leader, general and one of the most prominent political figures in modern Kurdish politics. In 1946, he was chosen as the leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) to lead the Kurdish revolution against Iraq. Barzani was the primary political and military leader of the Kurdish revolution until his death in March 1979. He led campaigns of armed insurgency against both the Iraqi and Iranian governments.

Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan refers to the Kurdish-populated part of northern Iraq. It is considered one of the four parts of "Kurdistan" in Western Asia, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey, northern Syria, and northwestern Iran. Much of the geographical and cultural region of Iraqi Kurdistan is part of the Kurdistan Region (KRI), an autonomous region recognized by the Constitution of Iraq. As with the rest of Kurdistan, and unlike most of the rest of Iraq, the region is inland and mountainous.

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital and largest city is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Iraqi Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidis, Mandaeans, Persians and Shabakis with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. The vast majority of the country's 44 million residents are Muslims – the notable other faiths are Christianity, Yazidism, Mandaeism, Yarsanism and Zoroastrianism. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish; others also recognised in specific regions are Neo-Aramaic, Turkish and Armenian.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Azerbaijan, officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991. Created on 28 April 1920 when the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic brought pro-Soviet figures to power in the region, the first two years of the Azerbaijani SSR were as an independent country until incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR, along with the Armenian SSR and the Georgian SSR.

Source: "Republic of Mahabad", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Mahabad.

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Notes
  1. ^ Nerwiy, Hawar Khalil Taher (2012). The Republic of Kurdistan, 1946 (PDF) (Thesis). University of Leiden. p. 13. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  2. ^ Nina Caspersen, Gareth Stansfield (2012), Unrecognized States in the International System, Exeter Studies in Ethno Politics, Routledge, p. 5, ISBN 9781136849992
  3. ^ a b Frederik Coene (2009), The Caucasus – An Introduction, Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series, Routledge, p. 136, ISBN 9781135203023, As a result, the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kurdish People's Republic (the Republic of Mahabad), two short-lived Soviet puppet states, were set up late in 1945...
  4. ^ a b Donald Newton Wilber (2014). Iran, Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Princeton University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-1400857470. In December the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, announced the establishment of an autonomous state of Azerbaijan, and at the same time the Russians set up another puppet state, the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad, also in Azerbaijan.
  5. ^ Nerwiy, Hawar Khalil Taher (2012). The Republic of Kurdistan, 1946 (PDF) (Thesis). University of Leiden. p. 13. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  6. ^ STANSFIELD, GARETH (March 2013). "The unravelling of the post-First World War state system? The Kurdistan Region of Iraq and the transformation of the Middle East". International Affairs. 89 (2): 259–282. doi:10.1111/1468-2346.12017. ISSN 0020-5850.
  7. ^ Taher, Hawar Kh. (2017-03-30). "پێگه‌هێ سیاسى یێ ئیرانێ پشتى رێكه‌فتنا پێنج كو ئێك (5+1)". Humanities Journal of University of Zakho. 5 (1): 35. doi:10.26436/2017.5.1.153. ISSN 2410-7557.
  8. ^ Ahmadzadeh, Hashim (March 2006). "Women of a Non-State Nation: The Kurds, Shahrzad Mojab, ed., Kurdish Studies Series, No. 3, Costa Mesa and California: Mazda Publishers, 2001, ISBN: 1-56859-093-8, 263 pp". Iranian Studies. 39 (1): 118–121. doi:10.1017/s0021086200022763. ISSN 0021-0862. S2CID 245663931.
  9. ^ Romano, David (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization and Identity. Cambridge Middle East studies, 22. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 9780521850414. OCLC 61425259.
  10. ^ Chelkowski, Peter J.; Pranger, Robert J. (1988). Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 399. ISBN 9780822307815. OCLC 16923212.
  11. ^ a b c McDowall 2004, pp. 244–245.
  12. ^ Vali, Abbas (2014). Kurds and the State in Iran: The Making of Kurdish Identity. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 43.
  13. ^ Allain, Jean (2004). International Law in the Middle East: Closer to Power than Justice. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 27–28.
  14. ^ a b c C. J. Edmonds, Kurdish Nationalism, Journal of Contemporary History, pp. 87–107 [96], 1971
  15. ^ a b c Kuniholm, B. "Azerbaijan v. History from 1941 to 1947". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  16. ^ a b Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7.
  17. ^ Meiselas, Susan (1997). Kurdistan In the Shadow of History. Random House. p. 182. ISBN 0-679-42389-3.
  18. ^ Voller 2014, p. 46.
  19. ^ McDowall 2004, p. 242.
  20. ^ McDowall 2004, pp. 243–246.
  21. ^ Wilford, Hugh (2013). America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Basic Books. p. 53. ISBN 9780465019656.
References
  • "The Republic of Kurdistan: Fifty Years Later", International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 11, no. 1 & 2, (1997).
  • The Kurdish Republic of 1946, William Eagleton, Jr. (London: Oxford University Press, 1963)
  • (in German) Moradi Golmorad: "Ein Jahr autonome Regierung in Kurdistan, die Mahabad-Republik 1946–1947" in: Geschichte der kurdischen Aufstandsbewegungen von der arabisch-islamischen Invasion bis zur Mahabad-Republik, Bremen 1992, ISBN 3-929089-00-9
  • (in French) M. Khoubrouy-Pak: Une république éphémère au Kurdistan, Paris u.a. 2002, ISBN 2-7475-2803-0
  • Archie Roosevelt, Jr., "The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad", Middle East Journal, no. 1 (July 1947), pp. 247–269.
  • William Linn Westermann, "Kurdish Independence and Russian Expansion", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 24, 1945–1946, pp. 675–686
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  • Meiselas, Susan Kurdistan In the Shadow of History, Random House, 1997. ISBN 0-679-42389-3
  • Voller, Yaniv (2014). The Kurdish Liberation Movement in Iraq: From Insurgency to Statehood. Routledge. pp. 45–47. ISBN 978-0415-70724-4.
  • Yassin, Burhaneddin A., "A History of the Republic of Kurdistan", The International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 11, nos. 1–2 (1997): 115–240.
  • Yassin, Burhaneddin A., Vision or Reality: The Kurds in the Policy of the Great Powers, 1941–1947, Lund University Press, Lund/Sweden, 1995. ISSN 0519-9700, ISBN 91-7966-315-X Lund University Press. ou ISBN 0-86238-389-7 Chartwell-Bratt Ltd.
  • (in Russian) Масуд Барзани. Мустафа Барзани и курдское освободительное движение. Пер. А. Ш. Хаурами, СПб, Наука, 2005.
  • (in Russian) М. С. Лазарев. Курдистан и курдский вопрос (1923–1945). М., Издательская фирма «Восточная литература» РАН, 2005.
  • (in Russian) Жигалина О. И. Национальное движение курдов в Иране (1918–1947). М., «Наука», 1988.
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  • (in Russian) Муртаза Зарбахт. От Иракского Курдистана до другого берега реки Аракс. Пер. с курдск. А. Ш. Хаурами. М.-СПб, 2003.
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