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Rashtrakuta dynasty

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Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta
753 CE–982 CE
Indian Rashtrakuta Empire map.svg
  Core extent of Rashtrakuta Empire, 800 CE, 915 CE.
[1]
StatusEmpire
CapitalManyakheta
Common languagesKannada
Sanskrit
Religion
Hinduism
Jainism
Buddhism[2]
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharaja 
• 735–756
Dantidurga
• 973–982
Indra IV
History 
• Earliest Rashtrakuta records
753 CE
• Established
753 CE
• Disestablished
982 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Chalukya dynasty
Western Chalukya Empire
Today part ofIndia

Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) (r. 753-982 CE) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from manapur a city in Central or West India. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native homeland and their language.

The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753 AD. At the same time the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa were gaining force in eastern and northwestern India respectively. An Arabic text, Silsilat al-Tawarikh (851), called the Rashtrakutas one of the four principal empires of the world.[3]

This period, between the eighth and the 10th centuries, saw a tripartite struggle for the resources of the rich Gangetic plains, each of these three empires annexing the seat of power at Kannauj for short periods of time. At their peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Kanyakumari in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions. The early kings of this dynasty were influenced by Hinduism and the later kings by Jainism.

During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I, the most famous king of this dynasty wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanatha Temple at Ellora in modern Maharashtra. Other important contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Discover more about Rashtrakuta dynasty related topics

Dynasty

Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in republics. A dynasty may also be referred to as a "house", "family" or "clan", among others. The longest surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC and historically attested from AD 781.

Indian subcontinent

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a physiographical region in Southern Asia. It is situated on the Indian Plate, projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geopolitically, it includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The terms Indian subcontinent and South Asia are often used interchangeably to denote the region, although the geopolitical term of South Asia frequently includes Afghanistan, which may otherwise be classified as Central Asian.

Achalpur

Achalpur

Achalpur, formerly known as Ellichpur and Illychpur, is a city and a municipal council in Amravati District in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the second most populous city in Amravati District after Amravati and seventh most populous city in Vidarbha. Achalpur camp is known as Paratwada.

Dantidurga

Dantidurga

Dantidurga, also known as Dantivarman II was the founder of the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. His capital was based in Gulbarga region of Karnataka. His successor was his uncle Krishna I who extended his kingdom to all of Karnataka.

Bengal

Bengal

Bengal is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. Geographically, it consists of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest river delta in the world and a section of the Himalayas up to Nepal and Bhutan. Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's northern and eastern areas, while an elevated forested plateau covers its central area; the highest point 3,636 metres (11,929 ft) is at Sandakphu. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest. The region has a monsoon climate, which the Bengali calendar divides into six seasons.

Indo-Gangetic Plain

Indo-Gangetic Plain

The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the North Indian River Plain, is a 700-thousand km2 (172-million-acre) fertile plain encompassing northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, including most of northern and eastern India, around half of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal. The region is named after the Indus and the Ganges rivers and encompasses a number of large urban areas. The plain is bound on the north by the Himalayas, which feed its numerous rivers and are the source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. The southern edge of the plain is marked by the Deccan Plateau. On the west rises the Iranian Plateau. Many developed cities like Delhi, Dhaka, Kolkata, Lahore and Karachi are located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

Ganges

Ganges

The Ganges is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh. The 2,704 km (1,680 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It flows south and east through the Gangetic plain of North India, receiving the right-bank tributary, the Yamuna, which also rises in the western Indian Himalayas, and several left-bank tributaries from Nepal that account for the bulk of its flow. In West Bengal state, India, a feeder canal taking off from its right bank diverts 50% of its flow southwards, artificially connecting it to the Hooghly river. The Ganges continues into Bangladesh, its name changing to the Padma. It is then joined by the Jamuna, the lower stream of the Brahmaputra, and eventually the Meghna, forming the major estuary of the Ganges Delta, and emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna system is the third largest river on earth by discharge.

Doab

Doab

Doab is a term used in South Asia for the tract of land lying between two confluent rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as from Persian do-āb "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers.

Hinduism

Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion or dharma, a religious and universal order or way of life by which followers abide. As a religion, it is the world's third-largest, with over 1.2–1.35 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma, a modern usage, which refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history, as revealed in the Hindu texts. Another endonym is Vaidika dharma, the dharma related to the Vedas.

Jainism

Jainism

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

Dravidian architecture

Dravidian architecture

Dravidian architecture, or the South Indian temple style, is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged from South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century. It is seen in Hindu temples, and the most distinctive difference from north Indian styles is the use of a shorter and more pyramidal tower over the garbhagriha or sanctuary called a vimana, where the north has taller towers, usually bending inwards as they rise, called shikharas. However, for modern visitors to larger temples the dominating feature is the high gopura or gatehouse at the edge of the compound; large temples have several, dwarfing the vimana; these are a much more recent development. There are numerous other distinct features such as the dwarapalakas – twin guardians at the main entrance and the inner sanctum of the temple and goshtams – deities carved in niches on the outer side walls of the garbhagriha.

Ellora Caves

Ellora Caves

Ellora is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. It is one of the largest rock-cut Hindu temple cave complexes in the world, with artwork dating from the period 600–1000 CE. Cave 16 features the largest single monolithic rock excavation in the world, the Kailash temple, a chariot-shaped monument dedicated to the god Shiva. The Kailash temple excavation also features sculptures depicting various Hindu deities as well as relief panels summarizing the two major Hindu epics.

History

The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history. These issues pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the time of Emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE,[4] and the connection between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the 6th and 7th centuries. The relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous later dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (present-day Malkhed in the Kalaburagi district, Karnataka state), who ruled between the 8th and 10th centuries has also been debated.[5][6][7]

The sources for Rashtrakuta history include medieval inscriptions, ancient literature in the Pali language,[8] contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers.[9] Theories about the dynastic lineage (Surya Vamsa—Solar line and Chandra Vamsa—Lunar line), the native region and the ancestral home have been proposed, based on information gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the ancient clan names such as "Rashtrika", epithets (Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Lattalura Puravaradhiswara), the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, and clues from relics such as coins.[7][10] Scholars debate over which ethnic/linguistic groups can claim the early Rashtrakutas. Possibilities include the Kannadiga,[11][12][13][14][15] Reddi,[16] the Maratha,[17][18] the tribes from the Punjab region,[19] or other north western ethnic groups of India.[20]

Scholars however concur that the rulers of the imperial dynasty in the 8th to 10th century made the Kannada language as important as Sanskrit. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use both Kannada and Sanskrit (historians Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben claim they are mostly in Kannada),[21][22][23][24][25] and the rulers encouraged literature in both languages. The earliest existing Kannada literary writings are credited to their court poets and royalty.[26][27][28][29] Though these Rashtrakutas were Kannadigas,[15][7][30][31][32][33][11] they were conversant in a northern Deccan language as well.[34]

The heart of the Rashtrakuta empire included nearly all of Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Andhra Pradesh, an area which the Rashtrakutas ruled for over two centuries. The Samangadh copper plate grant (753) confirms that the feudatory King Dantidurga, who probably ruled from Achalapura in Berar (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra), defeated the great Karnatic army (referring to the army of the Badami Chalukyas) of Kirtivarman II of Badami in 753 and took control of the northern regions of the Chalukya empire.[35][36][37] He then helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, and the rulers of Kalinga, Kosala and Srisailam.[38][39]

Dantidurga's successor Krishna I brought major portions of present-day Karnataka and Konkan under his control.[40][41] During the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took control in 780, the kingdom expanded into an empire that encompassed all of the territory between the Kaveri River and Central India.[40][42][43][44] He led successful expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian power where he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and vast booty but not more territory. He also brought the Eastern Chalukyas and Gangas of Talakad under his control.[40][45] According to Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas became a pan-India power during his rule.[44][46]

Expansion

The ascent of Dhruva Dharavarsha's third son, Govinda III, to the throne heralded an era of success like never before.[48] There is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at this time.[49][50][51] During his rule there was a three way conflict between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for control over the Gangetic plains. Describing his victories over the Pratihara Emperor Nagabhatta II and the Pala Emperor Dharmapala,[40] the Sanjan inscription states the horses of Govinda III drank from the icy waters of the Himalayan streams and his war elephants tasted the sacred waters of the Ganges.[52][53] His military exploits have been compared to those of Alexander the Great and Arjuna of Mahabharata.[54] Having conquered Kannauj, he travelled south, took firm hold over Gujarat, Kosala (Kaushal), Gangavadi, humbled the Pallavas of Kanchi, installed a ruler of his choice in Vengi and received two statues as an act of submission from the king of Ceylon (one statue of the king and another of his minister). The Cholas, the Pandyas and the Kongu Cheras of Karur all paid him tribute.[55][56][57][58] As one historian puts it, the drums of the Deccan were heard from the Himalayan caves to the shores of the Malabar Coast.[54] The Rashtrakutas empire now spread over the areas from Cape Comorin to Kannauj and from Banaras to Bharuch.[59][60]

The successor of Govinda III, Amoghavarsha I made Manyakheta his capital and ruled a large empire. Manyakheta remained the Rashtrakutas' regal capital until the end of the empire.[61][62][63] He came to the throne in 814 but it was not until 821 that he had suppressed revolts from feudatories and ministers. Amoghavarsha I made peace with the Western Ganga dynasty by giving them his two daughters in marriage, and then defeated the invading Eastern Chalukyas at Vingavalli and assumed the title Viranarayana.[64][65] His rule was not as militant as that of Govinda III as he preferred to maintain friendly relations with his neighbours, the Gangas, the Eastern Chalukyas and the Pallavas with whom he also cultivated marital ties. His era was an enriching one for the arts, literature and religion. Widely seen as the most famous of the Rashtrakuta Emperors, Amoghavarsha I was an accomplished scholar in Kannada and Sanskrit.[66][67] His Kavirajamarga is considered an important landmark in Kannada poetics and Prashnottara Ratnamalika in Sanskrit is a writing of high merit and was later translated into the Tibetan language.[68] Because of his religious temperament, his interest in the arts and literature and his peace-loving nature, he has been compared to the emperor Ashoka and called "Ashoka of the South".[69]

During the rule of Krishna II, the empire faced a revolt from the Eastern Chalukyas and its size decreased to the area including most of the Western Deccan and Gujarat.[70] Krishna II ended the independent status of the Gujarat branch and brought it under direct control from Manyakheta. Indra III recovered the dynasty's fortunes in central India by defeating the Paramara and then invaded the doab region of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers. He also defeated the dynasty's traditional enemies, the Pratiharas and the Palas, while maintaining his influence over Vengi.[70][71][72] The effect of his victories in Kannauj lasted several years according to the 930 copper plate inscription of Emperor Govinda IV.[73][74] After a succession of weak kings during whose reigns the empire lost control of territories in the north and east, Krishna III the last great ruler consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon.[75][76][77][78][79]

Decline

In 972 A.D.,[80] during the rule of Khottiga Amoghavarsha, the Paramara King Siyaka Harsha attacked the empire and plundered Manyakheta, the capital of the Rashtrakutas. This seriously undermined the reputation of the Rastrakuta Empire and consequently led to its downfall.[81] The final decline was sudden as Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta ruling from Tardavadi province in modern Bijapur district, declared himself independent by taking advantage of this defeat.[82][83] Indra IV, the last emperor, committed Sallekhana (fasting unto death practised by Jain monks) at Shravanabelagola. With the fall of the Rashtrakutas, their feudatories and related clans in the Deccan and northern India declared independence. The Western Chalukyas annexed Manyakheta and made it their capital until 1015 and built an impressive empire in the Rashtrakuta heartland during the 11th century. The focus of dominance shifted to the Krishna River – Godavari River doab called Vengi. The former feudatories of the Rashtrakutas in western Deccan were brought under control of the Chalukyas, and the hitherto-suppressed Cholas of Tanjore became their arch enemies in the south.[84]

In conclusion, the rise of Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta had a great impact on India, even on India's north. Sulaiman (851), Al-Masudi (944) and Ibn Khurdadba (912) wrote that their empire was the largest in contemporary India and Sulaiman further called it one among the four great contemporary empires of the world.[85][86][87] According to the travelogues of the Arabs Al Masudi and Ibn Khordidbih of the 10th century, "most of the kings of Hindustan turned their faces towards the Rashtrakuta king while they were praying, and they prostrated themselves before his ambassadors. The Rashtrakuta king was known as the "King of kings" (Rajadhiraja) who possessed the mightiest of armies and whose domains extended from Konkan to Sind."[88] Some historians have called these times an "Age of Imperial Kannauj". Since the Rashtrakutas successfully captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and presented themselves as masters of North India, the era could also be called the "Age of Imperial Karnataka".[87] During their political expansion into central and northern India in the 8th to the 10th centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their relatives created several kingdoms that either ruled during the reign of the parent empire or continued to rule for centuries after its fall or came to power much later. Well known among these were the Rashtrakutas of Gujarat (757–888),[89] the Rattas of Saundatti (875–1230) in modern Karnataka,[90] the Gahadavalas of Kannauj (1068–1223),[91] the Rashtrakutas of Rajasthan (known as Rajputana) and ruling from Hastikundi or Hathundi (893–996),[92] Dahal (near Jabalpur),[93] Rathores of Mandore (near Jodhpur), the Rathores of Dhanop,[94] Rashtraudha dynasty of Mayuragiri in modern Maharashtra[95] and Rashtrakutas of Kannauj.[96] Rajadhiraja Chola's conquest of the island of Ceylon in the early 11th century CE led to the fall of four kings there. According to historian K. Pillay, one of them, King Madavarajah of the Jaffna kingdom, was an usurper from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.[97]

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Origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty

Origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty

The Origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic and has been debated over the past decades by historians. The differing opinions mostly revolve around issues such as the home of the earliest ancestors of the medieval Rashtrakutas, a possible southern migration during the early part of the first millennium and the relationship between the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan in the 6th century - 7th century. Further, the relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most important and famous dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta of the 8th century - 10th century time period has also been debated. Also contested is whether the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta were related by ancestry to the early Kannada, Maratha, Reddi communities of the Deccan or other ethnic groups of northern India.

Carnatic expansion

Carnatic expansion

The migrations of people and influences to the North from Karnataka during 10-12th century period is well attested by the sources but has not yet been studied carefully. This is known as "The Great Karnataka expansion"

Branches of Rashtrakuta dynasty

Branches of Rashtrakuta dynasty

Several Branches of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were created by the kings, commanders and relatives of the Rashtrakuta family during their expansion into central and northern India in the eighth to the tenth centuries. These kingdoms ruled during the reign of the parent empire or continued to rule for centuries after its fall or came to power much later. Well known among these were the Rashtrakutas of Gujarat (757-888), the Rattas of Saundatti (875-1230) in modern Karnataka, the Rashtrakutas of Rajasthan and ruling from Hastikundi or Hathundi (893-996), Dahal, the Rathores of Mandore and Dhanop, Reddy dynasty of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Rashtraudha dynasty of Mayuragiri in modern Maharashtra and Rashtrakutas of Kanauj.

Ashoka

Ashoka

Ashoka, popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was the third emperor of the Maurya Empire of Indian subcontinent during c. 268 to 232 BCE. His empire covered a large part of the Indian subcontinent, stretching from present-day Afghanistan in the west to present-day Bangladesh in the east, with its capital at Pataliputra. A patron of Buddhism, he is credited with playing an important role in the spread of Buddhism across ancient Asia.

Common Era

Common Era

Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar, the world's most widely used calendar era. Common Era and Before the Common Era are alternatives to the original Anno Domini (AD) and Before Christ (BC) notations used for the same calendar era. The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: "2022 CE" and "AD 2022" each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are the same year.

Kalaburagi district

Kalaburagi district

Kalaburagi district, formerly known as Gulbarga district, is one of the 31 districts of Karnataka state in southern India. Kalaburagi city is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district is the headquarters of Kalaburagi division.

Pali

Pali

Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the Buddhist Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka as well as the sacred language of Theravāda Buddhism. Early in the language's history, it was written in the Brahmi script.

Kannada

Kannada

Kannada, originally romanised Canarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in southwestern India, with minorities in all neighbouring states. It has around 47 million native speakers, and was additionally a second or third language for around 13 million non-native speakers in Karnataka.

Sheldon Pollock

Sheldon Pollock

Sheldon I. Pollock is an American scholar of Sanskrit, the intellectual and literary history of India, and comparative intellectual history. He is the Arvind Raghunathan Professor of South Asian Studies at Columbia University. He was the general editor of the Clay Sanskrit Library and the founding editor of the Murty Classical Library of India.

Karnataka

Karnataka

Karnataka is a state in the southwestern region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as Mysore State, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bengaluru.

Administration

Inscriptions and other literary records indicate the Rashtrakutas selected the crown prince based on heredity. The crown did not always pass on to the eldest son. Abilities were considered more important than age and chronology of birth, as exemplified by the crowning of Govinda III who was the third son of king Dhruva Dharavarsha. The most important position under the king was the Chief Minister (Mahasandhivigrahi) whose position came with five insignia commensurate with his position namely, a flag, a conch, a fan, a white umbrella, a large drum and five musical instruments called Panchamahashabdas. Under him was the commander (Dandanayaka), the foreign minister (Mahakshapataladhikrita) and a prime minister (Mahamatya or Purnamathya), all of whom were usually associated with one of the feudatory kings and must have held a position in government equivalent to a premier.[98] A Mahasamantha was a feudatory or higher ranking regal officer. All cabinet ministers were well versed in political science (Rajneeti) and possessed military training. There were cases where women supervised significant areas as when Revakanimaddi, daughter of Amoghavarsha I, administered Edathore Vishaya.

The kingdom was divided into Mandala or Rashtras (provinces). A Rashtra was ruled by a Rashtrapathi who on occasion was the emperor himself. Amoghavarsha I's empire had sixteen Rashtras. Under a Rashtra was a Vishaya (district) overseen by a Vishayapathi. Trusted ministers sometimes ruled more than a Rashtra. For example, Bankesha, a commander of Amoghavarsha I headed Banavasi-12000, Belvola-300, Puligere-300, Kunduru-500 and Kundarge-70, the suffix designating the number of villages in that territory. Below the Vishaya was the Nadu looked after by the Nadugowda or Nadugavunda; sometimes there were two such officials, one assuming the position through heredity and another appointed centrally. The lowest division was a Grama or village administered by a Gramapathi or Prabhu Gavunda.[99]

The Rashtrakuta army consisted of large contingents of infantry, horsemen, and elephants. A standing army was always ready for war in a cantonment (Sthirabhuta Kataka) in the regal capital of Manyakheta. Large armies were also maintained by the feudatory kings who were expected to contribute to the defense of the empire in case of war. Chieftains and all the officials also served as commanders whose postings were transferable if the need arose.[100]

The Rashtrakutas issued coins (minted in an Akkashale) such as Suvarna, Drammas in silver and gold weighing 65 grains, Kalanju weighing 48 grains, Gadyanaka weighing 96 grains, Kasu weighing 15 grains, Manjati with 2.5 grains and Akkam of 1.25 grain.[101]

Economy

Kashivishvanatha temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka
Kashivishvanatha temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka

The Rashtrakuta economy was sustained by its natural and agricultural produce, its manufacturing revenues and moneys gained from its conquests. Cotton was the chief crop of the regions of southern Gujarat, Khandesh and Berar. Minnagar, Gujarat, Ujjain, Paithan and Tagara were important centres of textile industry. Muslin cloth were manufactured in Paithan and Warangal. The cotton yarn and cloth was exported from Bharoch. White calicos were manufactured in Burhanpur and Berar and exported to Persia, Byzantines, Khazaria, Arabia and Egypt.[102] The Konkan region, ruled by the feudatory Silharas, produced large quantities of betel leaves, coconut and rice while the lush forests of Mysore, ruled by the feudatory Gangas, produced such woods as sandal, timber, teak and ebony. Incense and perfumes were exported from the ports of Thana and Saimur.[103]

The Deccan was rich in minerals, though its soil was not as fertile as that of the Gangetic plains. The copper mines of Cudappah, Bellary, Chanda, Buldhana, Narsingpur, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Dharwar were an important source of income and played an important role in the economy.[104] Diamonds were mined in Cudappah, Bellary, Kurnool and Golconda; the capital Manyakheta and Devagiri were important diamond and jewellery trading centres. The leather industry and tanning flourished in Gujarat and some regions of northern Maharashtra. Mysore with its vast elephant herds was important for the ivory industry.[105]

The Rashtrakuta empire controlled most of the western sea board of the subcontinent which facilitated its maritime trade.[103] The Gujarat branch of the empire earned a significant income from the port of Bharoch, one of the most prominent ports in the world at that time.[106] The empire's chief exports were cotton yarn, cotton cloth, muslins, hides, mats, indigo, incense, perfumes, betel nuts, coconuts, sandal, teak, timber, sesame oil and ivory. Its major imports were pearls, gold, dates from Arabia, slaves, Italian wines, tin, lead, topaz, storax, sweet clover, flint glass, antimony, gold and silver coins, singing boys and girls (for the entertainment of the royalty) from other lands. Trading in horses was an important and profitable business, monopolised by the Arabs and some local merchants.[107] The Rashtrakuta government levied a shipping tax of one golden Gadyanaka on all foreign vessels embarking to any other ports and a fee of one silver Ctharna ( a coin) on vessels travelling locally.[108]

Artists and craftsman operated as corporations (guilds) rather than as individual business. Inscriptions mention guilds of weavers, oilmen, artisans, basket and mat makers and fruit sellers. A Saundatti inscription refers to an assemblage of all the people of a district headed by the guilds of the region.[109] Some guilds were considered superior to others, just as some corporations were, and received royal charters determining their powers and privileges. Inscriptions suggest these guilds had their own militia to protect goods in transit and, like village assemblies, they operated banks that lent money to traders and businesses.[110]

The government's income came from five principal sources: regular taxes, occasional taxes, fines, income taxes, miscellaneous taxes and tributes from feudatories.[111] An emergency tax was imposed occasionally and were applicable when the kingdom was under duress, such as when it faced natural calamities, or was preparing for war or overcoming war's ravages. Income tax included taxes on crown land, wasteland, specific types of trees considered valuable to the economy, mines, salt, treasures unearthed by prospectors.[112] Additionally, customary presents were given to the king or royal officers on such festive occasions as marriage or the birth of a son.[113]

The king determined the tax levels based on need and circumstances in the kingdom while ensuring that an undue burden was not placed on the peasants.[114] The land owner or tenant paid a variety of taxes, including land taxes, produce taxes and payment of the overhead for maintenance of the Gavunda (village head). Land taxes were varied, based on type of land, its produce and situation and ranged from 8% to 16%. A Banavasi inscription of 941 mentions reassessment of land tax due to the drying up of an old irrigation canal in the region.[115] The land tax may have been as high as 20% to pay for expenses of a military frequently at war.[116] In most of the kingdom, land taxes were paid in goods and services and rarely was cash accepted.[117] A portion of all taxes earned by the government (usually 15%) was returned to the villages for maintenance.[115]

Taxes were levied on artisans such as potters, sheep herders, weavers, oilmen, shopkeepers, stall owners, brewers and gardeners. Taxes on perishable items such as fish, meat, honey, medicine, fruits and essentials like fuel was as high as 16%.[108] Taxes on salt and minerals were mandatory although the empire did not claim sole ownership of mines, implying that private mineral prospecting and the quarrying business may have been active.[118] The state claimed all such properties whose deceased legal owner had no immediate family to make an inheritance claim.[119] Other miscellaneous taxes included ferry and house taxes. Only Brahmins and their temple institutions were taxed at a lower rate.[120]

Discover more about Economy related topics

Economy of Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta

Economy of Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta

The Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta came to power in South India in 753 C.E. and ruled for over two centuries. At its peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, in a time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions.

Pattadakal

Pattadakal

Pattadakal, also called Paṭṭadakallu or Raktapura, is a complex of 7th and 8th century CE Hindu and Jain temples in northern Karnataka (India). Located on the west bank of the Malaprabha River in Bagalakote district, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is 14 miles (23 km) from Badami and about 6 miles (9.7 km) from Aihole, both of which are historically significant centres of Chalukya monuments. The monument is a protected site under Indian law and is managed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Khandesh

Khandesh

Khandesh is a geographic region in Central India, which includes parts of the northwestern portion of Maharashtra as well as Burhanpur District of Madhya Pradesh.

Paithan

Paithan

Paithan ['pəɪ.ʈʰaɳ], historically Pratiṣṭhāna [pɾə'tɪʂʈʰana], is a town with municipal council in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India. Paithan is located 56 kilometres (35 mi) south of present-day Aurangabad on the Godavari River. It was the capital of the Satavahana dynasty, which ruled from the second century BCE to the second century CE. It is one of the few inland towns mentioned in the famous first-century Greek book, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Muslin

Muslin

Muslin is a cotton fabric of plain weave. It is made in a wide range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. It gets its name from the city of Mosul, Iraq, where it was first manufactured.

Bharuch

Bharuch

Bharuch, formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada in Gujarat in western India. Bharuch is the administrative headquarters of Bharuch District.

Burhanpur

Burhanpur

Burhanpur is a city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative seat of Burhanpur District. It is situated on the north bank of the Tapti River and 340 kilometres (211 mi) southwest of the state's capital city of Bhopal. The city is a Municipal Corporation.

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire remained the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. The terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" were coined after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire, and to themselves as Romans—a term which Greeks continued to use for themselves into Ottoman times. Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from its earlier incarnation because it was centered on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Betel

Betel

The betel is a vine of the family Piperaceae, which includes pepper and kava. The betel plant is native to Southeast Asia. It is an evergreen, dioecious perennial, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkins. Betel plants are cultivated for their leaves which is most commonly used as flavoring in chewing areca nut.

Thane

Thane

Thane is a metropolitan city in Maharashtra, India. It is situated in the north-eastern portion of the Salsette Island. Thane city is entirely within Thane taluka, one of the seven talukas of Thane district; also, it is the headquarters of the namesake district. With a population of 1,841,488 distributed over a land area of about 147 square kilometres (57 sq mi), Thane city is the 15th most populated city in India with a population of 1,890,000 according to the 2011 census.

Bellary

Bellary

Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Bellary district, is a city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is 311 km (193 mi) from the state capital of Bangalore, 358 km (222 mi) from Hyderabad, 522 km from Chennai and 761 km from Mumbai, The city is 12 km far from the state border of Andhra Pradesh. The district has 5 taluks and 104 villages.

Culture

Religion

The Rashtrakuta kings supported the popular religions of the day in the traditional spirit of religious tolerance.[121] Scholars have offered various arguments regarding which specific religion the Rashtrakutas favoured, basing their evidence on inscriptions, coins and contemporary literature. Some claim the Rashtrakutas were inclined towards Jainism since many of the scholars who flourished in their courts and wrote in Sanskrit, Kannada and a few in Apabhramsha and Prakrit were Jains.[122] The Rashtrakutas built well-known Jain temples at locations such as Lokapura in Bagalkot district and their loyal feudatory, the Western Ganga Dynasty, built Jain monuments at Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. Scholars have suggested that Jainism was a principal religion at the very heart of the empire, modern Karnataka, accounting for more than 30% of the population and dominating the culture of the region.[123] King Amoghavarsha I was a disciple of the Jain acharya Jinasena and wrote in his religious writing, Prashnottara Ratnamalika, "having bowed to Varaddhamana (Mahavira), I write Prashnottara Ratnamalika". The mathematician Mahaviracharya wrote in his Ganita Sarasangraha, "The subjects under Amoghavarsha are happy and the land yields plenty of grain. May the kingdom of King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha, follower of Jainism ever increase far and wide." Amoghavarsha may have taken up Jainism in his old age.[124][125]

However, the Rashtrakuta kings also patronized Hinduism's followers of the Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta faiths. Almost all of their inscriptions begin with an invocation to god Vishnu or god Shiva. The Sanjan inscriptions tell of King Amoghavarsha I sacrificing a finger from his left hand at the Lakshmi temple at Kolhapur to avert a calamity in his kingdom. King Dantidurga performed the Hiranyagarbha (horse sacrifice) and the Sanjan and Cambay plates of King Govinda IV mention Brahmins performing such rituals as Rajasuya, Vajapeya and Agnishtoma.[126] An early copper plate grant of King Dantidurga (753) shows an image of god Shiva and the coins of his successor, King Krishna I (768), bear the legend Parama Maheshwara (another name for Shiva). The kings' titles such as Veeranarayana showed their Vaishnava leanings. Their flag had the sign of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, perhaps copied from the Badami Chalukyas.[127] The famous Kailasnatha temple at Ellora and other rock-cut caves attributed to them show that the Hinduism was flourishing.[126] Their family deity was a goddess by name Latana (also known as Rashtrashyena, Manasa Vindyavasini) who took the form of a falcon to save the kingdom.[128] They built temples with icons and ornamentation that satisfied the needs of different faiths. The temple at Salotgi was meant for followers of Shiva and Vishnu and the temple at Kargudri was meant for worshipers of Shiva, Vishnu and Bhaskara (Surya, the sun god).[122]

In short, the Rashtrakuta rule was tolerant to multiple popular religions, Jainism, Vaishnavaism and Shaivism. Buddhism too found support and was popular in places such as Dambal and Balligavi, although it had declined significantly by this time.[2] The decline of Buddhism in South India began in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita philosophy.[129] Islamic contact with South India began as early as the 7th century, a result of trade between the Southern kingdoms and Arab lands. Jumma Masjids existed in the Rashtrakuta empire by the 10th century[130] and many Muslims lived and mosques flourished on the coasts, specifically in towns such as Kayalpattanam and Nagore. Muslim settlers married local women; their children were known as Mappilas (Moplahs) and were actively involved in horse trading and manning shipping fleets.[131]

Society

Chronicles mention more castes than the four commonly known castes in the Hindu social system, some as many as seven castes.[132] Al-Biruni, the famed 10th century Persian / central Asian Indologist mentions sixteen castes including the four basic castes of Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudras.[133] The Zakaya or Lahud caste consisted of communities specialising in dance and acrobatics.[134] People in the professions of sailing, hunting, weaving, cobblery, basket making and fishing belonged to specific castes or subcastes. The Antyajas caste provided many menial services to the wealthy. Brahmins enjoyed the highest status in Rashtrakuta society; only those Kshatriyas in the Sat-Kshatriya sub-caste (noble Kshatriyas) were higher in status.[135][136]

The careers of Brahmins usually related to education, the judiciary, astrology, mathematics, poetry and philosophy[137] or the occupation of hereditary administrative posts.[138] Also Brahmins increasingly practiced non-Brahminical professions (agriculture, trade in betel nuts and martial posts).[139] Capital punishment, although widespread, was not given to the royal Kshatriya sub-castes or to Brahmins found guilty of heinous crimes (as the killing of a Brahmin in medieval Hindu India was itself considered a heinous crime). As an alternate punishment to enforce the law a Brahmin's right hand and left foot was severed, leaving that person disabled.[140]

By the 9th century, kings from all the four castes had occupied the highest seat in the monarchical system in Hindu India.[141] Admitting Kshatriyas to Vedic schools along with Brahmins was customary, but the children of the Vaishya and Shudra castes were not allowed. Landownership by people of all castes is recorded in inscriptions[142] Intercaste marriages in the higher castes were only between highly placed Kshatriya girls and Brahmin boys,[143] but was relatively frequent among other castes.[144] Intercaste functions were rare and dining together between people of various castes was avoided.[145]

Joint families were the norm but legal separations between brothers and even father and son have been recorded in inscriptions.[146] Women and daughters had rights over property and land as there are inscriptions recording the sale of land by women.[147] The arranged marriage system followed a strict policy of early marriage for women. Among Brahmins, boys married at or below 16 years of age and the brides chosen for them were 12 or younger. This age policy was not strictly followed by other castes.[148] Sati (a custom in which a dead man's widow would immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre) was practiced but the few examples noted in inscriptions were mostly in the royal families.[149] The system of shaving the heads of widows was infrequent as epigraphs note that widows were allowed to grow their hair but decorating it was discouraged.[150] The remarriage of a widow was rare among the upper castes and more accepted among the lower castes.[151]

In the general population men wore two simple pieces of cloth, a loose garment on top and a garment worn like a dhoti for the lower part of the body. Only kings could wear turbans, a practice that spread to the masses much later.[152] Dancing was a popular entertainment and inscriptions speak of royal women being charmed by dancers, both male and female, in the king's palace. Devadasis (girls were "married" to a deity or temple) were often present in temples.[153] Other recreational activities included attending animal fights of the same or different species. The Atakur inscription (hero stone, virgal) was made for the favourite hound of the feudatory Western Ganga King Butuga II that died fighting a wild boar in a hunt.[154] There are records of game preserves for hunting by royalty. Astronomy and astrology were well developed as subjects of study,[154] and there were many superstitious beliefs such as catching a snake alive proved a woman's chastity. Old persons suffering from incurable diseases preferred to end their lives by drowning in the sacred waters of a pilgrim site or by a ritual burning.[155]

Literature

Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka
Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, Karnataka

Kannada became more prominent as a literary language during the Rashtrakuta rule with its script and literature showing remarkable growth, dignity and productivity.[24][27][29] This period effectively marked the end of the classical Prakrit and Sanskrit era. Court poets and royalty created eminent works in Kannada and Sanskrit that spanned such literary forms as prose, poetry, rhetoric, the Hindu epics and the life history of Jain tirthankars. Bilingual writers such as Asaga gained fame,[156] and noted scholars such as the Mahaviracharya wrote on pure mathematics in the court of King Amoghavarsha I.[157][158]

Kavirajamarga (850) by King Amoghavarsha I is the earliest available book on rhetoric and poetics in Kannada,[67][68] though it is evident from this book that native styles of Kannada composition had already existed in previous centuries.[159] Kavirajamarga is a guide to poets (Kavishiksha) that aims to standardize these various styles. The book refers to early Kannada prose and poetry writers such as Durvinita, perhaps the 6th-century monarch of Western Ganga Dynasty.[160][161][162]

The Jain writer Adikavi Pampa, widely regarded as one of the most influential Kannada writers, became famous for Adipurana (941). Written in champu (mixed prose-verse style) style, it is the life history of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhadeva. Pampa's other notable work was Vikramarjuna Vijaya (941), the author's version of the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, with Arjuna as the hero.[163] Also called Pampa Bharata, it is a eulogy of the writer's patron, King Chalukya Arikeseri of Vemulawada (a Rashtrakuta feudatory), comparing the king's virtues favorably to those of Arjuna. Pampa demonstrates such a command of classical Kannada that scholars over the centuries have written many interpretations of his work.[164]

Another notable Jain writer in Kannada was Sri Ponna, patronised by King Krishna III and famed for Shantipurana, his account of the life of Shantinatha, the 16th Jain tirthankara. He earned the title Ubhaya Kavichakravathi (supreme poet in two languages) for his command over both Kannada and Sanskrit. His other writings in Kannada were Bhuvanaika-ramaabhyudaya, Jinaksharamale and Gatapratyagata.[67][165] Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna are called "gems of Kannada literature".[163]

A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills
A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills

Prose works in Sanskrit was prolific during this era as well.[27] Important mathematical theories and axioms were postulated by Mahaviracharya, a native of Gulbarga, who belonged to the Karnataka mathematical tradition and was patronised by King Amoghavarsha I.[157] His greatest contribution was Ganitasarasangraha, a writing in 9 chapters. Somadevasuri of 950 wrote in the court of Arikesari II, a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Krishna III in Vemulavada. He was the author of Yasastilaka champu, Nitivakyamrita and other writings. The main aim of the champu writing was to propagate Jain tenets and ethics. The second writing reviews the subject matter of Arthashastra from the standpoint of Jain morals in a clear and pithy manner.[166] Ugraditya, a Jain ascetic from Hanasoge in the modern Mysore district wrote a medical treatise called Kalyanakaraka. He delivered a discourse in the court of Amoghavarsha I encouraging abstinence from animal products and alcohol in medicine.[167][168]

Trivikrama was a noted scholar in the court of King Indra III. His classics were Nalachampu (915), the earliest in champu style in Sanskrit, Damayanti Katha, Madalasachampu and Begumra plates. Legend has it that Goddess Saraswati helped him in his effort to compete with a rival in the king's court.[166] Jinasena was the spiritual preceptor and guru of Amoghavarsha I. A theologian, his contributions are Dhavala and Jayadhavala (written with another theologian Virasena). These writings are named after their patron king who was also called Athishayadhavala. Other contributions from Jinasena were Adipurana, later completed by his disciple Gunabhadra, Harivamsha and Parshvabhyudaya.[157]

Architecture

Kailasanath Temple at Ellora, Maharashtra
Kailasanath Temple at Ellora, Maharashtra

The Rashtrakutas contributed much to the architectural heritage of the Deccan. Art historian Adam Hardy categorizes their building activity into three schools: Ellora, around Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, and at Sirval near Gulbarga.[169] The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut cave temples at Ellora and Elephanta, areas also occupied by Jain monks, located in present-day Maharashtra. The Ellora site was originally part of a complex of 34 Buddhist caves probably created in the first half of the 6th century whose structural details show Pandyan influence. Cave temples occupied by Hindus are from later periods.[170]

The Rashtrakutas renovated these Buddhist caves and re-dedicated the rock-cut shrines. Amoghavarsha I espoused Jainism and there are five Jain cave temples at Ellora ascribed to his period.[171] The most extensive and sumptuous of the Rashtrakuta works at Ellora is their creation of the monolithic Kailasanath Temple, a splendid achievement confirming the "Balhara" status as "one among the four principal Kings of the world".[86] The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindu mythology including Ravana, Shiva and Parvathi while the ceilings have paintings.

The Kailasanath Temple project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used is Karnata Dravida according to Adam Hardy. It does not contain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka.[172][173] According to art historian Vincent Smith, the achievement at the Kailasanath temple is considered an architectural consummation of the monolithic rock-cut temple and deserves to be considered one of the wonders of the world.[174] According to art historian Percy Brown, as an accomplishment of art, the Kailasanath temple is considered an unrivalled work of rock architecture, a monument that has always excited and astonished travellers.[175]

Dravidian style architecture. Top view of Navalinga Temples at Kuknur, Karnataka
Dravidian style architecture. Top view of Navalinga Temples at Kuknur, Karnataka

While some scholars have claimed the architecture at Elephanta is attributable to the Kalachuri, others claim that it was built during the Rashtrakuta period.[176] Some of the sculptures such as Nataraja and Sadashiva excel in beauty and craftsmanship even that of the Ellora sculptures.[177] Famous sculptures at Elephanta include Ardhanarishvara and Maheshamurthy. The latter, a three faced bust of Lord Shiva, is 25 feet (8 m) tall and considered one of the finest pieces of sculpture in India. It is said that, in the world of sculpture, few works of art depicting a divinity are as balanced.[178]

In Karnataka their most famous temples are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage site.[179][180] Other well-known temples are the Parameshwara temple at Konnur, Brahmadeva temple at Savadi, the Settavva, Kontigudi II, Jadaragudi and Ambigeragudi temples at Aihole, Mallikarjuna temple at Ron, Andhakeshwara temple at Huli (Hooli), Someshwara temple at Sogal, Jain temples at Lokapura, Navalinga temple at Kuknur, Kumaraswamy temple at Sandur, numerous temples at Shirival in Gulbarga,[181] and the Trikuteshwara temple at Gadag which was later expanded by Kalyani Chalukyas. Archeological study of these temples show some have the stellar (multigonal) plan later to be used profusely by the Hoysalas at Belur and Halebidu.[182] One of the richest traditions in Indian architecture took shape in the Deccan during this time which Adam Hardy calls Karnata dravida style as opposed to traditional Dravida style.[183]

Language

9th century Old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka
9th century Old Kannada inscription at Navalinga temple in Kuknur, Karnataka

With the ending of the Gupta Dynasty in northern India in the early 6th century, major changes began taking place in the Deccan south of the Vindyas and in the southern regions of India. These changes were not only political but also linguistic and cultural. The royal courts of peninsular India (outside of Tamilakam) interfaced between the increasing use of the local Kannada language and the expanding Sanskritic culture. Inscriptions, including those that were bilingual, demonstrate the use of Kannada as the primary administrative language in conjunction with Sanskrit.[22][23] Government archives used Kannada for recording pragmatic information relating to grants of land.[184] The local language formed the desi (popular) literature while literature in Sanskrit was more marga (formal). Educational institutions and places of higher learning (ghatikas) taught in Sanskrit, the language of the learned Brahmins, while Kannada increasingly became the speech of personal expression of devotional closeness of a worshipper to a private deity. The patronage Kannada received from rich and literate Jains eventually led to its use in the devotional movements of later centuries.[185]

Contemporaneous literature and inscriptions show that Kannada was not only popular in the modern Karnataka region but had spread further north into present day southern Maharashtra and to the northern Deccan by the 8th century.[186] Kavirajamarga, the work on poetics, refers to the entire region between the Kaveri River and the Godavari River as "Kannada country".[187][188][189] Higher education in Sanskrit included the subjects of Veda, Vyakarana (grammar), Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology), Sahitya (literature), Mimansa (Exegesis), Dharmashastra (law), Puranas (ritual), and Nyaya (logic). An examination of inscriptions from this period shows that the Kavya (classical) style of writing was popular. The awareness of the merits and defects in inscriptions by the archivists indicates that even they, though mediocre poets, had studied standard classical literature in Sanskrit.[190] An inscription in Kannada by King Krishna III, written in a poetic Kanda metre, has been found as far away as Jabalpur in modern Madhya Pradesh.[21] Kavirajamarga, a work on poetics in Kannada by Amoghavarsha I, shows that the study of poetry was popular in the Deccan during this time. Trivikrama's Sanskrit writing, Nalachampu, is perhaps the earliest in the champu style from the Deccan.[191]

Discover more about Culture related topics

Jainism

Jainism

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

Sanskrit

Sanskrit

Sanskrit is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism. It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture, and of the political elites in some of these regions. As a result, Sanskrit had a lasting impact on the languages of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, especially in their formal and learned vocabularies.

Kannada

Kannada

Kannada, originally romanised Canarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in southwestern India, with minorities in all neighbouring states. It has around 47 million native speakers, and was additionally a second or third language for around 13 million non-native speakers in Karnataka.

Prakrit

Prakrit

The Prakrits are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages that were used in the Indian subcontinent from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali.

Bagalkot district

Bagalkot district

Bagalakote district, is an administrative district in the Indian state of Karnataka. The district headquarters is located in the town of Bagalakote. The district is located in northern Karnataka and borders Belgaum, Gadag, Koppal, Raichur and Bijapur. The new Bagalakote district was carved out of Vijayapura in 1997 via Government of Karnataka directive Notification RD 42 LRD 87 Part III. The bifurcated Bagalakote district consists of ten taluks — Badami, Bagalakote, Bilagi, Guledgudda, Rabkavi Banhatti, Hunagund, Ilkal, Jamakhandi and Mudhol,Teradal.

Acharya

Acharya

In Indian religions and society, an acharya is a preceptor and expert instructor in matters such as religion, or any other subject. An Acharya is a highly learned person with a title affixed to the names of learned subject. The designation has different meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism and secular contexts.

Jinasena

Jinasena

Jinasena was a monk and scholar in the Digambara tradition of Jainism. He was patronized by the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I. He was the author of Adipurana and Mahapurana.

Mahavira

Mahavira

Mahavira also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th tirthankara of Jainism. He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in ancient India. His mother's name was Trishala and his father's name was Siddhartha. They were lay devotees of Parshvanatha. Mahavira abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for twelve and a half years, after which he attained Kevala Jnana (omniscience). He preached for 30 years and attained Moksha (liberation) in the 6th century BCE, although the year varies by sect.

Hinduism

Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion or dharma, a religious and universal order or way of life by which followers abide. As a religion, it is the world's third-largest, with over 1.2–1.35 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma, a modern usage, which refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history, as revealed in the Hindu texts. Another endonym is Vaidika dharma, the dharma related to the Vedas.

Shaivism

Shaivism

Shaivism is one of the major Hindu traditions, which worships Shiva as the Supreme Being. One of the largest Hindu denominations, it incorporates many sub-traditions ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-orientated monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism. It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.

Shaktism

Shaktism

Shaktism is one of several major Hindu denominations, wherein the metaphysical reality is considered metaphorically a woman and Shakti (Mahadevi) is regarded as the supreme godhead. It includes many goddesses, all considered aspects of the same supreme goddess. Shaktism has different sub-traditions, ranging from those focused on most worshipped Durga, gracious Parvati to that of fierce Kali.

Shiva

Shiva

Shiva , also known as Mahadeva, or Hara, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions within Hinduism.

List of rulers

List of Rashtrakuta Emperors
Serial No. Ruler Reign (CE)
1 Dantidurga 735–756
2 Krishna I 756–774
3 Govinda II 774–780
4 Dhruva Dharavarsha 780–793
5 Govinda III 793–814
6 Amoghavarsha I 814–878
7 Krishna II 878–914
8 Indra III 914–929
9 Amoghavarsha II 929–932
10 Govinda IV 932–934
11 Amoghavarsha III 934–939
12 Krishna III 939–967
13 Khottiga Amoghavarsha 967–972
14 Karka II alias 'Amoghhavarsha IV' 972–973
15 Indra IV 973–982

Discover more about List of rulers related topics

Dantidurga

Dantidurga

Dantidurga, also known as Dantivarman II was the founder of the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. His capital was based in Gulbarga region of Karnataka. His successor was his uncle Krishna I who extended his kingdom to all of Karnataka.

Krishna I

Krishna I

Krishna I, an uncle of Dantidurga, took charge of the growing Rashtrakuta Empire by defeating the last Badami Chalukya ruler Kirtivarman II in 757. This is known from the copper plate grant of Emperor Govinda III of 807 and a copper plate grant of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta Emperor Karka from Baroda. He is also known as Kannara or Kannesvara and took the titles Akalavarsha, Shubatunga, Prithvivallabha and Shrivallabha. He patronised the famous Jain logician Akalanka Bhatta, the author of Rajavartika.

Govinda II

Govinda II

Govinda II was an emperor of the Rashtrakuta Empire after Krishna I.

Dhruva Dharavarsha

Dhruva Dharavarsha

Dhruva was one of the most notable rulers of the Rashtrakuta Empire. He ascended the throne after replacing his elder brother Govinda II. Govinda II had become unpopular among his subjects on account of his various misconducts as a ruler, including excessive indulgence in sensual pleasures. This according to the historian Kamath is evident from the Karhad plates of Krishna III. The Dhulia grant of 779 and Garugadahalli inscription of 782 proclaim Dhruva the emperor. Though some historians claim that Dhruva revolted and grabbed the throne, other historians feel the transition of the throne from Govinda II to Dhruva was peaceful and may have happened willingly. He earned titles like Kalivallabha, Srivallabha, Dharavarsha, Maharajadhiraja and Parameshvara.

Govinda III

Govinda III

Govinda III was a famous Rashtrakuta ruler who succeeded his illustrious father Dhruva Dharavarsha. He was militarily the most successful emperor of the dynasty with successful conquests-from Kanyakumari in the south to Kannauj in the north, from Banaras in the east to Broach (Bharuch) in the west. He held such titles as Prabhutavarsha, Jagattunga, Anupama, Kirthinarayana, Prithvivallabha, Shrivallabha, Vimaladitya, Atishayadhavala and Tribhuvanadhavala. From the Someshvara inscription of 804 it is known that Gamundabbe was his chief queen.

Amoghavarsha

Amoghavarsha

Amoghavarsha I was the greatest emperor of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the most notable rulers of Ancient India. His reign of 64 years is one of the longest precisely dated monarchical reigns on record. Many Kannada and Sanskrit scholars prospered during his rule, including the great Indian mathematician Mahaviracharya who wrote Ganita-sara-samgraha, Jinasena, Virasena, Shakatayan and Sri Vijaya.

Indra III

Indra III

Indra III was the grandson of Rashtrakuta Krishna II and son of Chedi princess Lakshmi. He became the ruler of the empire due to the early demise of his father Jagattunga. He had many titles such as Nithyavarsha, Rattakandarapa, Rajamarathanda and Kirthinarayana. He patronised Kannada poet and commander SriVijaya and Sanskrit poet Trivikrama. Indra III was married to princess Vijamba of the Kalachuri dynasty of central India (Chedi).

Amoghavarsha II

Amoghavarsha II

Amoghavarsha II was a Rashtrakuta ruler. He succeeded his father Indra III upon his death, and was himself assassinated by his brother and successor, Govinda IV.

Govinda IV

Govinda IV

Govinda IV was the younger brother of Amoghavarsha II. He became the Rashtrakuta emperor in 930 as described in the Kalasa record of Chikmagalur. He was a very unpopular ruler who indulged in licentious acts. Control over Kannauj was lost during his rule. The Chalukyas of Vengi defeated him and much territory was lost. Finally, his own feudatories including King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra revolted against him and placed Amoghavarsha III on the throne in 935. This is known from the records of Kannada poet Adikavi Pampa, who was patronised by King Arikesari. Govinda IV had matrimonial relationship with the Cholas of Kanchi and finally found refuge with them when his feudatories revolted. Govinda IV patronised Kannada poet Ravinagabhatta.

Amoghavarsha III

Amoghavarsha III

Amoghavarsha III, whose Kannada name was Baddega, was in exile in Tripuri and was a younger brother of Indra III and uncle to Govinda IV. He came to power with the help of feudatory King Arikesari of Vemulavada in Andhra and other vassals who revolted against Govinda IV. Not much is known about his uneventful reign. His advanced age and religious temperament did not allow him to show any interest in the governance of the empire which was left to his son Krishna III. He was married to Kundakadevi, a princess from the Kalachuri dynasty of Tripuri. His daughter was married to Western Ganga King Butuga II to whom a large territory was given as dowry.

Karka II

Karka II

Karka II succeeded his uncle Kottigga Amoghavarsha to the Rashtrakuta throne. By this time the once great Rashtrakuta empire was declining. His able feudatory, the Western Ganga King Marasimha II Satyavakya defeated the Pallavas. But the weaknesses created by the earlier plunder of Manyakheta by Paramara King Siyaka II exposed the Rashtrakutas to further depredation who did not survive for long. During this time of confusion, Chalukya Tailapa II declared independence and killed Karka II.

Indra IV

Indra IV

Indra IV was the last Rashtrakuta ruler and a nephew of the feudatory king of Western Ganga Dynasty of Talakad. The Ganga king Marasimha II tried hard to keep the dwindling Rashtrakuta Empire intact but in vain. Marasimha II committed Sallekhana in 975 and Indra IV followed him in 982 at Shravanabelagola. Thus, the dynasty of Rashtrakutas vanished into history. However, several related families had come to power in various parts of India during the imperial expansion of the Manyakheta Empire. These kingdoms such as the Lattalura and Saundatti branches continued to rule for several centuries.

Source: "Rashtrakuta dynasty", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashtrakuta_dynasty.

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Notes
  1. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 146, map XIV.2 (h). ISBN 0226742210.
  2. ^ a b The Rise and Decline of Buddhism in India, K.L. Hazara, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1995, pp288–294
  3. ^ Reu (1933), p39
  4. ^ Reu (1933), pp1–5
  5. ^ Altekar (1934), pp1–32
  6. ^ Reu (1933), pp6–9, pp47–53
  7. ^ a b c Kamath (2001), p72–74
  8. ^ Reu (1933), p1
  9. ^ Kamath (2001), p72
  10. ^ Reu (1933), pp1–15
  11. ^ a b Anirudh Kanisetti (2022). Lords of the Deccan: Southern India from the Chalukyas to the Cholas. India: Juggernaut. p. 193. ISBN 978-93-91165-0-55. It is most likely that they were Kannada-speaking military aristocrats settled at a strategic point in modern-day Maharasthra by the Chalukyas or some other powerful group, perhaps to keep an eye on trade routes and various tribal peoples.
  12. ^ A Kannada dynasty was created in Berar under the rule of Badami Chalukyas (Altekar 1934, p21–26)
  13. ^ Kamath 2001, p72–3
  14. ^ Singh (2008), p556
  15. ^ a b Shetty, Sadanand Ramakrishna (1994). Banavasi Through the Ages. Banavasi (India): Printwell. p. 121.:"The community of the land tillers or agriculturists was known as Vokkaligas. The importance given to the cultivation of land is amply demonstrated by the fact that numerous tanks were dug and irrigation facilities were provided at various places. Some of the Rashtrakuta inscriptions found in the Banavasi province have the depiction of a plow. It is viewed that the Rashtrakutas were originally prosperous cultivators who later dominated the political scene. Some of the inscriptions refer to them as "Kutumbinah" which is interpreted as cultivators."
  16. ^ A.C. Burnell in Pandit Reu (1933), p4
  17. ^ C.V. Vaidya (1924), p171
  18. ^ D.R.Bhandarkar in Reu, (1933), p1, p7
  19. ^ Hultzsch and Reu in Reu (1933), p2, p4
  20. ^ J. F. Fleet in Reu (1933), p6
  21. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p73
  22. ^ a b Pollock 2006, p332
  23. ^ a b Houben(1996), p215
  24. ^ a b Altekar (1934), p411–3
  25. ^ Dalby (1998), p300
  26. ^ Sen (1999), pp380-381
  27. ^ a b c During the rule of the Rashtrakutas, literature in Kannada and Sanskrit flowered (Kamath 2001, pp 88–90)
  28. ^ Even royalty of the empire took part in poetic and literary activities – Thapar (2003), p334
  29. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), pp17–18, p68
  30. ^ Altekar (1934), pp21–24
  31. ^ Possibly Dravidian Kannada origin (Karmarkar 1947 p26)
  32. ^ Masica (1991), p45-46
  33. ^ Rashtrakutas are described as Kannadigas from Lattaluru who encouraged the Kannada language (Chopra, Ravindran, Subrahmanian 2003, p87)
  34. ^ Hoiberg and Ramchandani (2000). Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Students Britannica. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
  35. ^ Reu (1933), p54
  36. ^ From Rashtrakuta inscriptions call the Badami Chalukya army Karnatabala (power of Karnata) (Kamath 2001, p57, p65)
  37. ^ Altekar in Kamath (2001), p72
  38. ^ Sastri (1955), p141
  39. ^ Thapar (2003), p333
  40. ^ a b c d Sastri (1955), p143
  41. ^ Sen (1999), p368
  42. ^ Desai and Aiyar in Kamath (2001), p75
  43. ^ Reu (1933), p62
  44. ^ a b Sen (1999), p370
  45. ^ The Rashtrakutas interfered effectively in the politics of Kannauj (Thapar 2003), p333
  46. ^ From the Karda inscription, a digvijaya (Altekar in Kamath 2001, p75)
  47. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 31, 146. ISBN 0226742210.
  48. ^ The ablest of the Rashtrakuta kings (Altekar in Kamath 2001, p77)
  49. ^ Modern Morkhandi (Mayurkhandi in Bidar district (Kamath 2001, p76)
  50. ^ modern Morkhand in Maharashtra (Reu 1933, p65)
  51. ^ Sooloobunjun near Ellora (Couseris in Altekar 1934, p48). Perhaps Elichpur remained the capital until Amoghavarsha I built Manyakheta. From the Wani-Dmdori, Radhanpur and Kadba plates, Morkhand in Maharashtra was only a military encampment, from the Dhulia and Pimpen plates it seems Nasik was only a seat of a viceroy, and the Paithan plates of Govinda III indicate that neither Latur nor Paithan was the early capital.(Altekar, 1934, pp47–48)
  52. ^ Kamath 2001, MCC, p76
  53. ^ From the Sanjan inscriptions, Dr. Jyotsna Kamat. "The Rashrakutas". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  54. ^ a b Keay (2000), p199
  55. ^ From the Nesari records (Kamath 2001, p76)
  56. ^ Reu (1933), p65
  57. ^ Sastri (1955), p144
  58. ^ Narayanan, M. G. S. (2013), p95, Perumāḷs of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy: Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cēra Perumāḷs of Makōtai (c. AD 800 – AD 1124). Thrissur (Kerala): CosmoBooks
  59. ^ "The victorious march of his armies had literally embraced all the territory between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin" (Altekar in Kamath 2001, p77)
  60. ^ Sen (1999), p371
  61. ^ Which could put to shame even the capital of gods-From Karda plates (Altekar 1934, p47)
  62. ^ A capital city built to excel that of Indra (Sastri, 1955, p4, p132, p146)
  63. ^ Reu 1933, p71
  64. ^ from the Cambay and Sangli records. The Bagumra record claims that Amoghavarsha saved the "Ratta" kingdom which was drowned in an "ocean of Chalukyas" (Kamath 2001, p78)
  65. ^ Sastri (1955), p145
  66. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p1
  67. ^ a b c Kamath (2001), p90
  68. ^ a b Reu (1933), p38
  69. ^ Panchamukhi in Kamath (2001), p80
  70. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p161
  71. ^ From the writings of Adikavi Pampa (Kamath 2001, p81)
  72. ^ Sen (1999), pp373-374
  73. ^ Kamath (2001), p82
  74. ^ The Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta gained control over Kannauj for a brief period during the early 10th century (Thapar 2003, p333)
  75. ^ From the Siddalingamadam record of 944 – Krishna III captured Kanchi and Tanjore as well and had full control over northern Tamil regions (Aiyer in Kamath 2001, pp82–83)
  76. ^ From the Tirukkalukkunram inscription – Kanchi and Tanjore were annexed by Krishna III. From the Deoli inscription – Krishna III had feudatories from Himalayas to Ceylon. From the Laksmeshwar inscription – Krishna III was an incarnation of death for the Chola Dynasty (Reu 1933, p83)
  77. ^ Conqueror of Kanchi, (Thapar 2003, p334)
  78. ^ Conqueror of Kanchi and Tanjore (Sastri 1955, p162)
  79. ^ Sen 1999), pp374-375
  80. ^ Chandra, Satish (2009). History of Medieval India. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Limited. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-81-250-3226-7.
  81. ^ "Amoghavarsha IV". 2007 Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  82. ^ The province of Tardavadi in the very heart of the Rashtrakuta empire was given to Tailapa II as a fief (provincial grant) by Rashtrakuta Krishna III for services rendered in war (Sastri 1955, p162)
  83. ^ Kamath (2001), p101
  84. ^ Kamath (2001), pp100–103
  85. ^ Reu (1933), p39–41
  86. ^ a b Keay (2000), p200
  87. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p94
  88. ^ Burjor Avari (2007), India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from c. 7000 BC to AD 1200, pp.207–208, Routledge, New York, ISBN 978-0-415-35615-2
  89. ^ Reu (1933), p93
  90. ^ Reu (1933), p100
  91. ^ Reu (1933), p113
  92. ^ Reu (1933), p110
  93. ^ Jain (2001), pp67–75
  94. ^ Reu (1933), p112
  95. ^ De Bruyne (1968)
  96. ^ Majumdar (1966), pp50–51
  97. ^ Pillay, K. (1963). South India and Ceylon. University of Madras. OCLC 250247191.
  98. ^ whose main responsibility was to draft and maintain inscriptions or Shasanas as would an archivist. (Altekar in Kamath (2001), p85
  99. ^ Kamath (2001), p86
  100. ^ From the notes of Al Masudi (Kamath 2001, p88)
  101. ^ Kamath (2001), p88
  102. ^ Altekar (1934), p356
  103. ^ a b Altekar (1934), p354
  104. ^ Altekar (1934), p355
  105. ^ From notes of Periplus, Al Idrisi and Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p357)
  106. ^ Altekar (1934), p358
  107. ^ Altekar (1934), p358–359
  108. ^ a b Altekar (1934), p230
  109. ^ Altekar (1934), p368
  110. ^ Altekar (1934), p370–371
  111. ^ Altekar (1934), p223
  112. ^ Altekar (1934), p213
  113. ^ From the Davangere inscription of Santivarma of Banavasi-12000 province (Altekar 1934, p234
  114. ^ From the writings of Chandesvara (Altekar 1934, p216)
  115. ^ a b Altekar (1934), p222
  116. ^ From the notes of Al Idrisi (Altekar (1934), p223
  117. ^ From the Begumra plates of Krishna II (Altekar 1934, p227
  118. ^ Altekar (1934), p242
  119. ^ From the writings of Somadeva (Altekar 1934, p244)
  120. ^ From the Hebbal inscriptions and Torkhede inscriptions of Govinda III (Altekar 1934, p232
  121. ^ "Wide and sympathetic tolerance" in general characterised the Rashtrakuta rule (Altekar in Kamath 2001, p92)
  122. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p92
  123. ^ Altekar in Kamath (2001), p92
  124. ^ Reu (1933), p36
  125. ^ The Vaishnava Rashtrakutas patronised Jainism (Kamath 2001, p92)
  126. ^ a b Kamath (2001), p91
  127. ^ Reu (1933), p34
  128. ^ Reu (1933, p34
  129. ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar 2003, pp 349–350, 397)
  130. ^ From the notes of 10th-century Arab writer Al-Ishtakhri (Sastri 1955, p396)
  131. ^ From the notes of Masudi (916) (Sastri 1955, p396)
  132. ^ From the notes of Magasthenesis and Strabo from Greece and Ibn Khurdadba and Al Idrisi from Arabia (Altekar 1934, p317)
  133. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p317)
  134. ^ Altekar (1934), p318
  135. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p324)
  136. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, pp330–331)
  137. ^ From the notes of Alberuni, Altekar (1934) p325
  138. ^ From the notes of Abuzaid (Altekar 1934, p325)
  139. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p326)
  140. ^ Altekar (1934), p329
  141. ^ From the notes of Yuan Chwang, Altekar (1934), p331
  142. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p332, p334)
  143. ^ From the notes of Ibn Khurdadba (Altekar 1934, p337)
  144. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p337)
  145. ^ From the notes of Al Masudi and Al Idrisi (Altekar 1934, p339)
  146. ^ From the Tarkhede inscription of Govinda III, (Altekar 1934, p339)
  147. ^ Altekar (1934), p341
  148. ^ From the notes of Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p342)
  149. ^ From the notes of Sulaiman and Alberuni (Altekar 1934, p343)
  150. ^ Altekar (1934), p345
  151. ^ From the notes of Ibn Khurdadba (Altekar 1934, p346)
  152. ^ Altekar (1934), p349
  153. ^ Altekar (1934), p350
  154. ^ a b Altekar (1934), p351
  155. ^ From the notes of Ibn Kurdadba (Altekar 1934, p353)
  156. ^ Warder A.K. (1988), p. 248
  157. ^ a b c Kamath (2001), p89
  158. ^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians", Putta Swamy T.K., 2012, chapter=Mahavira, p.231, Elsevier Publications, London, ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1
  159. ^ The Bedande and Chattana type of composition (Narasimhacharya 1988, p12)
  160. ^ It is said Kavirajamarga may have been co-authored by Amoghavarsha I and court poet Sri Vijaya (Sastri 1955, pp355–356)
  161. ^ Other early writers mentioned in Kavirajamarga are Vimala, Udaya, Nagarjuna, Jayabhandu for Kannada prose and Kavisvara, Pandita, Chandra and Lokapala in Kannada poetry (Narasimhacharya 1988, p2)
  162. ^ Warder A.K. (1988), p240
  163. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p356
  164. ^ L.S. Seshagiri Rao in Amaresh Datta (1988), p1180
  165. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988, p18
  166. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p314
  167. ^ S.K. Ramachandra Rao, (1985), Encyclopedia of Indian Medicine: Historical perspective, pp100-101, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, ISBN 81-7154-255-7
  168. ^ Narasimhachar (1988), p11
  169. ^ Hardy (1995), p111
  170. ^ Rajan, K.V. Soundara (1998). Rock-cut Temple Styles'. Mumbai, India: Somaily Publications. pp. 19, 115–116. ISBN 81-7039-218-7.
  171. ^ Takeo Kamiya. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, India. Retrieved 18 April 2007.
  172. ^ Takeo Kamiya. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 10 November 2006.
  173. ^ Hardy (1995), p327
  174. ^ Vincent Smith in Arthikaje, Mangalore. "Society, Religion and Economic condition in the period of Rashtrakutas". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  175. ^ Percy Brown and James Fergusson in Arthikaje, Mangalore. "Society, Religion and Economic condition in the period of Rashtrakutas". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  176. ^ Kamath (2001), p93
  177. ^ Arthikaje in Arthikaje, Mangalore. "Society, Religion and Economic condition in the period of Rashtrakutas". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
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  179. ^ Vijapur, Raju S. "Reclaiming past glory". Deccan Herald. Spectrum. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
  180. ^ Hardy (1995), p.341
  181. ^ Hardy (1995), p344-345
  182. ^ Sundara and Rajashekar, Arthikaje, Mangalore. "Society, Religion and Economic condition in the period of Rashtrakutas". 1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Archived from the original on 4 November 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  183. ^ Hardy (1995), p5 (introduction)
  184. ^ Thapar (2002), pp393–4
  185. ^ Thapar (2002), p396
  186. ^ Vaidya (1924), p170
  187. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  188. ^ Rice, E.P. (1921), p12
  189. ^ Rice, B.L. (1897), p497
  190. ^ Altekar (1934), p404
  191. ^ Altekar (1934), p408
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