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Ras Beirut

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Omar Daouk Villa, Qoreitem, Ras Beirut
Omar Daouk Villa, Qoreitem, Ras Beirut
Manara Neighbourhood in Ras Beirut
Manara Neighbourhood in Ras Beirut

Ras Beirut ("Tip of Beirut") is an upscale residential neighborhood of Beirut. It has a mixed population of Christians, Muslims, Druze, and secular individuals. Ras Beirut is home to some of Beirut's historically prominent families, such as the Bekhazi Rebeiz family, the Daouk family, the Itani family, the Sinno family, and the Sidani family[1] family, the Beyhum family and others.[2] Included in the area are a number of international schools and universities, including the American University of Beirut (AUB) and International College Beirut (IC).

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Beirut

Beirut

Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. As of 2014, Greater Beirut has a population of 2.5 million, which makes it the third-largest city in the Levant region. The city is situated on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast. Beirut has been inhabited for more than 5,000 years, and was one of Phoenicia's most prominent city states, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. The first historical mention of Beirut is found in the Amarna letters from the New Kingdom of Egypt, which date to the 14th century BC.

Christianity in Lebanon

Christianity in Lebanon

Christianity in Lebanon has a long and continuous history. Biblical Scriptures purport that Peter and Paul evangelized the Phoenicians, whom they affiliated to the ancient patriarchate of Antioch. The spread of Christianity in Lebanon was very slow where paganism persisted especially in the mountaintop strongholds of Mount Lebanon. A 2015 study estimates some 2,500 Lebanese Christians have Muslim ancestry, whereas the majority of Lebanese Christians are direct descendants of the original early Christians.

Islam in Lebanon

Islam in Lebanon

Islam in Lebanon has a long and continuous history. According to an estimate by the CIA, it is followed by 67.8% of the country's total population. Sunnis make up 31.9%, Shias make up 31.2%, with smaller percentages of Alawites and Ismailis. The Druze community is designated as one of the five Lebanese Muslim communities, even though most Druze do not identify as Muslims, and they do not accept the five pillars of Islam.

Secularism in Lebanon

Secularism in Lebanon

Secularism in Lebanon began under a 1920s French mandate, continuing under different governments since independence. Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy within an overall confessionalist framework; as a form of consociationalism, the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from religious communities.

Itani

Itani

Itani is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:Ahmad Itani, Lebanese football player Frances Itani, Canadian fiction writer, poet and essayist Junichiro Itani (1926–2001), anthropologist and founder of Japanese primatology Kazuya Itani, Japanese badminton player Muhieddine Itani, Lebanese football player Munir Itani, Lebanese alpine skier and Olympian Ted Itani, retired Canadian military officer and humanitarian

Sinno family

Sinno family

The Sinno Family is a Lebanese family, considered one of Beirut's oldest families, and is said to be descending from the Muslim Leader Tarek bin Sinno.

American University of Beirut

American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB) is a private, non-sectarian, and independent university chartered in New York with its campus in Beirut, Lebanon. AUB is governed by a private, autonomous board of trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees.

International College, Beirut

International College, Beirut

International College, Beirut, Lebanon, is an independent non-profit international school. Its students come from all over Lebanon, as well as the Middle-East and around the world. With two campuses, one in the Lebanese capital Beirut and the other in the urban hillsides, the school educates over 3,500 students each year. The school was established in 1891 and is chartered in Massachusetts, US.

Archaeology

In 1946, Henri Fleisch from Saint Joseph University made an unstratified, open-air survey of the marine terraces of Ras Beirut recovering various artifacts.[3] Flints have also been recovered by walkers on the nearby beaches.[4] The area is separated from the Sands of Beirut sites by the Wadi Abu Chahine or "South Creek" which begins south of the Continental Hotel area. It is an important site for Quaternary studies and has been published in various works by Fleisch, Auguste Bergy in 1932,[5] L. Dubertret in 1940 and 1948, Wright in 1960 and 1962,[6][7] Raoul Describes in 1921,[8] Dorothy Garrod in 1960 and R. Neuville in 1933.[9] Stratified sites are numbered in chronological order with unstratified sites at the end. The first four sites contain stratified Lower Paleolithic industries from the 45 metres (148 ft) beach level, the next five are stratified Middle Paleolithic with a gap in stratified sites to the Chalcolithic found at site XI. Intervening periods including the Levalloiso-Mousterian were well represented in surface finds along with a substantial amount of Neolithic material on a 45 metres (148 ft) terrace. Collections are held in the American University of Beirut and the Museum of Lebanese Prehistory. Many of the sites have been built on and completely destroyed by urbanisation.[10]

Minet ed Dhalia Point. Also called a "stylet". Discovered at Shemlan. White patinated flint.
Minet ed Dhalia Point. Also called a "stylet". Discovered at Shemlan. White patinated flint.

Ras Beirut I or The Slope Breccia is on a steep limestone cliff, above Rue Zenzir, west of Rue Jinnah at around 52 metres (171 ft) above sea level. It was found by Henri Fleisch and published in 1946, 1956[11] and 1960[12] along with Howell in 1959[13] and Garrod in 1962 and 1965. An Early Acheulean or Abbevillian rolled biface was found by Fleisch in the breccia above Rue Jinnah that predates all of the other tools found at Ras Beirut. An abundant Middle Acheulean industry was also found.[10]

Ras Beirut II or The Offshore Bar is a fossil bar of flint, gravel and marine organisms, 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) under the soil next to and under Rue Jinnah. It was studied by Henri Fleisch during the digging of a drainage trench who published results in 1951 and 1954. It is also mentioned by Howell in 1959[13] and Dorothy Garrod in 1960. Numerous pieces with no bifaces were found and considered to be Tayacian with some Levallois influence. The site possibly still exists under the road.[10]

Ras Beirut III or Depots A. and B. is northeast of Rue Jinnah and was again found by Father Fleisch who published his studies in 1950 and 1956.[11] Depot A contained an Early Levallois industry with bifaces and a type of pick resembling Bir Hassan picks.

Ras Beirut IV or Bergy's Trench is 100 metres (330 ft) east of Pigeon Rock, around 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) beneath the soil on the slope of the 45 metres (148 ft) terrace. The site was found by Auguste Bergy and published in 1932.[5] Henri Fleisch also studied the area with and published some new discoveries in 1956.[11] Early Levalloisian industries were found including bifacial Bir Hassan picks in the 20 centimetres (7.9 in) layer on the bedrock. Larger flint flakes were found in the 80 centimetres (31 in) layer above this. Fleisch recovered more of the earlier type of industry when the Corniche Road was widened and is suggested to still exist under a side road that leads to the Federal Hotel.[10]

Ras Beirut V (a) or Bergy's "plus 8" Beach is 800 metres (2,600 ft) south of Pigeon Rock on the way to St. Elie beach at around 15 metres (49 ft) above sea level opposite the Continental Hotel. A layer of pebbles, marine shells and flints in the sandstone was found by Auguste Bergy and studied by Dubertret in 1937 and 1940, de Vaumas in 1947, Haller in 1945, Fleisch in 1956[11] and 1962,[14] Howell in 1959[13] and Dorothy Garrod in 1960. Levalloisian materials are more evolved at this site and a Micro-Levalloisian series of tools were also found.[10]

Ras Beirut V (b) or South Creek Trench is the same fossil beach in a section on the south bank of South Creek, 100 metres (330 ft) north of Ras Beirut V (a). It was discovered by Henri Fleisch and published in 1956.[11] Two varieties of Levalloisian were found, one with finely produced thin flakes, the other with coarse thick ones. A Micro-Levalloisian industry accompanied it.[10]

Ras Beirut VI is 200 metres (660 ft) north of Raoul Describes excavations at Minet ed Dhalia at the head of a small bay between two stream beds on a 15 metres (49 ft) terrace. A Micro-Levalloisian industry was found by Henri Fleisch and published in 1948 and 1956 dating to the time when the 15 metres (49 ft) sea level regressed.[10]

Ras Beirut VII or South Creek is on the west side of the Corniche road, west of the Continental Hotel where the Wadi Abu Chahine drops to sea level. The site is on the north bank of the stream in a 5 metres (16 ft) long cavity in the cliff filled with soils. Fleisch found Levalloisian and Micro-Levalloisian industries in the upper layers. The site has now disappeared.[10]

Ras Beirut VIII or Bay of Pigeon Rock is in a gully on the south cliff in the Bay of Pigeon Rock. Material was recovered in brecciated beach deposits representing a Levalloisian industry with traces of Micro-Levalloisian, this was studied by Fleisch and published in 1954[15] and 1956.[11]

Ras Beirut IX or Depot facing cote 34 was discovered by Fleisch opposite the start of the Rue Jinnah (cote 34), 500 metres (1,600 ft) south of Pigeon Rock. The material is suggested to date to the time when the sea had retreated from the 15 metres (49 ft) level and consists of a Levalloisian industry with Mousterian influence with large, thin flakes. Some Micro-Levalloisian pieces were also found.[10]

Ras Beirut X or Bain Militaire was originally called Sud Phare by its discoverer, Auguste Bergy. It was mentioned by Fleisch in 1956 as being in a rainwater gully, 200 metres (660 ft) south of Bain Militaire.[11] Material was suggested to be of the Levallois form with some Bir Hassan picks similar to those at Ras Beirut III and IV but from a different level.[10]

Ras Beirut XI or Minet ed Dhalia is on the second headland south of Pigeon Rock on the 15 metres (49 ft) terrace and was excavated by Raoul Describes in 1914, publishing his studies in 1921 and originally suggesting he had found a large number of tools and waste from a Solutrean industry in the black soil that covered the limestone headland at a depth of 1 metre (3.3 ft).[8] Neuville and Haller studied the site and materials again in 1933, reclassifying it as Chalcolithic with a lower Middle Paleolithic level along with an intervening later that Describes had missed.[9] Jacques Cauvin has compared it with the Énéolithique Ancien period at Byblos suggested to date between 3800 and 3650 BCE.[16] The site is notable for a type tool called the Minet ed Dhalia point (pictured); a stylet ranging from 2 inches (5.1 cm) to 8 inches (20 cm) in length and may have been fleshing tools, but their exact use is uncertain. These were first observed by Dawson in 1884 and later by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1910,[17] The industry includes javelins, borers, picks and assorted other tools. It has been described by Lorraine Copeland and Peter Wescombe as "probably the richest factory site in Lebanon" with hundreds of pieces recovered and held in the National Museum of Beirut.[10]

Ras Beirut XII is thought to be in the area below the lighthouse and was found by Describes. It is recorded as a surface Acheulean site but appears to be a group of Neolithic pick along with factory waste. Construction of a playing field has covered the site with a false layer.[10]

Ras Beirut XIII or Field south of Pigeon Rock is a cultivated field on the headland south of Pigeon rock where a surface site was found by Auguste Bergy and published in 1932.[5] The Levallois industry is nicknamed Golden Mousterian due to it having a yellow or gold colour and sheen. Forms include large, broad flakes along with medium-sized points and blades with many pieces having traces of concretion.[10]

Ras Beirut XIV or AUB Campus is part of the Ras Beirut station within the grounds of the American University of Beirut discussed by Zumoffen where thick, white Middle Paleolithic flakes were found on the slopes above the 15 metres (49 ft) terrace that have now been turned into a playing field next to International College Steps. Some Golden Mousterian pieces were found further down the slope.[10]

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Henri Fleisch

Henri Fleisch

Reverend Father Henri Fleisch was a French archaeologist, missionary and Orientalist, known for his work on classical Arabic language and Lebanese dialect and prehistory in Lebanon. Fleisch spent years recording and recovering lithics from prehistoric Lebanese archaeological sites and in 1954, it was confirmed that he had discovered and named a previously unknown proto-Neolithic culture in Lebanon called the Qaraoun culture that used a flint industry he termed Heavy Neolithic.

Auguste Bergy

Auguste Bergy

Reverend Father Auguste Bergy was a French Jesuit archaeologist known for his work on prehistory in Lebanon.

Dorothy Garrod

Dorothy Garrod

Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod, CBE, FBA was an English archaeologist who specialised in the Palaeolithic period. She held the position of Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge from 1939 to 1952, and was the first woman to hold a chair at either Oxford or Cambridge.

Lower Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. It spans the time from around 3 million years ago when the first evidence for stone tool production and use by hominins appears in the current archaeological record, until around 300,000 years ago, spanning the Oldowan and Acheulean lithics industries.

Middle Paleolithic

Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology. The Middle Paleolithic broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. There are considerable dating differences between regions. The Middle Paleolithic was succeeded by the Upper Paleolithic subdivision which first began between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago. Pettit and White date the Early Middle Paleolithic in Great Britain to about 325,000 to 180,000 years ago, and the Late Middle Paleolithic as about 60,000 to 35,000 years ago.

Chalcolithic

Chalcolithic

The Copper Age, also called the Chalcolithic or (A)eneolithic or Aeneolithic, is an archaeological period characterized by regular human manipulation of copper, but prior to the discovery of bronze alloys. Modern researchers consider the period as a subset of the broader Neolithic, but earlier scholars defined it as a transitional period between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age.

Levallois technique

Levallois technique

The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed around 250,000 to 300,000 years ago during the Middle Palaeolithic period. It is part of the Mousterian stone tool industry, and was used by the Neanderthals in Europe and by modern humans in other regions such as the Levant.

American University of Beirut

American University of Beirut

The American University of Beirut (AUB) is a private, non-sectarian, and independent university chartered in New York with its campus in Beirut, Lebanon. AUB is governed by a private, autonomous board of trustees and offers programs leading to bachelor's, master's, MD, and PhD degrees.

Limestone

Limestone

Limestone is a type of carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of CaCO3. Limestone forms when these minerals precipitate out of water containing dissolved calcium. This can take place through both biological and nonbiological processes, though biological processes, such as the accumulation of corals and shells in the sea, have likely been more important for the last 540 million years. Limestone often contains fossils which provide scientists with information on ancient environments and on the evolution of life.

Acheulean

Acheulean

Acheulean, from the French acheuléen after the type site of Saint-Acheul, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by the distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.

Abbevillian

Abbevillian

Abbevillian is a term for the oldest lithic industry found in Europe, dated to between roughly 600,000 and 400,000 years ago.

Fossil

Fossil

A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record.

Streets

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Bliss Street

Bliss Street

Bliss Street, or Rue Bliss, is one of the principal streets of the Hamra area, which is within the Ras Beirut District of Beirut in Lebanon. The street, which is parallel to Hamra Street, runs east-west, connecting with Rue Clémenceau on the east and ending at Avenue General Charles de Gaulle that runs along the coast of the Mediterranean.

Rue Madame Curie

Rue Madame Curie

Rue Madame Curie is a street in Beirut, Lebanon. The street, which is named in honor of Marie Curie, the Polish–French physicist–chemist, begins at Rue Badr Demachkieh in the Raouché neighborhood of the Ras Beirut district, running west–east through the Qoreitem-Snoubra neighborhood then, intersecting Rue Alfred Nobel and Rue Dunant before turning into Rue Marie Edde. The street runs south of the Lebanese American University campus. Le Bristol hotel is located on the street. In 2008, the average residential apartment price on Rue Madame Curie was US$2,500/m2.

Avenue General de Gaulle

Avenue General de Gaulle

Avenue Général de Gaulle is a seaside, palm-lined street in Beirut, Lebanon. The avenue, which was named in honor of the French general and president Charles de Gaulle, forms with Avenue de Paris the Corniche Beirut promenade. The avenue runs north-south along the Mediterranean coast, from the Manara lighthouse where it connects to Avenue de Paris, skirting around the cliffs of Raouché and the Pigeons' Rocks, down to Boulevard Saeb Salam where it connects to Avenue Rafic Hariri at Ramlet al-Baida beach.

Hamra Street

Hamra Street

Hamra Street or Rue Hamra is one of the main streets of the city of Beirut, Lebanon, and one of the main economic and diplomatic hubs of Beirut. It is located in the neighborhood of the same name, Hamra. Its technical name is Rue 31. Due to the numerous sidewalk cafes and theatres, Hamra Street was the centre of intellectual activity in Beirut during the 1960s and 1970s. Before 1975, Hamra Street and the surrounding district was known as Beirut's trendiest, though in the post-war period it has arguably been eclipsed by Rue Monot in Ashrafieh, Rue Gouraud in Gemmayzeh, Rue Verdun, and downtown area. In the mid 1990s, the Municipality of Beirut gave a face lift to the street to reattract tourists all year round. Hamra Street was known as Beirut's Champs Elysées as it was frequented by tourists, mostly Americans, Europeans and mega-rich Arabs, all year round.

Rue Jeanne d'Arc

Rue Jeanne d'Arc

Rue Jeanne d'Arc is a street in Beirut, Lebanon named in honor of Joan of Arc, one of the patron saints of France. By 1919, Rue Jeanne d'Arc was one of the main arteries that radiated from Bliss Street and by 1930, the urbanization of the street had reached 35%.

Rue John Kennedy

Rue John Kennedy

Rue John Kennedy is a street in Beirut, Lebanon. The street, originally called Rue Perthuis, was renamed in honor of President John F. Kennedy on November 30, 1963. The street, which is located in the Ras Beirut district of the Lebanese capital, is a one-way street that runs east–west from Rue de Phénicie, past Rue Nicolas Rebeiz and Rue Van Dyck, and then curving to the south along the campus walls of the American University of Beirut until it reaches Rue Clémenceau where it ends. It is primarily a residential street with some small hotels.

Avenue de Paris

Avenue de Paris

Avenue de Paris is a seaside, palm-lined street in Beirut, Lebanon. The avenue, which forms with Avenue General de Gaulle the Corniche Beirut promenade, is popular with rollerbladers, cyclists and joggers.

Rue de Phénicie

Rue de Phénicie

Rue de Phénicie or Phoenicia Street is a street in Beirut, Lebanon. The street runs north–south from the Mediterranean uphill to where Rue John Kennedy meets Rue Omar Daouk, intersecting along the way Rue Ibn Sina, Rue London, and Rue Rustom Pacha.

Rue George Post

Rue George Post

Rue George Post is a street in Beirut, Lebanon. The street, which is located in the Ras Beirut district, was named after Dr. George Edward Post, one of the founders of the American University of Beirut. Dr. Post was professor of surgery, who also contributed to the study of ecology and vegetation of the Middle East. The residential street is located north of the American University of Beirut campus between Rue Van Dyck and Dar El Mreissé, one block south of the seaside Corniche Beirut.

Rue Van Dyck

Rue Van Dyck

Rue Van Dyck is a street in Beirut, Lebanon. The street, which is located in the Ras Beirut district, was named after Cornelius Van Allen Van Dyck, who was professor of pathology and internal medicine in the medical school at the American University of Beirut from 1857 until 1882. The street runs east-west from Rue John Kennedy to Rue George Post.

Corniche Beirut

Corniche Beirut

The Corniche Beirut is a seaside promenade in the Central District of Beirut, Lebanon. Lined with palm trees, the waterfront esplanade has views of the Mediterranean and the summits of Mount Lebanon to the east. Corniche Beirut has its foundation in the Avenue des Français, which was built during the period of the Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon along the seafront that extended from the old town.

Source: "Ras Beirut", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ras_Beirut.

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References
  1. ^ Picture, Lebanon in a. "Sidani Street , - Lebanon in a Picture". www.lebanoninapicture.com. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  2. ^ "Beirut%2C%20Lebanon - List of Cities and Towns". placebeam.com. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  3. ^ Eric M. Meyers; American Schools of Oriental Research (1997). The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506512-1. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  4. ^ Salwa C. Nassar Foundation for Lebanese Studies (1970). Beirut--crossroads of cultures. Librairie du Liban. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Bergy, Auguste., La paléolithique ancien stratifié à Ras Beyrouth, Mélanges de l'Université Saint Joseph, Volume 16, 5-6, 1932.
  6. ^ Wright, H.E., Late Pleistocene Geology of Coastal Lebanon, 3rd Symposium, Wenner Grenn Foundation for Anthropological Research on "Early man and Pleistocene Stratigraphy in Circum-Mediterranean Regions", 1960.
  7. ^ Wright, H.E., Late Pleistocene Geology of Coastal Lebanon, Quaternaria, Volume 6, 1962.
  8. ^ a b Describes, Raoul., Quelques ateliers paléolithiques des environs de Beyrouth, Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph: Volume VII, 1921.
  9. ^ a b Neuville, R., Notes de préhistoire syro-palestinienne: (1) L'industrie dite Solutrienne de Minet el Dhalia (Liban); (2) La station de Ouadi Hallaoueh (Liban), Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, Volume XIII, 1933.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lorraine Copeland; P. Wescombe (1965). Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. 116-123. Imprimerie Catholique. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Fleisch, Henri., Depôts préhistorique de la Côte libanaise et leur place dans la chronologie basée sur la Quaternaire Marin, Quaternaria, Volume 3, 1956.
  12. ^ Fleisch, Henri., Les conditions générales de la préhistoire au Liban, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Volume 57, 3–4, p. 174, 1960a.
  13. ^ a b c Howell, F., Upper Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Early Man in the Levant, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 103, 1959.
  14. ^ Fleisch, Henri., La Côte libanaise au Pleistocène ancien et moyen, Quaternaria, Volume 6, 1962.
  15. ^ Fleisch, Henri., Nouvelles stations préhistoriques au Liban, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Volume 51, p. 564, 1954.
  16. ^ Cauvin, Jacques., Les industries lithiques du tell de Byblos (Liban), L'Anthropologie, Volume 66, 5-6, 1962.
  17. ^ Zumoffen, Godefroy., Le Néolithiqueen Phénicie, Anthropos, Volume 5, Plate V, p. 150, 1910.
  18. ^ "The Stunning History Behind Ras Beirut's Endangered "Red House"". A Separate State of Mind. January 18, 2016.

Coordinates: 33°54′N 35°28′E / 33.900°N 35.467°E / 33.900; 35.467

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