|Part of a series on|
|Algerian Islamic reference|
|Part of a series on Islam|
This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (September 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
The Raḥmâniyya (Arabic: الرحمانية) is an Algerian Sufi order (tariqa or brotherhood) founded by Kabyle religious scholar Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥman al-Azhari Bu Qabrayn in the 1770s. It was initially a branch of the Khalwatîya (Arabic: الخلوتية) established in Kabylia region. However, its membership grew unwaveringly elsewhere in Algeria and in North Africa.
Discover more about Rahmaniyya related topics
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Azharî (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الرحمن الأزهري), more commonly known as Bû Qabrayn (Arabic: بوقبرين, "the man with two tombs"), was an 18th-century Algerian Islamic scholar, saint and a Sufi mystic. He was born in 1715-29 into the Berber Ait Ismâ'îl tribe of the Qashtula, in Kabylia. He studied first in a nearby zawiya in his hometown of Jurjura. Then, he went on studying at the Great Mosque in Algiers before undertaking his journey to Mašriq in 1739–40 to perform the hajj.
Following his stay in the Hijaz, Bu Qubrayn settled in Egypt to attain greater knowledge at the Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo. This is where he was initiated to the Sufi order of khalwatîya under Muḥammad ibn Salim al-Hifnawi (1689-1767/8), the leader of the Egyptian khalwatîya and rector of al-Azhar. As part of his learning with al-Hifnawi, Bu Qubrayn traveled extensively to teach ḫalwatîya doctrines, including in Darfur for six years and as far as India.
After three decades, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman returned to his village Jurjura in Algeria sometime between 1763 and 1770. There, he founded a school and zawiya in the 1770s and initiated the Kabyles into the tarîqa. He rapidly attracted local notables and developed his zawiya into a prestigious center of learning, before his death in 1793/4.
Discover more about Founder related topics
Propagation and influence
The Raḥmâniyya grew rapidly beyond Kabylia region, in eastern and south-eastern Algeria where it competed with other Sufi orders such as Qâdiriyya or Tijâniyya. However, within Kabylia, its influence was almost exclusive of any other order. In 1851, French military authorities estimated the membership of the order to 295,000 members.
After the death of Bu Qubrayn, his successor 'Alî ibn 'Îsâ al-Maghribî remained the undisputed leader of the order until 1835. The leadership was then more disputed until 1860, which led to the division of the Raḥmâniyya into independent branches. But Muḥammad Amezzyân ibn al-Haddâd of Saddûk took over in 1860, bringing unity and dynamism back to the order for a decade.
The Raḥmâniyya, along with other Sufi orders, fulfilled an important role as education centers and charitable organizations. The zawiyas offered different teachings and supports across the order, but it included studies on religion, grammar, religious law, geography, and mathematics.
Role in the uprising of 1871
The Raḥmâniyya and Shaykh al-Haddâd [fr] played a major role during the Algerian uprising of 1871. After the transition from a military regime to a civilian regime, the Crémieux decree, and the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Shaykh Mokrani launched the revolt against French authorities in March 1871. But the insurrection really gained ground when Shaykh al-Haddâd proclaimed the holy war against the French in April. Soon, around 250 tribes and 150,000 combattants rose from everywhere in Kabylia, especially members of the Raḥmâniyya. However, Kabyle troops suffered decisive defeats in June and July, and the repression that followed was severe.
Evolution after 1871
After the insurrection of 1871, the main zawiya definitively lost control over the other branches of the order, which were now following and adapting the Raḥmâniyya teachings more or less independently. The order lost some of its influence but remained vigorous. In 1897, the Raḥmâniyya was the largest Sufi order in Algeria, with 177 zawiyas and over 155,000 members.
In the 20th century, Sufism declined in Algeria for multiple reasons. First, the French colonial authorities both used Sufi orders and tried to weaken them. Second, reformers from the Islamic Modernism movement attacked Sufis, claiming they were into deviational and heretical practices, superstitions keeping people ignorant. Also, under the presidencies of Ahmed Ben Bella (1963-1965) and Houari Boumedienne (1965-1978), Sufi orders were further weakened by governments trying to increase their control of Algerian society. Sufi shaykhs were often subject to house arrest, and Sufi-owned properties were nationalized. However, the Raḥmâniyya experienced a renewed activity after the independence, and around 1950, it had around 230,000 members, mostly Berbers, namely almost half of the 500,000 members in Algerian Sufi orders.
The situation of Sufi orders improved under the presidency of Chadli Benjedid (1979-1992), who returned some of the properties previously nationalized. Sufi orders managed to resume their activities and the number of their followers started to increase again. However, this reversal ended during the Algerian civil war in the 1990s. After the military took control of the state, they sanctioned not only Salafi and Wahhabi groups but also Sufi orders. At the end of the war, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika (1999-2019) endeavored to support "Sufism as a more moderate alternative to more radical Salafis and more conservative Wahhabis".
Today, Sufi orders such as the Raḥmâniyya survive in Algeria despite their reduced influence in Algerian society. Sufism is viewed positively, even though most Algerian youth don't practice what they don't consider a modern lifestyle. And in Kabylia, where the Raḥmāniyya is stronger, rates of affiliation are higher than in other regions.
Discover more about Evolution after 1871 related topics
Practices of Raḥmâniyya
The principles of Raḥmâniyya are fairly egalitarian and democratic, which partly explains its success in Kabylia. The order recognizes local saints and integrates them in its Islamic teachings, achieving the synthesis between local traditions and Islamic orthodoxy. Its practices are simple and accessible, as they do not require an extensive knowledge of the Quran beyond a few important verses. Scholars and brothers widely use the Kabyle language and do not need a deep understanding of Arabic.
A fundamental practice involves teaching the mûrîd (Arabic: موريد "the disciple") an array of seven "names". The first one consists in repeating lâ ilâha ilal 'llâhu (Arabic: لا إله إلا الله "there is no god except God") between 12,000 and 70,000 times in a day and night. If the mûršîd (Arabic: مورشيد "the spiritual guide") is satisfied with the mûrîd's progress, then the mûrîd is allowed to continue with the six remaining names: Allâh (Arabic: الله "God") three times; huwa (Arabic: هو "He is"), ḥaqq (Arabic: الحق "The Absolute Truth") three times; ḥayy (Arabic: الحى "The Ever- Living) three times; qayyûm (Arabic: القيوم "The Sustainer, The Self Subsisting") three times; qahhâr (Arabic: القهار "The Ever-Dominating").
Discover more about Practices of Raḥmâniyya related topics
Organization of the Raḥmâniyya order
The Raḥmâniyya is organized following a hierarchy common in Sufi orders. Teaching and practicing are conducted in zawiyas under the direction of a shaykh (شيخ, šaiḫ, or religious scholar or master), assisted by a khalifa (ḫalifa or lieutenant) or a naib (نائب, nāʾib, or deputy), The muqaddams (representatives, delegates or local chiefs) and finally the ikhwan (إخوان, iḫwan, or brothers) constitute the bottom of the hierarchy.
|01||Sidi M'hamed Bou Qobrine||1774||1793|
|06||Mohamed Kacimi (Sufi)||1904||1913|
|13||Mohamed Mamoun Kacimi||1994||2022|
Discover more about Sheikhs related topics
- Zawiyet El Hamel
- Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif
- Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi
- Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki
- Zawiya Thaalibia
Discover more about Famous Zawiyas related topics
Prominent Raḥmâniyya Sufis
- Abderrahmane Boushaki (1896-1985)
- Ahmed bin Salem (born 1802)
- Ali Boushaki (1855-1965)
- Brahim Boushaki (1912-1997)
- Shaykh al-Haddad [fr] (1790-1873)
- Lalla Zaynab (1850-1904)
- Mohamed Rahmoune (1940–2022)
- Mohamed Seghir Boushaki (1869–1959)
- Mohand al-Hosin [fr] (1836-1901)
- Yahia Boushaki (1935–1960)
Discover more about Prominent Raḥmâniyya Sufis related topics
Source: "Rahmaniyya", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rahmaniyya.
Get our FREE extension now!
Lalla Fatma N'Soumer
Sidi M'hamed Bou Qobrine
Zawiya Thaalibia (Algiers)
Zawiyas in Algeria
Battle of the Col des Beni Aïcha
Sufism in Algeria
Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi
Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif
Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki
- Benaissa, O., "Le soufisme algérien à l'époque coloniale", in: Horizons Maghrébins - Le droit à la mémoire, N°41, 1999. Jorge Luis Borges et l'héritage littéraire arabo-musulman / Le soufisme en Occident Musulman. pp. 91–103 ; doi:10.3406/horma.1999.1843
- Clancy-Smith, J. A., "Between Cairo and the Algerian Kabylia: the Rahmaniyya tariqa, 1715-1800", in: Muslim Travellers, Pilgrimage, migration, and the religious imagination, Edited by Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori. Published by Routledge, 2013
- Jong, F. de, "K̲h̲alwatiyya", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th., Bosworth, C. E., van Donzel, E., Heinrichs, W.P. First published online: 2012. First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
- Khemissi, H., Larémont, R. R., & Eddine, T. T., (2012) "Sufism, Salafism and state policy towards religion in Algeria: a survey of Algerian youth", The Journal of North African Studies, 17:3, 547–558, doi:10.1080/13629387.2012.675703
- Lacoste-Dujardin, C., Dictionnaire de la culture berbère en Kabylie. Edition La Découverte, 2005
- Margoliouth, D.S., "Raḥmāniyya", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: Bearman, P., Bianquis, Th., Bosworth, C. E., van Donzel, E., Heinrichs, W.P. First published online: 2012. First print edition: ISBN 9789004161214, 1960-2007
- Nadir, A., "La fortune d'un ordre religieux algérien vers la fin du XIXe siècle", in: Le Mouvement social, Oct. - Dec., 1974, No. 89, pp. 59–84
- Salhi, M. B., Confrérie religieuse et champ religieux en Grande-Kabylie au milieu du XXe siècle: la rahmaniyya, in: Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord , Centre national de la recherche scientifique; Institut de recherches et d'études sur le monde arabe et musulman (IREMAM) (éds.), Paris, Editions du CNRS, 1996, pp. 253–269.
- Salhi, M. B., La tariqa Rahmaniya De l'avènement à l'insurrection de 1871. Published by: Haut Commissariat à l'Amazighité, 2008
- Salhi, M. B., "L'insurrection de 1871", in : Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale : 1830-1962, Sous la direction de Bouchène, A., Peyroulou, J.-P., Tengour, O. S., Thénault, S. Edition La Découverte, 2014, pp. 103–109.
- Yacono, X., "Kabylie : L'insurrection de 1871", in: Encyclopédie berbère [En ligne], 26 | 2004, document K08, mis en ligne le 01 juin 2011. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/ encyclopedieberbere/1410; doi:10.4000/encyclopedieberbere.1410
- ^ a b Clancy-Smith. Between Cairo and the Algerian Kabylia: the Rahmaniyya tariqa, 1715-1800. p. 202.
- ^ a b Clancy-Smith. Between Cairo and the Algerian Kabylia: the Rahmaniyya tariqa, 1715-1800. p. 204.
- ^ Clancy-Smith. Between Cairo and the Algerian Kabylia: the Rahmaniyya tariqa, 1715-1800. p. 203.
- ^ Clancy-Smith. Between Cairo and the Algerian Kabylia: the Rahmaniyya tariqa, 1715-1800. p. 208.
- ^ a b c Salhi. "Confrérie religieuse et champ religieux en Grande-Kabylie au milieu du XXe siècle: la rahmaniyya". Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord: 254.
- ^ Bouchène; et al. "La résistance de l'émir Abd el-Kader". Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale : 1830-1962.
- ^ a b Margoliouth. "Raḥmāniyya". Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.).
- ^ Khemissi; et al. "Sufism, Salafism and state policy towards religion in Algeria: a survey of Algerian youth". The Journal of North African Studies: 549.
- ^ Salhi. "Confrérie religieuse et champ religieux en Grande-Kabylie au milieu du XXe siècle: la rahmaniyya". Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord: 256 & 258.
- ^ a b Yacono. "Kabylie : L'insurrection de 1871". Encyclopédie berbère. pp. 3–5.
- ^ Bouchène; et al. "1871-1881: d'une insurrection à l'autre". Histoire de l'Algérie à la période coloniale: 1830-1962.
- ^ Lacoste-Dujardin. "Insurrection de 1871". Dictionnaire de la culture berbère en Kabylie.
- ^ Nadir. "La fortune d'un ordre religieux algérien vers la fin du XIXe siècle". Le Mouvement Social: 61.
- ^ a b Benaissa. "Le soufisme algérien à l'époque coloniale". Horizons Maghrébins - le droit à la mémoire: 92.
- ^ Benaissa. "Le soufisme algérien à l'époque coloniale". Horizons Maghrébins - le droit à la mémoire: 100.
- ^ a b Khemissi; et al. "Sufism, Salafism and state policy towards religion in Algeria: a survey of Algerian youth". The Journal of North African Studies: 550.
- ^ Khemissi; et al. "Sufism, Salafism and state policy towards religion in Algeria: a survey of Algerian youth". The Journal of North African Studies: 553.
- ^ Khemissi; et al. "Sufism, Salafism and state policy towards religion in Algeria: a survey of Algerian youth". The Journal of North African Studies: 555.
- ^ Lacoste-Dujardin. Dictionnaire de la culture berbère en Kabylie. pp. Rahmaniya.
- ^ Nadir. "La fortune d'un ordre religieux algérien vers la fin du XIXe siècle". Le Mouvement Social: 59.
- ^ دار الخليل القاسمي للنشر والتوزيع: تعريف الطريقة الرحمانيّة الخلوتيّة والزاويّة القاسميّة Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ ترجمة مؤسس زاوية الهامل سيدي محمد بن أبي القاسم الهاملي - مدونة برج بن عزوز Archived 2017-07-29 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ El Kacimi: لالة زينب القاسمية المرأة الرمز Archived 2017-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ ترجمة الشيخ الفقيه العلامة سيدي محمد بن الحاج محمد. - مدونة برج بن عزوز Archived 2017-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
- Articles needing translation from French Wikipedia
- Articles with BNF identifiers
- Articles with GND identifiers
- Articles with TDVİA identifiers
- Articles with VIAF identifiers
- Articles with VcBA identifiers
- Articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers
- Articles with hatnote templates targeting a nonexistent page
- Articles with short description
- Short description is different from Wikidata
- Sufi orders
- Sufism in Algeria
- Sunni Sufi orders
- Webarchive template wayback links
The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.