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Ragamala paintings

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Bhairavi Ragini, folio from the Manley Ragamala. Probably Amber, c. 1610-1620. British Museum
Bhairavi Ragini, folio from the Manley Ragamala. Probably Amber, c. 1610-1620. British Museum

Ragamala paintings are a form of Indian miniature painting, a set of illustrative paintings of the Ragamala or "Garland of Ragas", depicting variations of the Indian musical modes called ragas. They stand as a classical example of the amalgamation of art, poetry and classical music in medieval India.

Ragamala paintings were created in most schools of Indian painting, starting in the 16th and 17th centuries, and are today named accordingly as Pahari Ragamala, Rajasthan or Rajput Ragamala, Deccan Ragamala, and Mughal Ragamala.

Also it originated in Rajasthan.

In these painting each raga is personified by a colour, mood, a verse describing a story of a hero and heroine (nayaka and nayika), it also elucidates the season and the time of day and night in which a particular raga is to be sung; and finally most paintings also demarcate the specific Hindu deities attached with the raga, like Bhairava or Bhairavi to Shiva, Sri to Devi etc. The paintings depict not just the Ragas, but also their wives, (raginis), their numerous sons (ragaputra) and daughters (ragaputri).[1]

The six principal ragas present in the Ragamala are Bhairava, Dipika, Sri, Malkaunsa, Megha and Hindola and these are meant to be sung during the six seasons of the year – summer, monsoon, autumn, early winter, winter and spring.

History

Sangita Ratnakara is an important 12th century CE treatise on the classification of Indian Ragas, which for the first time mentions the presiding deity of each raga.[2] From the 14th century onwards, they were described in short verses in Sanskrit, for dhyana, 'contemplation', and later depicted in a series of paintings, called the Ragamala paintings.[3] Some of the best available works of Ragamala are from the 16th and 17th centuries, when the form flourished under royal patronage,[4] though by the 19th century, it gradually faded.

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Asavari

Asavari

Raga Asavari is a Hindustani classical raga. It belongs to the Asavari thaat and is performed in the morning hours.

Sirohi State

Sirohi State

Kingdom of Sirohi or later Sirohi State was an independent Hindu state in present-day Rajasthan state of India. The state was founded in 1311 CE and lasted for six centuries until its peaceful dissolution in 1949 CE, when it merged into the erstwhile Bombay State of India.

Cleveland Museum of Art

Cleveland Museum of Art

The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) is an art museum in Cleveland, Ohio, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side. Internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, the museum houses a diverse permanent collection of more than 61,000 works of art from around the world. The museum provides general admission free to the public. With a $755 million endowment, it is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States. With about 770,000 visitors annually (2018), it is one of the most visited art museums in the world.

Sangita Ratnakara

Sangita Ratnakara

The Sangita-Ratnakara, सङ्गीतरत्नाकर,, literally "Ocean of Music and Dance", is one of the most important musicological texts from India. Composed by Śārṅgadeva (शार्ङ्गदेव) in Sanskrit during the 13th century, both Carnatic music and Hindustani music traditions of Indian classical music regard it as a definitive text. The author was a part of the court of King Singhana II (1210–1247) of the Yādava dynasty whose capital was Devagiri, Maharashtra.

Extant works

In 1570, Kshemakarna, a priest of Rewa in Central India, compiled a poetic text on the Ragamala in Sanskrit, which describes six principal Ragas—Bhairava, Malakoshika, Hindola, Deepak, Shri, and Megha—each having five Raginis and eight Ragaputras, except Raga Shri, which has six Raginis and nine Ragaputras, thus making a Ragamala family of 86 members[5]

Most of the extant works of Ragamala are from Deccan style, where Ibrahim Adil Shah II of Bijapur, was himself also a fine painter and illustrator, though some Rajput style also exist of which the work of an artist of the 'Chawand' (a part of Mewar) school of painting, Sahibdin, whose Ragamala (musical modes) series dated 1628, are now in National Museum of India[6]

Ragamala sets discovered in Odisha are in the Pattachitra style, based on the ragas of Odissi music and show distinct iconography and raga groups from other regions.[7]

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Todi (raga)

Todi (raga)

Miyan ki Todi, often simply referred to as Todi or Darbari Todi, is a Hindustani classical raga which gave its name to the Todi thaat, one of the ten types of classical music according to the musicologist Bhatkhande. Ragas from the Todi raganga include Todi itself, Bilaskhani Todi, Gujari Todi, Desi Todi, Hussaini Todi, Asavari Todi, and Bahaduri Todi.

Mughal painting

Mughal painting

Mughal painting is a style of painting on paper confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums (muraqqa), from the territory of the Mughal Empire in South Asia. It emerged from Persian miniature painting and developed in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries. Battles, legendary stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, royal life, mythology, as well as other subjects have all been frequently depicted in paintings.

Salar Jung Museum

Salar Jung Museum

The Salar Jung Museum is an art museum located at Dar-ul-Shifa, on the southern bank of the Musi River in the city of Hyderabad, Telangana, India. It is one of the notable National Museums of India. Originally a private art collection of the Salar Jung family, it was endowed to the nation after the death of Salar Jung III. It was inaugurated on 16 December 1951.

Rewa (princely state)

Rewa (princely state)

Rewa State, also known as Rewah, was a Rajput princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit

Sanskrit is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism. It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture, and of the political elites in some of these regions. As a result, Sanskrit had a lasting impact on the languages of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, especially in their formal and learned vocabularies.

Megh (raga)

Megh (raga)

Megh is a Hindustani classical raga. The meaning of Megh in Sanskrit is 'Cloud'. Hence this raga is mostly sung or played in the Monsoon season. Another raga which describes rain is raga Malhar. So these 2 ragas where merged and a new raga was developed, this raga is raga Megh Malhar. The Carnatic Music equivalent of this raga is Madhyamavati.

Ibrahim Adil Shah II

Ibrahim Adil Shah II

Ibrahim Adil Shah II was king of the Sultanate of Bijapur and a member of the Adil Shahi dynasty. Under his reign the dynasty had its greatest period as he extended its frontier as far south as Mysore. He was a skilful administrator, artist, poet and a generous patron of the arts. He reverted to the Sunni sect of Islam, but remained tolerant of other religions, including Christianity. However, during his reign high-ranking Shiite immigrants became unwelcome and in 1590, he ordered the confinement of criers who read the khutba in the Shia form. After his reign, increasing weakness permitted Mughal encroachment and the successful revolt of the Maratha king Shivaji, who killed the Bijapur general Afzal Khan and scattered his army. The dynasty left a tradition of cosmopolitan culture and artistic patronage whose architectural remains are to be seen in the capital city of Bijapur.

Sahibdin

Sahibdin

Sahibdin was an Indian miniature painter of the Mewar school of Rajasthan painting. He was one of the dominant painters of the era, and one of the few whose name is still known today. Sahibdin was a Muslim, but that kept neither his Hindu patrons from employing him, nor him from composing Hindu-themed works of great value. Sahibdin's paintings deftly combine elements of the "popular Mughal" style then in vogue across northern India with the traditional Rajput style.

Pattachitra

Pattachitra

Patachitra or Pattachitra is a general term for traditional, cloth-based scroll painting, based in the eastern Indian states of Odisha, West Bengal and parts of Bangladesh. Patachitra artform is known for its intricate details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it. Pattachitra is one of the ancient artworks of Odisha, originally created for ritual use and as souvenirs for pilgrims to Puri, as well as other temples in Odisha. Patachitras are a component of an ancient Bengali narrative art, originally serving as a visual device during the performance of a song.

Odissi music

Odissi music

Odissi music is a genre of classical music in India, originated from the eastern state of Odisha. The traditional ritual music for the service of Lord Jagannatha, Odissi music has a history spanning over two thousand years, authentic sangita-shastras or treatises, unique Ragas & Talas and a distinctive style of rendition.

The Ragas in Ragamala

Six are male (parent) ragas; the thirty raginis are their wives and the remaining forty-eight are their sons. These are listed is as follows:

Wives: Bhairavi, Bilawali, Punyaki, Bangli, Aslekhi. Sons: Pancham, Harakh, Disakh, Bangal, Madhu, Madhava, Lalit, Bilaval.

Wives: Gaundkari, Devagandhari, Gandhari, Seehute, Dhanasri. Sons: Maru, Mustang, Mewara, Parbal, Chand, Khokhat, Bhora, Nad.

  • (3) Parent Raga: Hindol raga

Wives: Telangi, Devkari, Basanti, Sindhoori, Aheeri. Sons: Surmanand, Bhasker, Chandra-Bimb, Mangalan, Ban, Binoda, Basant, Kamoda.

  • (4) Parent Raga: Deepak raga

Wives: Kachheli, Patmanjari, Todi, Kamodi, Gujri. Sons: Kaalanka, Kuntal, Rama, Kamal, Kusum, Champak, Gaura, Kanra [36].

Wives: Bairavi, Karnati, Gauri, Asavari, Sindhavi. Sons: Salu, Sarag, Sagra, Gaund, Gambhir, Gund, Kumbh, Hamir.

  • (6) Parent Raga: Megh raga

Wives: Sorath, Gaundi-Malari, Asa, Gunguni, Sooho. Sons: Biradhar, Gajdhar, Kedara, Jablidhar, Nut, Jaldhara, Sankar, Syama.

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Bhairav (raga)

Bhairav (raga)

Bhairav is an Indian classical raga of Bhairav thaat. It is a sampurna raga that is traditionally performed in the morning and also as the beginning piece in concerts. It is the defining raga of its own Thaat.

Devagandhari

Devagandhari

Devagandhari is a raga in Indian classical music. In carnatic classical music, Devagandhari is a janya raga, whose melakarta raga is Shankarabharanam, 29th in the 72 Melakarta raga system. This is not to be confused with Karnataka Devagandhari, which is a janya of Kharaharapriya similar to Abheri.

Todi (raga)

Todi (raga)

Miyan ki Todi, often simply referred to as Todi or Darbari Todi, is a Hindustani classical raga which gave its name to the Todi thaat, one of the ten types of classical music according to the musicologist Bhatkhande. Ragas from the Todi raganga include Todi itself, Bilaskhani Todi, Gujari Todi, Desi Todi, Hussaini Todi, Asavari Todi, and Bahaduri Todi.

Shree (Hindustani raga)

Shree (Hindustani raga)

Shree is a very old North Indian raga of the Purvi thaat, and has traditionally been associated with Shiva. It also appears in the Sikh tradition from northern India, and is a part of the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy text of the Sikhs. The Guru Granth Sahib composition comprises 31 ragas where Shree is the first raga to appear. The raga appears first on 14th page of the composition.

Gauri (raga)

Gauri (raga)

Gauri is an India musical raga that appears in the Sikh tradition from northern India and is part of the Sikh holy scripture called Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Every raga has a strict set of rules which govern the number of notes that can be used; which notes can be used; and their interplay that has to be adhered to for the composition of a tune. there are Gouris of the Bhairav, Poorvi and Marwa thats with additional qualifiers such as the Shree-anga Gouri, Bhairav-anga Gouri, Poorvi-anga Gouri and so on. These are not considered ‘big’ ragas.

Asavari

Asavari

Raga Asavari is a Hindustani classical raga. It belongs to the Asavari thaat and is performed in the morning hours.

Megh (raga)

Megh (raga)

Megh is a Hindustani classical raga. The meaning of Megh in Sanskrit is 'Cloud'. Hence this raga is mostly sung or played in the Monsoon season. Another raga which describes rain is raga Malhar. So these 2 ragas where merged and a new raga was developed, this raga is raga Megh Malhar. The Carnatic Music equivalent of this raga is Madhyamavati.

Gallery

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Gauri (raga)

Gauri (raga)

Gauri is an India musical raga that appears in the Sikh tradition from northern India and is part of the Sikh holy scripture called Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Every raga has a strict set of rules which govern the number of notes that can be used; which notes can be used; and their interplay that has to be adhered to for the composition of a tune. there are Gouris of the Bhairav, Poorvi and Marwa thats with additional qualifiers such as the Shree-anga Gouri, Bhairav-anga Gouri, Poorvi-anga Gouri and so on. These are not considered ‘big’ ragas.

Ahmadnagar Sultanate

Ahmadnagar Sultanate

The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval Indian Muslim kingdom located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. Malik Ahmed, the Bahmani governor of Junnar after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on 28 May 1490 declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmednagar. Initially his capital was in the town of Junnar with its fort, later renamed Shivneri. In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. In 1636 Aurangzeb, then Mugal viceroy of Deccan, finally annexed the sultanate to the Mughal Empire.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits.

Malkauns

Malkauns

Malkauns, known also as rag Malkosh, is a raga in Indian classical music. It is one of the oldest ragas of Indian classical music. The equivalent raga in Carnatic music is called Hindolam, not to be confused with the Hindustani Hindol.

Kingdom of Mewar

Kingdom of Mewar

Kingdom of Mewar, sometimes known as Udaipur State, was ruled by the Sisodia dynasty. It was an independent kingdom in Rajputana region of India. It was established around the 7th century as minor rulers of the Nagada-Ahar region of Udaipur and later in the 10th century, it transformed into an independent state under Rawal Bharttripatta II. In 1303, the kingdom was invaded, its capital fort Chittorgarh was besieged and taken by Alauddin Khalji killing the entire main branch of the family known as the Rawal Branch. A junior branch of the family called the Ranas later regained the control of the kingdom in 1326 and under them, the kingdom became the most powerful kingdom in North India until the Mughal Invasion of India in 1526. The kingdom under Udai Singh II and Maharana Pratap was constantly engaged in a struggle with the Mughals and continued through the kingdom accepting Mughal suzernity in 1615 and ended around 1707 when Aurangzeb died. In 1818, it accepted British suzerainty and in 1947, Bhupal Singh signed the Instrument of Accession to India and joined the Dominion of India.

Bundi State

Bundi State

Bundi State was an India princely state, located in modern-day Rajasthan. It was ruled by Hada Chauhans.

Allahabad Museum

Allahabad Museum

The Allahabad Museum is a national-level museum in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh. Established in 1931, it is known for its rich collection and unique objects of art, and is funded by Ministry of Culture. Moreover, it is a premier research centre for archaeologists, historians and academicians and carries out extensive research activities and publications in archaeology, art and literature. Its rock art gallery has the largest collection of prehistoric paintings displayed in India dating from 14,000 B.C to 2000 B.C. The museum, using solar power system, has become the first museum in the country to become self-reliant in power generation. The Allahabad Museum is centrally located in the Civil Lines area of the city in a lush green garden at Chandrashekhar Azad Park, popularly known as Company Bagh. It is about 3 km away from the Allahabad railway junction and almost equidistant from three different Railway Stations such as Prayag, Rambagh and Allahabad junction and about 12 km away from Bamrauli Airport.

Bharat Kala Bhavan

Bharat Kala Bhavan

Bharat Kala Bhavan is a university museum located in Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. It has been instrumental in the dissemination of knowledge on Indian art and culture. It is one of the important touristic attractions in the Banaras Hindu University and in the city of Varanasi.

Bikaner State

Bikaner State

Bikaner State was a princely state in the Rajputana from 1465 to 1947. The founder of the state, Rao Bika, was the eldest son of Rao Jodha, ruler of Jodhpur. Rao Bika chose to build his own kingdom instead of inheriting his father's. Bika defeated the Jat clans of Jangladesh along with his uncle Rao Kandhal and his adviser Vikramji Rajpurohit and founded his own kingdom. Its capital was the city of Bikaner in the northern area of present-day Rajasthan State in India. Karni Mata has been designated as the kuldevi of the Royal family of Bikaner.

Bilaspur State (princely state)

Bilaspur State (princely state)

Bilaspur State or Kahlur State, sometimes Kahloor Riyasat, was a kingdom (697-1849) and later princely state (1849-1948) in the Punjab Province ruled by a separate branch of Chandravanshi Chandel dynasty.Raja Bir Chand 697-730 was the founder of the state but it was named as Kahlur only after the Construction of Kahlur Fort by Raja Kahal Chand around 890-930CE and Raja Anand Chand the 44th Raja was the last ruler.

Bahu Fort

Bahu Fort

The Bahu Fort is a historic fort in the city of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. Constructed on the banks on Tawi River, the ancient fort is believed to have been constructed by Bahu Lochan - brother of the traditional founder of Jammu, Jambu Lochan. It is believed that the first renovation of this fort was undertaken during Dogra Rule in 18th century. The fort is a religious place, and within its precincts has a temple dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali. The temple is known locally as the "Bawe Wali Mata temple".

Malpura

Malpura

Malpura is a town with municipality in Tonk district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Malpura is known for its Dadabadi, built by the Khartargach Sect of Shewtambar Jain in memory of 3rd Dada Gurudev Shri Jinkushalsurishwarji.Malpura is popular visiting palace in Rajasthan.

Source: "Ragamala paintings", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragamala_paintings.

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References
  1. ^ Ragamala Art Gallery of New South Wales.
  2. ^ "Ragamala Paintings".
  3. ^ Ragamala – wyastone.co.uk. Archived 26 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Bhairavi Ragini – britishmuseum.org.
  5. ^ "Bernoulli,* Daniel – Dictionary definition of Bernoulli,* Daniel – Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary".
  6. ^ Ragamala Britannica.com.
  7. ^ Patnaik, Kabichandra Dr. Kalicharan (1966). Raga-Chitra. Odisi Kala Prakash.
Further reading
  • Moghul Ragamala: Painted Indian Melodies and the Poetry of Kshemakarna, by Ludwig V. Habighorst. Koblenz: Ragaputra Edition, 2006.
  • Ragamala Paintings from India, the collection of Claudio Moscatelli, by Glynn, Skelton, Dallapiccola. Philip Wilson Publishers in association with Dulwich Picture Gallery Museum and Art Gallery London 2011
External links

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