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Raël

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Raël
Born
Claude Maurice Marcel Vorilhon

(1946-09-30) 30 September 1946 (age 76)
Vichy, France[1]
SchoolRaëlism
Main interests
Universal morality
Notable ideas
Sensual meditation
Geniocracy
Raëlian cosmology
Message from the designers

Raël[a] (born Claude Maurice Marcel Vorilhon,[b] 30 September 1946)[2] is a French journalist who founded and currently leads the Raëlian Movement, an international UFO religion.

Prior to becoming a religious leader, Raël, then known as Claude Vorilhon, worked as sports-car journalist and test driver for his own car-racing magazine, Autopop.[3][4] Following a purported extraterrestrial encounter in December 1973, he formed the Raëlian Movement and changed his name to Raël (meaning "messenger of the Elohim").[5] He later published several books, which detail the encounter with a being called Yahweh in 1973.[5] He traveled the world to promote his books for over 30 years.[6]

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Journalist

Journalist

A journalist is an individual that collects/gathers information in form of text, audio, or pictures, processes them into a news-worthy form, and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly done by the journalist is called journalism.

Raëlism

Raëlism

Raëlism, also known as Raëlianism or Raelian Movement is a UFO religion that was founded in 1970s France by Claude Vorilhon, now known as Raël. Scholars of religion classify Raëlism as a cult and a new religious movement. The group is formalised as the International Raëlian Movement (IRM) or Raëlian Church, a hierarchical organisation under Raël's leadership.

UFO religion

UFO religion

A UFO religion is any religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial (ET) entities operating unidentified flying objects (UFOs) is an element of belief. Typically, adherents of such religions believe the ETs to be interested in the welfare of humanity which either already is, or eventually will become, part of a pre-existing ET civilization. Other religions predate the UFO era of the mid 20th century, but incorporate ETs into a more supernatural worldview in which the UFO occupants are more akin to angels than physical aliens, but this distinction may be blurred within the overall subculture. These religions have their roots in the tropes of early science fiction and weird fiction writings, in ufology, and in the subculture of UFO sightings and alien abduction stories. Historians have considered the Aetherius Society, founded by George King, to be the first UFO religion.

Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life, colloquially referred to as alien life, is life that may occur outside Earth and which did not originate on Earth. No extraterrestrial life has yet been conclusively detected, although efforts are underway. Such life might range from simple forms like prokaryotes to intelligent beings, possibly bringing forth civilizations that might be far more advanced than humankind. The Drake equation speculates about the existence of sapient life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life is known as astrobiology.

Elohim

Elohim

Elohim, the plural of אֱלוֹהַּ‎, is a Hebrew word meaning "gods". Although the word is plural, in the Hebrew Bible it usually takes a singular verb and refers to a single deity, particularly the God of Israel. At other times it refers to deities in the plural.

Early life

Vorilhon was born in Vichy, Allier, France.[1] He was raised in Ambert in the home of his maternal grandmother, who was atheist.[7] His father was Jewish and his mother was a "devout atheist".[8] He attended a Catholic boarding school with Le Puy-en-Velay and caused a scandal by taking part in communion without being baptized.[7] His parents withdrew him from the boarding school to put him in school in Ambert.[7] He would later advocate Huguenot descendents to receive reparations from the Church.[9]

At the age of 15, Vorilhon ran away from boarding school and hitchhiked to Paris, where he spent three years playing music on the streets and in cafés and cabarets. He met with Lucien Morisse, the director of a national radio program, who was scouting for young talent. Vorilhon signed a record contract[10] and became a rising teen pop star on the radio.[10] He took on a new identity, assuming the name Claude Celler, and released six singles, including a minor hit song, "Le miel et la cannelle" (Honey and Cinnamon).[10] Vorilhon had a passion for the songs of Belgian singer Jacques Brel, and tried to imitate his singing style.[7] He was saving up his money to buy a racing car, a dream he had since he was a young boy, but his prospects as a singer came to an abrupt end when Morisse, his sponsor, killed himself in September 1970.[11]

Vorilhon decided to work as a sports journalist to gain access to the world of car racing. He met Marie-Paul Cristini, a nurse.[11] They moved to Clermont-Ferrand, where Vorilhon started his own publishing house.[12] He created a sports car magazine entitled Autopop, whose first issue was released in May 1971.[3] One of the tasks for his new startup was the position of testing new automobiles, which enabled him to enter the motor racing world.[12]

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Vichy

Vichy

Vichy is a city in the Allier department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.

Allier

Allier

Allier is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region that borders Cher to the west, Nièvre to the north, Saône-et-Loire and Loire to the east, Puy-de-Dôme to the south, and Creuse to the south-west. Named after the river Allier, it had a population of 335,975 in 2019. Moulins is the prefecture; Montluçon and Vichy are the subprefectures. Its INSEE and post code is 03.

Ambert

Ambert

Ambert is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.

Le Puy-en-Velay

Le Puy-en-Velay

Le Puy-en-Velay is the prefecture of the Haute-Loire department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.

Single (music)

Single (music)

In music, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. One can be released for sale to the public in a variety of formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.

Jacques Brel

Jacques Brel

Jacques Romain Georges Brel was a Belgian singer and actor who composed and performed literate, thoughtful, and theatrical songs that generated a large, devoted following—initially in Belgium and France, later throughout the world. He is considered a master of the modern chanson.

Clermont-Ferrand

Clermont-Ferrand

Clermont-Ferrand is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 146,734 (2018). Its metropolitan area had 504,157 inhabitants at the 2018 census. It is the prefecture (capital) of the Puy-de-Dôme department. Olivier Bianchi is its current mayor.

The Raëlian messages

According to the book Le Livre qui dit la vérité ("The Book Which Tells the Truth"), Vorilhon had an alien visitation on 13 December 1973. In a secluded area within a French volcanic crater, an extraterrestrial being came out of a craft that had descended gently from the sky, and told him, in French, that he had come for the sole purpose of meeting with him. Raël said that he was given a message by this alien and told that it was his mission to pass this message on to the people of Earth.[13]

The book states that advanced human scientists from another planet with 25,000 years of scientific advances created all life on Earth through DNA manipulation.[14][15] These scientists, Raël said, were originally called Elohim or "those who came from the sky".[16] He wrote that around forty[17] prophets in Earth's history were sent by Elohim,[18] but their messages were distorted[19] by humans, largely because of the difference in the level of civilization between the advanced race and Earth's primitive one.[20]

Raël said he was given the mission of informing the world of humanity's origins in anticipation of the return of these extraterrestrials by building a residential embassy in neutral territory.[21] He stated that certain mysteries were explained to him based on new interpretations of sacred texts such as the Bible.[22] He said that, on 7 October 1975, he was contacted by one of the Elohim, who took him to another planet to meet Buddha, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. He stated that his second book, Les extra-terrestres m'ont emmené sur leur planète ("Extraterrestrials Took Me To Their Planet"), relates the teaching he received from these people. In this book, Raël describes harmonious and peaceable beings, who were free of money, sickness, and war.[23]

In 1974, Raël decided to give up his automobile magazine, Autopop.[3] That September, the last issue, number 34, was published.[3] Raël then devoted himself to the task he said was given by his "biological father", an extraterrestrial named Yahweh.[24] Shortly after a first public conference, Raël founded MADECH – a group of people interested in helping him in his task, which later became the International Raëlian Movement.[25]

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History of Raëlism

History of Raëlism

Throughout the history of Raëlism, members of the Raëlian Movement have advocated the use of sex-positive feminism, condoms, birth control, masturbation, meditation, genetically modified organisms, and human cloning. In the past, projects such as Clonaid, for human cloning, and Clitoraid, for repairing genitally mutilated clitorises, have been founded. Raëlians are also believers of the Raëlian movement's version of its history as described in the books written by Claude Vorilhon.

DNA

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix. The polymer carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids. Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

Bible

Bible

The Bible is a collection of religious texts or scriptures that are held to be sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions. The Bible is an anthology – a compilation of texts of a variety of forms – originally written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek. These texts include instructions, stories, poetry, and prophecies, among other genres. The collection of materials that are accepted as part of the Bible by a particular religious tradition or community is called a biblical canon. Believers in the Bible generally consider it to be a product of divine inspiration, but the way they understand what that means and interpret the text can vary.

Moses

Moses

Moses is considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions. According to both the Bible and the Quran, Moses was the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver to whom the authorship, or "acquisition from heaven", of the Torah is attributed.

Jesus

Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible.

Muhammad

Muhammad

Muhammad was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is believed to be the Seal of the Prophets within Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Yahweh

Yahweh

Yahweh was the national god of ancient Israel and Judah. The origins of his worship reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age if not somewhat earlier, and in the oldest biblical literature he possesses attributes typically ascribed to weather and war deities, fructifying the land and leading the heavenly army against Israel's enemies. The early Israelites were polytheistic and worshipped Yahweh alongside a variety of Canaanite gods and goddesses, including El, Asherah and Baal. In later centuries, El and Yahweh became conflated and El-linked epithets such as El Shaddai came to be applied to Yahweh alone, and other gods and goddesses such as Baal and Asherah were absorbed into Yahwist religion.

Marriages

Raël has been married three times.[26]

His first wife was Marie-Paul Cristini.[27] Sociologist Susan J. Palmer said that Cristini, a nurse, diagnosed Raël as clinically depressed after he appeared at her doorstep in 1987, burnt out from the tasks he carried out within the movement.[28]

Raël focused on spreading his message in Japan in the 1980s, and by 1987, he met Lisa Sunagawa. Sunagawa soon began accompanying Raël during his travels to Lima, Miami, Brazil, and Martinique. In a television documentary, They're Coming! (1990) by Radio Canada, Raël was seen with four women,[29] while Lisa, in slow-motion, wore a pink tutu and held hands with him.[26]

Raël separated from Sunagawa sometime between 1990 and 1992. Around that time, Sophie de Niverville, whose mother and aunt were both Raëlians, was convinced of the authenticity of the messages. Sophie received a Raëlian baptism at age 15. When she turned 16, she married Raël at Montreal's city hall. During a December 2001 interview with sociologist Susan J. Palmer, Sophie spoke positively about Raël, despite their divorce the previous year; they continued to live together.[30]

Racecar driver

In 1994, wealthy Japanese Raëlians rented a racecar and showed it to Raël. They believed that if Raël would race it, it would generate publicity for the movement. Raël accepted the offer on the condition that the funding not come from member tithes or embassy funding. Funding for Raël's races, which took place in the 1990s and early 2000s, came mostly from well-funded European and Japanese people.[31] His best finishes included "a 3rd place finish in GT 1 in Lime Rock with the Mosler Raptor in 1997, and a 7th place finish at Watkins Glen with a Viper GTS R in the FIA GT 1999 race".[32] Raël participated in the 1999 BFGoodrich Tires Trans-Am Series and the 2000 Speedvision GT Championship. According to Palmer, Raël made an announcement in November 2001 that he intended to retire from professional auto racing. She said that Raël still enjoyed automobile racing, albeit in the form of video games.[31]

1999 BFGoodrich Tires Trans-Am Series
Round Date Car Start Finish Laps Track Source
Two 23 May 1999 Chevrolet 21st 19th 35 out of 40 Mosport International Raceway Motorsport.com[33]
2000 Speedvision GT Championship events
Round Date Car Start Finish Laps Track Source
One 1 April 2000 Lotus Esprit 29th 32nd 15 out of 29 Lowe's Motor Speedway Motorsport.com[34]
Two 21 May 2000 Lotus Esprit 31st 18th 27 out of 27 Mosport International Raceway Motorsport.com[35]
Three 27 May 2000 Lotus Esprit 38th Lime Rock Park Motorsport.com[36]
Eight 15 October 2000 Porsche 911 GT3 32nd 25th 25 out of 26 Laguna Seca Raceway Motorsport.com[37]
Nine 29 October 2000 Porsche 911 GT3 25th 25th 29 out of 30 Las Vegas Motor Speedway Motorsport.com[38]

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Lime Rock Park

Lime Rock Park

Lime Rock Park is a natural-terrain motorsport road racing venue located in Lakeville, Connecticut, United States, a hamlet in the town of Salisbury, in the state's northwest corner. Built in 1956, it is the nation's third oldest continuously operating road racing venue, behind Road America (1955) and Willow Springs International Motorsports Park (1953). The track is owned by Skip Barber, a former race car driver who started the Skip Barber Racing School in 1975. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.

Watkins Glen International

Watkins Glen International

Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in the town of Dix just southwest of the village of Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake. It was long known around the world as the home of the Formula One United States Grand Prix, which it hosted for twenty consecutive years (1961–1980). In addition, the site has also been home to road racing of nearly every class, including the World Sportscar Championship, Trans-Am, Can-Am, NASCAR Cup Series, the International Motor Sports Association and the IndyCar Series. The facility is currently owned by NASCAR.

Dodge Viper

Dodge Viper

The Dodge Viper is a sports car that was manufactured by Dodge, a division of American car manufacturer FCA US LLC from 1992 until 2017, having taken a brief hiatus in 2007 and from 2010 to 2012. Production of the two-seat super car began at New Mack Assembly Plant in 1991 and moved to Conner Avenue Assembly Plant in October 1995.

Auto racing

Auto racing

Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

Goodrich Corporation

Goodrich Corporation

The Goodrich Corporation, formerly the B.F. Goodrich Company, was an American manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Founded in Akron, Ohio in 1870 as Goodrich, Tew & Co. by Benjamin Goodrich, the company name was changed to the "B.F. Goodrich Company" in 1880, to BFGoodrich in the 1980s, and to "Goodrich Corporation" in 2001. Originally a rubber manufacturing company known for automobile tires, the company diversified its manufacturing businesses throughout the twentieth century and sold off its tire business in 1986 to focus on its other businesses, such as aerospace and chemical manufacturing. The BFGoodrich brand name continues to be used by Michelin, who acquired the tire manufacturing business in 1988. Following the acquisition by United Technologies in 2012, Goodrich became a part of UTC Aerospace Systems.

Chevrolet

Chevrolet

Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM). Louis Chevrolet (1878–1941) and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant (1861–1947) started the company on November 3, 1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2, 1918, and propelled himself back to the GM presidency. After Durant's second ousting in 1919, Alfred Sloan, with his maxim "a car for every purse and purpose", would pick the Chevrolet brand to become the volume leader in the General Motors family, selling mainstream vehicles to compete with Henry Ford's Model T in 1919 and overtaking Ford as the best-selling car in the United States by 1929 with the Chevrolet International.

Lotus Esprit

Lotus Esprit

The Lotus Esprit is a British sports car that was built by Lotus Cars at their Hethel factory in England between 1976 and 2004. It was among the first of designer Giorgetto Giugiaro's polygonal "folded paper" designs.

Porsche 911 GT3

Porsche 911 GT3

The Porsche 911 GT3 is a high-performance homologation model of the Porsche 911 sports car. It is a line of high-performance models, which began with the 1973 911 Carrera RS. The GT3 has had a successful racing career in the one-make national and regional Porsche Carrera Cup and GT3 Cup Challenge series, as well as the international Porsche Supercup supporting the FIA Formula 1 World Championship.

Las Vegas Motor Speedway

Las Vegas Motor Speedway

Las Vegas Motor Speedway, located in Clark County, Nevada in Las Vegas, Nevada about 15 miles northeast of the Las Vegas Strip, is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) complex of multiple tracks for motorsports racing. The complex is owned by Speedway Motorsports, Inc., which is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Criticism and controversies

Plagiarism

In recent years, many ex-Raëlians have accused Claude Vorilhon of plagiarism.[48] They have cited numerous quotes from Rael's books and compared them with those of author Jean Sendy. Raëlian concepts such as chemical education, infinity, geniocracy, and others may all be found in Sendy's books. Most of Raël's Sensual Meditation book is said to have been derived from the Silva 'Mind Control' Method, which was allegedly taught to him by ex-level-5 guide of the Canadian Raelian Movement, Jean-Denis Saint-Cyr.[49]

In her book, Raël, Thief of Souls: Biography of a Liar (French: Raël, Voleur d'âmes : Biographie d'un menteur), Maryse Péloquin provides the result of her ten years of thorough research into Claude Vorilhon and his movement, with compelling evidence to support a similar conclusion that Raël has taken concepts and often paraphrased full paragraphs from other UFO and ancient astronaut authors of the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s, such as Jean Sendy, Brinsley Le Poer Trench, and Robert Charroux.[50] In her book, the dialogue of Raël's "encounter with an ET" is shown to closely resemble that of "contactee" George Adamski, who claimed that he had an encounter on 13 December 1952.

Much of the Raëlian philosophy also closely matches that of Osho.[51] The white costume which Raël wears closely resembles that which Osho was known to have worn at one time.

Appearances in the media

In 1992, Raël appeared on Ciel mon Mardi- a French talk show hosted by journalist Christophe Dechavanne. Toward the end of the show, Raël's sexual liberalism was critiqued by a priest, a social worker, and a psychologist. A former Raëlian named Jean Parraga believed that his wife and children were being held as prisoners, and that Raël attempted to break-up his family. Parraga thought that his wife and children were being treated like criminals in activities such as orgies and sacrifices that involve children, at the Sensual Meditation camp. Parraga also had a criminal record as a drug dealer and car thief, and in August of 1992, he attempted to shoot Raël.[52]

Raëlians from around the world sent letters of protest to Dechevanne's TV station. Dechavanne portrayed that as "incitement to violence", and sued Raël. The judge appointed to the case decided to question Raël. Raël agreed to ask his members to stop sending letters if the station apologized publicly. The two parties agreed to drop the feud.[52]

In 2004, Raël appeared on the first airing of the Quebec version of the French talk show Tout le monde en parle, hosted by Guy A. Lepage. During this appearance, Raël upset panel members with his statements on democracy and cloning. The situation reached its peak when caricaturist Serge Chapleau called Raël a "farce" and a "nerd", ridiculed his clothes, and grabbed him by the back of his neck.[53] Raël left the stage, followed by his disciples.[53] A fellow guest on the show, Parti Québécois Member of Quebec Legislative Assembly Pauline Marois, who would later become Premier of Quebec, called Raël "insane". The Raëlian Movement asked Marois to apologize, which she refused.[53]

A Swiss newspaper, who called Raëlians "rat heads", was sued for defamation. Another suit was brought against journalist Stephane Baillargeon for writing in the Montreal daily Le Devoir that the Raëlians defended pedophiles and that certain ex-Raëlians claimed the "gourou" liked very young girls. After some negotiation, Le Devoir published a letter from Raël condemning the charge as "ignominious defamation" and asserting that the Raëlian Movement had "always condemned pedophilia and promoted respect for laws that justly forbid the practices that are always the fault of unbalanced individuals".[52]

Appearances in court

In 1991, Raël sued French journalist Jean-Yves Cashga for defamation; Raël lost, however, and was ordered to pay court costs. The judgment remains uncollected. Amidst growing legal problems in France, Raël decided to emigrate to Canada.

On two separate court dates of 2 September 1994 at the High Courts of Paris and 1 October 1996 at the Appeal Court of Paris, journalists Jacques Cotta and Pascal Martin of Flammarion Publishing were found guilty of attributing racist statements and distorted quotations to Raël in their book Dans le secret des sectes. They were fined 10,000FF in damages and 13,000FF in proceedings costs. They were also ordered to insert stickers mentioning the sentence on copies not yet distributed and to suppress of the passage in the next editions, and were told that they would be fined 100FF for each non-conforming copy.[54]

On 26 January 1994, in emergency proceedings by the Appeal Court of Reims, Myriam Assan was accused of defamation for claiming in her book that "Raël was often sentenced for corruption of minors". Assan was given a provisional sentence of 10,000FF in damages and ordered to withdraw the book. She was sentenced to pay a penalty of 300FF per infringement and 5,000FF in proceedings costs and to publish the judgment in Le Monde and Le Figaro.[54]

On 13 December 1994, Gérard Chol, director of Le Maine Libre, was declared guilty by the High Court of Le Mans for public defamation for claiming that the Raël's movement was laundering money coming from drug trafficking, prostitution, arms dealing, and the sale of pornographic videotapes. Chol was ordered to pay 1FF in damages and 3,000FF in proceedings costs and to publish the penal judgment in Le Maine Libre.[54]

In 2003, Vorilhon sued Ottawa columnist Denis Gratton and Le Droit newspaper for $85,000 in defamation damages over a 23 January 2003 column; Raël lost and was ordered to pay court costs by Quebec Superior Court on 21 June 2006.[55]

Government action against Raël

A public gathering of Raëlists in 2006 in the Insa-dong neighbourhood of Seoul, South Korea,protesting the banning of Claude Vorilhon from visiting South Korea by the South Korean government.
A public gathering of Raëlists in 2006 in the Insa-dong neighbourhood of Seoul, South Korea,protesting the banning of Claude Vorilhon from visiting South Korea by the South Korean government.

In response to Raël's association with Clonaid, South Korean immigration authorities at the airport denied him entry into their country in 2003.[56] A planned Raëlian seminar continued, with Raël making some brief "big screen" video-camera appearances via the internet for the several hundred who attended. Raëlians of South Korea were instructed by Raël to protest near the Ministry of Health and Welfare that ordered him to leave.[56]

In February 2007, Raël, who wanted to start commercial activities with Swiss vintners, was denied residence in the Swiss Canton Valais, in part because he was feared to be endangering public values by promoting the concept of sexual liberty and the education of children on how to obtain sexual pleasure. Also cited was his association with the Clonaid human cloning claim; Switzerland forbade human cloning. In a brief statement, Raël said he considered appeal at the European level.[2]

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Jean Sendy

Jean Sendy

Jean Sendy (1910–1978) was a French writer and translator, author of works on esoterica and UFO phenomena. He was also an early proponent of the ancient astronaut hypothesis.

French language

French language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Robert Charroux

Robert Charroux

Robert Charroux was the best-known pen-name of Robert Joseph Grugeau. He was a French author known for his writings on the ancient astronaut theme.

George Adamski

George Adamski

George Adamski was a Polish-American author who became widely known in ufology circles, and to some degree in popular culture, after he displayed numerous photographs in the 1940s and 1950s that he said were of alien spacecraft, claimed to have met with friendly Nordic alien Space Brothers, and claimed to have taken flights with them to the Moon and other planets.

Rajneesh

Rajneesh

Rajneesh, also known as Acharya Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, and later as Osho, was an Indian godman, mystic, and founder of the Rajneesh movement. He was viewed as a controversial new religious movement leader during his life. He rejected institutional religions, insisting that spiritual experience could not be organized into any one system of religious dogma. As a guru, he taught a form of meditation called dynamic meditation and advocated that his followers live fully but without attachment, a rejection of traditional ascetic practices. In advocating a more progressive attitude to human sexuality he caused controversy in India during the late 1960s and became known as "the sex guru".

Christophe Dechavanne

Christophe Dechavanne

Christophe Dechavanne, is a French television and radio host and program producer.

Quebec

Quebec

Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is the largest province by area and the second-largest by population. Much of the population lives in urban areas along the St. Lawrence River, between the most populous city, Montreal, and the provincial capital, Quebec City. Quebec is the home of the Québécois nation. Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

Guy A. Lepage

Guy A. Lepage

Guy A. Lepage is a Canadian comedian, actor, talk-show host, and producer.

Parti Québécois

Parti Québécois

The Parti Québécois is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a sovereign state. The PQ has also promoted the possibility of maintaining a loose political and economic sovereignty-association between Quebec and Canada. The party traditionally has support from the labour movement, but unlike most other social democratic parties, its ties with organized labour are informal. Members and supporters of the PQ are nicknamed péquistes, a French word derived from the pronunciation of the party's initials in Quebec French.

Pauline Marois

Pauline Marois

Pauline Marois is a retired Canadian politician, who served as the 30th premier of Quebec from 2012 to 2014. Marois had been a member of the National Assembly in various ridings since 1981 as a member of the Parti Québécois (PQ), serving as party leader from 2007 to 2014. She is the first female premier of Quebec.

Premier of Quebec

Premier of Quebec

The premier of Quebec is the head of government of the Canadian province of Quebec. The current premier of Quebec is François Legault of the Coalition Avenir Québec, sworn in on October 18, 2018, following that year's election.

Le Devoir

Le Devoir

Le Devoir is a French-language newspaper published in Montreal and distributed in Quebec and throughout Canada. It was founded by journalist and politician Henri Bourassa in 1910.

Discography

  • 1966: "Sacrée sale gueule"[57]
  • 1966: "Dans un verre de vin"[58]
  • 1967: "Le Miel et la cannelle" (Honey and cinnamon)[59]
  • 1967: "Madam' Pipi" (Mrs. Toilet attendant)[60]
  • 1967: "Monsieur votre femme me trompe" (Mister, your wife is cheating on me)[61]
  • 1967: "Quand on se mariera" (When we'll get married)[62]

Source: "Raël", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 3rd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raël.

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Bibliography
  • 1974: Le Livre qui dit la vérité ("The Book Which Tells the Truth")
  • 1975: Les extra-terrestres m'ont emmené sur leur planète ("Extraterrestrials Took me to Their Planet")
    • (collected in English as "The Message Given to Me by Extra-Terrestrials") ISBN 4-900480-05-3
  • 1978: La géniocratie ("Geniocracy")
  • 1979: Accueillir les extra-terrestres ("Welcoming the Extraterrestrials") ISBN 4-900480-06-1
  • 1980: La méditation sensuelle ("Sensual Meditation") ISBN 1-903571-07-3
  • 1992: Le racisme religieux financé par le gouvernement socialiste
  • 1995: Vive le Québec libre!
  • 2001: Oui au clonage humain ("Yes to Human Cloning") ISBN 1-903571-05-7
  • 2003: Le Maitraya ("The Maitraya")
  • 2006: Intelligent Design: Message from the Designers [English compilation of the 1974, 1975 and 1979 books] ISBN 2-940252-20-3
Notes
Citations
  1. ^ a b Raël, Intelligent Design, p. 123.
  2. ^ a b Cult leader Raël denied residence in Switzerland, Agence France-Presse. 19 February 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d AutoPop, la revue des pilotes Archived 23 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Raël : Messie ou Menteur ?. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  4. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, pp. 135–6.
  5. ^ a b Raël's Bio Raëlian Official Website
  6. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, Photo Section
  7. ^ a b c d Palmer, p. 32.
  8. ^ Susan Palmer, Aliens Adored: Raël's UFO Religion, Rutgers University Press, 2004, p. 3.2
  9. ^ Palmer, Susan J. (2004). Aliens Adored: Rael's UFO Religion. ISBN 9780813534763.
  10. ^ a b c Palmer, pp. 32–33.
  11. ^ a b Palmer, p. 34.
  12. ^ a b Raël, Intelligent Design 135–6.
  13. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 11–109.
  14. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 90, 107, 113, 159.
  15. ^ Harvey, Neil, AND NOW THIS A COMPENDIUM OF NEWS, The Roanoke Times. 23 September 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  16. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 11.
  17. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 161–5.
  18. ^ Segall, Rebecca, Close Encounter of the Raëlian Kind Archived 15 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Village Voice. 4 September 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  19. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 11, 33, 88, 293, 332.
  20. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 73.
  21. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 101–104.
  22. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, 10–79.
  23. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design 163–4.
  24. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design; 290–1.
  25. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design 139–40.
  26. ^ a b Palmer, p. 43.
  27. ^ highbeam.com
  28. ^ Palmer, pp. 54–5.
  29. ^ Lewis, p. 127.
  30. ^ Palmer, pp. 43–5.
  31. ^ a b Palmer, p. 41.
  32. ^ Raël to compete in Charlotte Archived 20 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine Motorsport.com. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
  33. ^ Mosport Race Report, Results and Points Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Motorsport.com. 23 May 1999. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  34. ^ Charlotte GT Opener Race Results Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Motorsport.com. 1 April 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  35. ^ Mosport GT results Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Motorsport.com. 21 May 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  36. ^ Lime Rock Park line up GT, Touring Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Motorsport.com. 27 May 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  37. ^ Laguna Seca Fitzgerald wins third straight in GT, Motorsport.com. 15 October 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  38. ^ Las Vegas GT results, Motorsport.com. 30 October 2000. Retrieved 18 August 2007.
  39. ^ Rael talks about the messages of the Elohim (1/2). YouTube. Channel - TheInveritas. Published 25 June 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  40. ^ "Raël's press conference in London". Archived from the original on 12 February 2003. Retrieved 14 September 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Raël Press File. 5 February 2002. Retrieved 6 August 2006.
  41. ^ Raël, Yes to Human Cloning, pp. 51–55.
  42. ^ Raël, Yes to Human Cloning, pp. 133–6.
  43. ^ Raël, Yes to Human Cloning, p. 132.
  44. ^ Brown, DeNeen L., The Leader of UFO Land, Washington Post. 17 January 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
  45. ^ Raël, Yes to Human Cloning, p. 72.
  46. ^ Raël, Yes to Human Cloning, pp. 57–60.
  47. ^ Raël, Intelligent Design, p. 138.
  48. ^ "Testimonies by ex-Raelians". raelian.com.
  49. ^ Saint-Cyr, Jean-Denis (2009). Confessions de Raël à son ex-bras droit [Raël's confessions to his former right-hand man] (in French). Les Éditions au Carré inc. ISBN 978-2-923335-18-6.
  50. ^ Péloquin, Maryse (2004). Raël, Voleur d'âmes : Biographie d'un menteur [Raël, Thief of Souls: Biography of a Liar] (in French). ISBN 2-89588-088-3.
  51. ^ "Testimonies by ex-Raelians". raelian.com.
  52. ^ a b c Susan J. Palmer, The Raël Deal Archived 15 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine, Religion in the News, Summer 2001, Vol. 4, No. 2.
  53. ^ a b c Radio-Canada (21 September 2004). "Marois refuse de s'excuser à Raël". radio-canada.ca. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  54. ^ a b c The Raëlian Movement Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Human Rights Without Frontiers. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  55. ^ Block, Irwin, Welcome to real world, judge tells head Raëlian Archived 8 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Montreal Gazette. 3 July 2006. Retrieved on 5 July 2006.
  56. ^ a b Ji-young, So, Raëlian Cult Leader Threatens to Sue Korea Over Denied Entry Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Korea Times. 3 August 2003. Retrieved 12 March 2007
  57. ^ Claude Celler – Sacrée sale gueule, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  58. ^ Claude Celler – Dans un verre de vine, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  59. ^ Claude Celler – Le Miel et la Cannelle, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  60. ^ Claude Celler – Madam' Pipi, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  61. ^ Claude Celler – Monsieur votre femme me trompe, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
  62. ^ Claude Celler – Quand on se mariera, Bide&Musique. Retrieved 19 August 2007.
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